THE LAFAYETTE GAZETTE.
VOLUME I. LAFAYETTE, LA., SATURDAY, JUNE 3, 1893. NUMBER 13.
A Few Words About Applloations
good 3lsehlong - Is Essential to SuBeese
-The Parts Played by the Presi
dents and the Seeretares-
The Senate's Power.
[Special Washington Letter.1
During the past month you have
read in the daily papers the lists of
nominations sent to the senate by the
president, and it may prove interesting
to read something concerning the prepa
ration of these nominations after they
have been decided upon; the prelim
Inary consideration given to the appli
cations and recommendations of the
various candidates, and the manner in
which these nominations are delivered
to the senate.
Of course you know that applications
for office may be made by letter, with
or without indorsemcnts. If you want
an office and write to the president or
any member of the cabinet, making
your application, your letter becomes a
part of the case, is filed and briefed
with the other papers, and remains on
the files of the department for fifty
years or more, until it becomes neces
sary to destroy papers in order to make
room for others. If your application is
not properly recommended yon cannot
get an office, but you have a right to
apply, And a great many people do so.
There are plenty of applicants forevery
good office, but only those who are
properly recommended are appointed.
If you want to be postmaster in a city
which has a first, second or third class
post office your application will ulti
mately reach the president; for all post
offices of those classes are called "presi
dential," because they are filled by di
rect appointment of the president. The
clerks in the post office department pre
pare such cases, brief all papers, and
finally make a legal brief of the entire
case; and the papers of all the candi
dates are laid before the president. If
you apply for a foreign mission or con
sulate, the clerks in the department of
state handle all of the papers. If you
want to be collector of internal revenue,
or collector of customs, your papers are
prepared in the treasury department.
If you want to be district attorney or
marshal, your papers become a part of
the records of the department of justice.
Ultimately, the member of the cabinet
at the head of the department calls
upon the president and explains the case
to him, and he orders the appointment.
The power of the president to make
important appointments is limited by
the constitution; for he must secure the
consent of the senate before commis
sions can he issued, except when the
senate is not In session. In such times,
the president has absolute power to ap
point; but when the senate again con
venes the president must secure the
consent of the senate or the appoint
ments become void. So the president
has only power, after all, to nominate
and not to appoint to the best positions.
Consequently, you read in the daily
papers the list of "nominations sent to
the senate" by the president.
When the president has carefully
considered each case he informs his
cabinet minister that he wishes "a
nomination paper" prepared for the man
whose appointment he has decided
upon. This order is carried to the
department and issued by the cabinet
minister. The "appointment clerk" fills
out a blank sheet of paper with the
name of the lucky candidate, so that it
reads: " I nominate - - - to be
postmaster at- in place of -
.- - . resigned," or removed, as the
case may be. To this paper, which is
filled with the names pertaining to the
case, the president attaches his signa
ture and the paper is returned to the
department. When the senate is in
session again the nomination paper is
A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT.
taken from the department in which it
is filed to the white house, given to the
executive clerk and transmitted to the
The executive clerk is O. rj. Pruden.
His full name is euphonious and altiso
hant; it is Octavius Leonidas Pruden.
When he was a boy at school the young
people called him "Tave." He was
private secretary to President Hayes,
antIbas been in the public service at
the white house for many years. Dur
ing the administration of President
Arthur he was made executive clerk
and was retained in that office by Pres
idents Cleveland and Harrison. He will
probably continue in the service for an
indefinite period of time.
At the hour of noon, when the senate
is in session, Mr. Pruden takes a large
square leather portfolio, places all nom
inations in it, enters the white house
coupe, and is driven to the capitoL He
also carries with him a list of
the nominations, duplicated upon
half a dozen sheets of very
thin yellow tissue paper. lHe en
ters the main door of the senate cham
ber, and, immediately upon his appear
ance there, Capt Bassett, the venerable
chief page, leaves his seat, which is
near that of the vice president, walks
around back of the seats of the sena
tors, welcomes Mr. Pruden as the rep
resentative of the president by grasping
his hand, and then, facing the vice
president, he hows low, and announces:
"A messafge frog) the president of the
Mr. Pruden then steps forward, and,
bowing to the occupant of the chair,
says: "Mr. President, I have the honor
to submit for the consideration of the
senate sundry messages in writing, from
the president of the United States."
He then hands the nominations to Capt.
Bassett, who walks down the main aisle
to the desk of the secretary of the sen
ate, which is in front of the raised plat
form upon which the vice president
sits, and delivers the documents to that
Within a very few minutes, during a
special session of the senate, a member
of the majority moves that the senate
resolve itself into executive sessiin.
LOORING OVEl THE LIST.
The motion prevails and the doors are
closed. All of the occupants of the gal
leries depart, and the senate is alone in
executive session. What is done there
in detail no man outside of the senate
is entitled to know.
In executive session, the vice presi
dent announces the various nomina
tiond, and they are referred to appro
priate committees, where they are
considered and ultimately reported to
the senate in executive session. Nomi
nations of postmasters are referred to
the committee on post offices and post
roads. Nominations for foreign mis
sions and consulates are referred to the
committee on foreign relations. Nomi
nations for positionr upon the su
preme court or the circuit and
district courts of the United States,
or for United States attorneys or
or United States marshals, are referred
to the committee on the judiciary.
Nominations to positions in the treas
ury department are referred to the
committee on finance. The members
of the senate outside of those commit
tees to which nominations are referred
give no consideration whatever to the
cases. One week after nominations are
received from the white house and re
ferred to appropriate committees the
chairmen of those committees report to
the senate in executive session that
they have examined the papers in each
case and investigated the character and
standing of the gentlemen nominated
and that they report that the nomina
tions, in the judgment of the commits
tee, should be confirmed, or rejected.
I The senate usually acts without ques
tion in accordance with the reports of
the committees. Of course, where com
mittees report adversely, the senators
who are interested in the persons nomi
nated will make an effort to secure
confirmations in spite of the adverse re
poxts of committees; but they rarely
succeed. The senate, as a body, uni
formly sustains the reports of its cam
The idea of writing concerning these
matters was suggested to me while sit
ting in the press gallery to-day, by a
singular little accident. One of the
pages, as soon as the nominations were
delivered by Mr. Pruden, took one of
the yellow tissue paper lists and hast
ened, as usual, to the press gallery with
it, while another handed a copy to Sen
ator Gorman. Immediately thereafter,
Senators Vest, of Missouri, Butler, of
South Carolina, and Ransom, of North
Carolina, left their seats and went to
Senator Gorman's desk to look over the
list. Other democratic senators, by twos
and threes, did the same thing, until an
executive session was ordered. Hereto
fore, the pages have handed those lists
to Senator Allison, and the republican
senators crowded about his desk, to
read and ascertain who were the lucky
drawers of office. But the republicans
are now in the minority, and are not in
terested in the nominations, as they
formerly were. The senators whose
party is in power are all of them inter
ested in securing appointments for
their friends; and they are not so much
interested in seeing who is nominated,
as a general thing, as they are to see
whether any of their individual favor
ites have drawn prizes. The republican
senators have had a commanding influ
ence in the matter of appointments for
the past four years, and during the next
four years their democratic brethren
will have thatinfluence andconsequent
ly are most interested.
The reason that the senate goes into
executive session to consider presiden
tial nominations, is this: The nomina
tions are fron the chief executive of
the nation; his communications to the
senate are confidential in their nature,
and it would not do for the senate to
consider those nominations in open ses
sion. Consequently the senate closes
its doors for the time being. You will
therefore see that the senate is a dual
body. It does legislative business with
open doors, and everybody is entitled to
know what is said and done; but the
consideration of executive nominations
is another matter, and takes place
secretly. SuTra D. FaRY.
A Stroke of Luck.
Tenant--The rats have gnawed a
large hole through the ceiling of this
Landlord-Ah hal Then of course
you will not want any of those expen
sive ventilating devices you have been
asking for.-Chicago News Record,
A Posesible Reason.
"I know why bees live in hiese" said
MabeL "It's because people won't let
'em live in their houses."--Harper's
"Mamma," asked Mabel, "do mamma
bies comb the baby bees' hair withhon
THE OLD DOLL. TO THE NEW ONE.
So you're the latest victim-no.
I beg to make polite correction
You're Dot's nse doll, of course, and so
You have a beautiful complexion.
It's very easy. miss, to praise
Those blushing cheeks, for one supposes
You're not been placed before a blaze
That mixed your lilies with your roses
You've not been toasted for an hour,
To teach you beauty's a delusion:
You're yet to learn that fire has power
To leave one's features in confusion.
Your form's as trim as trim can be;
Your share of sawdust's not denied you.
No one's unpicked your seams to see
Just what it was you had inside you.
You've aol your hair on; light as tow;
You've boeI your eyes, of blue most tender;
You're not been scalped, and well I know
You've not be6n dropped upon the fender.
Your squeak's not broken, I'll be bound;
You're not condemned your woes to mutter.
When you are banged about, a sound 4
Of protest you can shrilly utter.
But wait a little while, my dear;,
You'll not escape the fate of others.
Stoopt let me whisper in your car
Dot, you must know, has two small brothers!
-Felix Leigh, in St Nicholas
ABOUT CONCH PEARLS.
Something Concerning Their Value and
the Iena Who Hant Them.
Many people have the impression that
the pearl is found only in the oysters
gathered beneath the waters of trop
ical America, Persia and India.
It is true that these bivalves fre
quently secrete the most valuable speci
SOGROUP OF CONCH SHELLS.
mens of the opaque gem, but they can
not claim the exclusive production of
these much-sought-for articles of com
Oysters grown in any locality fre
quently contain a prize, while even the
fresh-water clam, which has its home
in the beds of the clear-running
streams of New England, is eagerly
hunted, in the hope of finding an occa
Nearly every boy or girl has paused
before some well-kept garden to ad
mire the beautiful conical-shaped shells
arranged along the sides of the walks
and wondered what creatures had used
these houses for their habitations.
These are the conch shells. They are
found in great profusion about the Ba
hamas and West India islands.
This species of mollusk are pearl-pro
ducing, and, although the gems do not
rank in price with those taken from the
oyster, they are considered by many to
be much handsomer, as they are of a
most delicate shade of pink, and as a
rule are quite large, not infrequently
being found the size of a pea.
A perfect onebf this dimension may
be purchased in the WVest Indies for
forty or fifty dollars, according to the
financial condition of the finder, but in
the markets of Boston or New York it
would bring a much larger sum.
Some few years since on Key Francis,
a small coral island some twelve miles
off the northern coast of Cuba, I met a,
party of conch hunters who had come
from the mainland.
All they had to do was to roll up their
trousers, wade out upon the reefs, where
the water was shallow, and gather the
clumsy fellows as they crawled slowly
along the bottom.
The oyster-divers spread their catch
in the sun to allow the fleshy substance
to decompose, then the shells are
washed and the pearl sought for. But
the conch-hunters pursue a different
course, and one which seems very
They take a common fish-hook, to
which is attached a piece of string
perhaps two feet in length, insert the
sharp point into the orifice of the heavy
shell and bury the barb in the head of
the helpless creature. The conchs arme
then hung in rows upon poles, whose
ends rest on crotched sticks driven into
Slowly the mollusk is drawn from
its abode by the weight of its own habi
tation, but so tenacious are they of life
that two hours or more will elapse ere
they will let go their hold and give up
The shell is not as yet wholly clean,
but a thorough rinsing round in a tub
of water will dislodge any pearl which
may be lurking within.
One would think that the shells
would be broken, but many blows with
a heavy hammer would be needed be
fore any impression could be made on
the flint-like substance, and this is too
arduous a task for the languid Cuban.
The conch-pearl hunters never get
very rich; scarcely more than one out of
a thousand conch shells contains a
prlize, and half a dozen men would not
Sbe able to gather and cleanae hbalf that
Snumber in a day.
The shells find a ready market at one
dollar and a half or two dollarsper
hundred, according to their beauty, and
thus the native is enanled to earn a
Sliving even if not fortunate enough to
obtain a pearL-Marlton Downing, in
POWER OF ROOTS.
they Will Lift Tons by the Swe:lsth I s
Their Tender Trunks.
The tremendous power of a pushing
root is a subject for marvel. It will lift
tons by the swellingof itsslendertrunk,
or rend rocks with the power of dyna
mite. but silently and invisibly.
The pertinacity and force of plants
is occasionally shown in the great cities
in this wise. Some old residences have
vines many years old, climbing up their
weather-beaten brown fronts. Their
roots are deep in the small front gar
den plot, and their tendrils were at first
trained up slender cords to the iron
balconies on the first floor. These
slender green things twined in and out
of the iron railing of the balcony like
little serpents, till they reached the ver
tical wall which, nothing daunted, they
began to climb.
Little by little the tender green
stems changed to hard woody tissues
which swelled into fiat plaits to accom
modate itself to the bars of the iron
railing through which it had woven it
self. But the accommodation was only
formal, for, swelling steadily, the vine
trunks appear to-day to have become as
large as a man's arm, and the iron rail.
which were its earliest support have
been broken in twain by their ungrate
Another singular example of the per
tinacity of the roots is the following:
A drain-pipe seemed to be choked. In
vestigation showed that a threadlike
shoot of a tree root had penetrated one
of the minute pores of the clay pipe;
once inside the drain, the tendril found
such luxurious nourishment that it
grew and divided into branches, which
wound themselves in coil on coil, until
finally passage in the drain was com
pletely choked up.
It is said that bucketfuls of tangled
filaments were taken out of this pipe,
which measured only eight inches in
diameter, while the skeins originated
in a single threadlike filament, back
through which coursed the abundant
nourishment to push on the growth of
the maple tree above ground.
THE GRACEFUL FLAMINGO.
One of the Queer Birds Caught PFishng
by a Tourlst.
We had been upon the desert for thir
teen days when we reached the river.
Even the camels seemed to appreciate
the change. Tall rushes, ten or fifteen
feet high, grew so thick upon the bank
that we could only gain a glimpse, here
and there, of the water. Just before
sunset, however, I found adilapidated
dinghy lying among the reeds. A
dinghy is a boat used in the East
Indies. It was hardly capable of hold
ing me, but I balanced myself carefully,
and pushed out upon the river. Beauti
ful birds were everywhere, and as I
rounded a bend I suddenly came upon a
nook among the great rushes where for
the first time I saw the flamingo at
home. A tall male flamingo was quiet
ly eating supper. lie did not mind me
and my dinghy and I came quite close I
Ile was standing on one long leg, in
the water, moving the other foot slowly:
ba,-k and forth along the bottom and
WIIEERE THE FLAMINGO LIVES.
carefully watching it. Pretty soon he
t drew it up, with a lizard clinging to his
toe. A moment later he had the lizard
in his long, hooked beak. lie was
A little farther off two females were
sitting on nests which they had built of
sticks and mud, till they looked like
r the stumps of large trees rising out of
s water. On the very top they arrange
s some grass and leaves and there lay
r their eggs, resting with their long legs
dangling on either side, and their long
1 necks twisted so that their heads hang
s over their backs.-Warrcn H. Frych, in
3 Our Little Men and Women.
t The Better Part.
The dislike of being outdone by an
other is probably no stronger in child
Shood than in maturer age, but the con
I ventionalities which restrain a man
Sfrom giving utterance to his thoughts
place no check upon the child's tongue.
Two little girls had been "playing
' dolls" on the floor, when one, becoming
Sweary, threw aside the dress on which
. she had been sewing, climbe3 upon the
Spiano stool and played a simple tune
which she had been taught. As she
i flnished she turned and said in a boast
Sful tone to the other, who still continued
S"Say, Flossie, my mamma says I've
got a fine ear for music."
i Flossie was sober for a moment; then
she answered in an equally confident
"'Well, p'r'aps I haven't got a fine ear
'for music; but I've got a fine ear for
' The Text She LIked.
Small Madeline is something of a
3 humorist, and has no very pronounced
religious tendencies, but the other day
Sshecame home from church in a highly
Spleased frame of mind.
"0, mammal" she said, "you just
Sougnht to have been to church to-day.
The preacher had such a good text; just
the kind I liked."
. "What was it, Madeline?" asked
Smamma, who had staid at home with a
SSeriously answered small Madellne:
S"It was: 'The Lord loveth a cheerful
- giggler.' "-EmaW Crltoi, in Wide
THE OREGON SNOWBIRD.
Be Leads Attraetiveness to the Dresry
Most boy and girl readers no doubt
are acquainted with the slate-colored
Junco of the east, which is commonly
known as "Snowbird." The Oregon
Junco (Juneo Ayemalia, ear. Ordgonus) is
a sub-species and is found throughout
the Pacific coast region from California
to Sitka, not being confined to Oregon.
The dark plumage makes it conspicuous
when the ground f.i covered with snow,
and it is therefore more noticed at
The sooty black head, flesh-colored
bill and white breast contrast in color.
Pinkish colored feathers are on the
THE OBEGON JUNCO.
sides; the back is rufous brown and the
two outer tail feathers pure white,
showing when the bird flies. In west
ern Oregon it is a winter visitant, ar
riving with the first cool days of au
tumn. As winter approaches thesesnow
birds become more plentiful, hopping
about in the small bushes searching for
food. Great pleasure may be found in
studying their habits, especially when
the ground is covered with snow. By
throwing bread crumbs on the snow the
little fellows flock around and are easily
tamed. Their only note in winter is a
sort of chirp, sometimes uttered several
times in succession when alarmed. With
the warm days of spring they begin
their song, sometimes many singing at
once, and soon the majority disappear
to a higher altitude to breed.
This bird nests in hollows in the
ground under low bushes, the nest be
ing built flush with the surface and in
holes among the roots of bushes and
trees and under wood piles. The nest is
made of dry grasses rather loosely put
together with a lining of cow hair, and
contains four and sometimes five hand
some greenish-white eggs, spotted and
wreathed with purple.-American Agri
THE LARGEST IDOL.
It Is 8aid to Stand Twenty MtIles Irem
The worship of idols is, of course, to
a great degree symbolic. That is, the
worshiper has in mind the spirit or
force which the wooden or stone image
is supposed to represent. The most
ignorant idolaters, however, worship
the image itself. Idols still figure in
the religion of the Japanese, most of
whom are Buddhists, and the largest
idol in the world stands twenty miles
from Yokohama, near the village of
Kamakura. It stands on a terrace near
a temple, and the approach is so ar
ranged that the gigantic image is very
impressive. It was erected during the
reign of Shomu, who was forty-sixth in
the present line of emperors, who died
in the year 748, A. D. For more than
1,200 years crowds of devotees have
gathered daily around this great idol,
which is still perfectly preserved. The
image from the base of the lotus flower
upon which the god sits to the top of
his head is 683 feet, and above this
rises an aureole 14 feet wide, above
i which again rises for several feet the
I flamelike glory which incloses or arches
in the whole figure. The face proper is
S16 feet long, its width 934 feet. The
eyes are 3 feet 9 inches long from cor
ner to corner, the eyebrows 5K feet, and
the ears 834 feet. The chest is 20 feet
in depth, and its middle finger is exactly
; feet long. Around the sides, shoul
ders and head of the god. in front of the
aureole, are 16 figures, each in a sitting
posture, and each 8 feet in height.
The leaves of the immense lotus upon
which the god sits are each 10 feet long
and 6 feet wide, there being 56 of them
in the cluster. The right hand of the
god is open and raised. The left rests
in his lap. The image weighs about 450
tons, and is made of a bronze of gold,
tin, copper and mercury, 500 pounds of
gold being used in the composition.
Harper's Young People.
A JUVENILE CRITIC.
Older (with much disgust) - Dapt
ain't moosic; dat's Aunt Annie play'n
First Child-What's the matter with
Second Child-She's got the chicken
First Child-I guess sle can't have it
very bad. She lives in a boarding house.
A Bad Break.
Kirby Stone-See that man aeross
there? He is the only man I ever knew
to break a bank at gambling.
Kirby Stono--Yes. He was president
of the bank he broke--Puclk.
FARM AND GARDEN.
ot a Very Profitable Crop North of the
' Mr. Abner H. Miller writes the Prai
rle Farmer, asking if peanuts can be
raised in eastern Iowa, for mode of
cultivation, kind of soil and variety to
In reply, we say, as we have repeat
edly stated, that the peanut-gouber
or pindar, as it is called in the south
botanically known as Arachis hypo
gnae is not a profitable crop north of
the latitude of Tennessee, but is some
times grown as a garden curiosity, and
in warm seasons will ripen the nuts.
As to variety, fresh nuts of the Ten
nessee variety such as are sold every
where, are, all things considered, the
best. The cultivation is simple. The
blossoms when fertilized turn down,
pierce the ground where the pods
form and ripen. The soil should be
rich, sandy and plowed not more than
three inches deep.
The following is the mode of cultiva
tion and harvesting.
When all danger of frost is over, the
soil is bedded up and prepared, as for
tobacco, leaving only a slight furrow
mark between the rows. In the center
of each of these beds, in a straight
line. plant two seeds, at distances of
eighteen inches; also have reserve
plants, to fill the places of those that
may be destroyed by cut-worms, etc.
The cultivation is simply to keep
down the weeds, preserving the shape
of the beds until near the time of
blossoming. A narrow cultivator is
then run through the rows, followed
by a horse team to earth up the plants.
The earth is afterwards leveled to
present a fiat hill in which the nuts
are to form. If weeds or grass there
after appear they must be pulled by
The crop is not harvested until the
vines are touched by frost, for the
longer the vines grow the greater the
number of sound pods, except in the
farther south, where the vines ripen
fully. Hands follow the rows and
loosen the nuts with pronged hoes or
flat-tined forks. They are followed by
others, who pull the vines, shake the
earth from them and leave them turned
to the sun to dry. In dry weather
they will be sufficiently cured for
shocking. The shocking is done
somewhat after the manner employed
for beans; or they may be finally cured
as beans sometimes are on scaffolds
A Habit in Cows That Needs Judicious
The continuous milking habit in
cows should be developed as far as pos
sible. It is not a source of disease and
impoverished condition of the young,
as many suppose-such instances are
more often the result of improper sup
ply of the cow with foods that illy sus
tain all parts of the system. If the
cow is well fed, not starved to reduced
condition, as is often the case the few
weeks preceding calving, there is no
possible danger of milking a cow up to
within a few weeks, even days, of her
full time. It requires more food at this
period to sustain the cow and embryo,
but if the milking period can be
prolonged for sixty or ninety days be
yond the usual milking period of aver
age cows, the returns will amply jus
tify this outlay. That a cow needs six
weeks of rest before calving may be
desirable, as the "*freshening" may be
a great aid in bringing out udder de
velopment. While we may object,
with some force, that continuous milk
ing in some cases be injurious, yet it is
only by having cows that have a long
and profitable milking period that we
can expect to extend as we would wish
the milking periods of the cows to be
born in the near future, for we must
rely upon heredity quite as much as
feed and handling to fully succeed.-
N. Y. Tribune.
NIGHT'S milk is richer than morn
WATER COWS after feeding; horses
A cow that has aborted should no
be allowed to run with pregnant cows.
THE pastures are more valuable than
they get credit for being. Don't letthe
cattle upon them until they are hard.
Punching of the soft surface destroys
more feed than anything else.
THE best dairymen gradually take
all gramin away from their stock during
the flush of the grass season and make
green crops cheaply raised take its
place as much as possible later. Still
later comes ensilage.
IT is a common sight to see a milk
peddler's horse going home alone six to
eight miles from any city, the intelli
gent animal tnrning out for teams, his
master asleep in the wagon. The early
rising and excessive work of this busi
ness would break down many a man
were it not for the fact that he can
doze for an hour or more on the return
trip. And this privilege he owes to bhls
good dumb friend,
FRUITS ON THE FARM.
-oow Grow The Seas to Astels Plesa
are sad Preat.
Not only should the farmer use every
means to have all kinds of fruit, but hoe
should endeavor to have the various
fruits to come in as early In their sea
son as possible. He should select the
earliest as well as the best Early
fruit, though of inferior quality, will
be of more pleasure and profit than if
later and of better quality. My ex
perience in marketing fruit for the last
eighteen years has been to this effect.
Seek the earliest to begin with, the
best quality in all respects for main
crop and the latest to quit on. The
first and last or latest fruits are gen
erally inferior, most especially with
But to grow fruits to attain the most
pleasure and profit, they must be plant
ed on good soil, well prepared and prop
erly oared for afterwards To plant
any variety of fruit on poor soil, unless
it is well and properly manured, will
not only prove an unprofitable invest
ment, but will discourage the anxious
grower and foster the idea that there
is no pleasure or profit in its cultiva
While fruits are very generous in
their demands, still all varieties of
fruits prefer and should have, as far as
practicable, soils genial to their wants,
where they fourish best and grow to
perfection with smallest amount of
manure and cultivation.
Different situations. I have noticed,
make difference in the time of ripen
ing, size and quality of fruit. I have
taken strawberry plants of the same
variety of pure stock, and set at the
same time two beds, one bed facing
southeast and the other on level ground.
There was several days' difference in
the time of ripening. Those facing
southeast ripened first and sold for
twenty-five cents per quart, while
those set on level ground were as fine.
if not finer, but came in later, when
there were more berries in market,
and sold for only twelve and a half
cents per quart. Thus, the level bed
would have deprived as of the pleas
ure of setting the first berries of the
season before our neighbors, and en
joying the same dainty dish ourselves,
besides considerable profit-Thomas
D. Baird. in Farm and Fireside.
It Possesses MaJy Advantages of Coased
We give herewith a drawing of a
cross-section of a novel greenhouse
which we find in the American Garden.
The side walls are of brick, 4 feet
high; the ends are of solid brick to the
roof. Upright frames (6) run through
the center seven feet apart. Girders
(2, 4) are nailed from end to end of
these, one at the top of the frame and
the other a few inches lower down,
leaving a space (3) for ventilation.
The rafters reach from the lowest
girder (4) to a wood plate on the wall,
these being 12 3 inches apart from cen
ter to center. A piece of sheet sine
the width of rafter is nailed on the
center and turned back to form a loop
to hold the glass. Glass 10x12, double
strength, is used. The glass is laid on
top of rafters, leaving a quarter of an
inch between the rows. This space is
filled with putty and an oval strip a
quarter of an inch thick is screwed
down over the glass, the screws pas.
ing down through the putty into the
rafter. The panes are placed edge to
edge and are not lapped.
Lime in the Orehard .
Lime is an indispensable plant food
for an orchard, for the reason that the
trees contain more lime than any other
mineral matter taken from the soiL It
is this use of lime that renders a lime
stone soil so excellent for fruit trees.
The lime may be applied on the grass
if the orchard is thus covered, and gyp
sum may be used instead of lime if de
sired, so far as its immediate effects
are concerned. But lime has much
more effect on the land chemically,
and indirectly by its results on the
organic matter of the soil, as well as
on the mineral matter, and thus the
actual lime is better than the sulphate.
Ten bushels per acre, given at inter
vals of four or five years, have been
found better than a larger application
at longer intervals. Two dollars and
twenty-five cents is an excessive price
for lime, and more than it should cost
for land use; it would be cheaper to
buy wood ashes at twenty-ive cents a
As zecellent Uattl Tie
This catt.e tie Is made of half-inch
round iron with two rings on thbe
stanchion. The lower one is 8 inches
in diameter and the other 4 inehes, to
allow room for passing in the hook.
The point of the book is furnished with
a small ring which drops down after
passing the large ring, thus efeotu
ally locking it To adapt it to small
cattle and calves make the bow nealy
straight Any blacksmith will make
them for about 80 cents each.-John
Eddy, in Farm and Home.
As Argameat tsr dt eads -.
The following Assoociated Pres l
patch which was sent out from West
Union, Ia., a short time ago, preaehe
amost eloquent sermon for roaed ilm
provement: "Northeastern iowa, ow
ingto rains the last w days, is be.
coming a vast marsh Boads are Im
passable. Teams starting to the oan
try returned, not able to get oat #$
tqwm. Sertse weauts are tee
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