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ýb DEAD CITY ciF
CAJ QaCUIL.LA D.l
- 43ý (Thar1@ s Warms Cuurrlr.Ph. D.
F the thousands of people who inhabit
Lima., or of the many who, in the win.
ter months, take a run up to Chosica,
on the Oroya railway, there is probably
not one in a hundred who knows any
thing of Cajamarquilla. I was about tc
leave the capital of Peru without
dreaming that, within a stone's throw
there were slumbering the ruins of a
prehistoric civilization that had not yet passed away
when Pizarro laid the foundation of the City of the
The sacred city of Pachacamac is known to, and
mentioned by every traveler who includes Lima
within the limits of his itinerary. It has been visit
ed and described from the days of the Conquista
dores with more or less accuracy, until Dr. Max
Uhle made a special study of it and published his
monumental work. If these ruins of the Lurin val
ley are world famous, it is not thus with those of
the valley of the Rimac, and if Pachacamac is
known to all, solitary
Calamarquilla is buried
ia an obscurity as deep
as the sand that covers
It, while few, very few,
authors even make men
tlon oft it
I said that I was about
to leave LIms. It wuas
the eve of my departure
When I learned from
Professor Saville, of
New York, the well
known Ecuadorian ex
plorbr, that he had vis
ited the ruins that very
tay. How I wished that
I could have accompa
lfed him! I concluded
that regrets were use
te, and I was -about to
relinquish all hope of ever seeing the old Peru
lI city, when I learned that the departure
from Callao of the Ucayall had been postponed
for a day. Communicating this fact to Doctor Sa
'ile, he most graciously volunteered to accom
pany me on the morrow. It was an opportunity
I really srasped.
Thus it happened that we met by appointment
at the Lima station of the Oroya railroad at 8:30
on a morning early in July. Gray clouds, as
raeally, hang heavily over the city when wer
boarded the train, which soon pulled out of the
tation, to begin the steep journey up the Andean
slopes. A little way outside of Lima the sun
was shining in a cloudless sky, scattering its
rays through an atmosphere as transparent as
any you could wish to see in Castile or Aragon.
Here and there on the route the adobe ruins of
preInca civlisatlpn might be observed, for the
Rimac valley is richer in such ruins than any
other part of the coast.
The morning was bright and exhilarating when
we arrived at Santa Clara railway station. Leav
tag Mrs. Saville to proceed to Chosica, the pro
tessor, his young son, and myself alighted. A
little mule car, run on tracks, awaited us. It
might.,accommodate about nine persons. We
sprang to the seats, the diver whipped up his
males, and ot we were on the long, sandy road
between velds of sugar cane. Poor mules, cut
and bleeding, how we pitied them! But in those
countries animals are handled without mercy.
A ran of a couple of miles or more, pating on
the way the little train that is used to haul the
cane, or carry the laborers, we arrived near the
dwelling of the hacienda, now leased, I under
stand, by Chinese. Some distance from the
hodbe we alighted, to continue the journey on
foot in the direction of the mountains. For a
while we had a good, though dusty road, but the
greater part of the lJourney had to be made
through sandy plains, which did not improve our
personal appearance, so that we presented a pic
ture of dust and wretchedness on our return to
the Hotel Maury in Lima. Our way was now
and then obstructed by adobe walls, or by the
canals used for irrigation. and over these we had
to climb or jump. It was not long before we
caught sight of the ruins. solitary and abandoned.
With the exception of a herd of cattle and the
mounted herdsmen, besides an occasional buz
zard or vulture, no living being was in sight.
Cajamarquilla lies about 23 miles from Lima,
as you ascend the valley of the Rimac, but in a
side valley. in a plain among the spurs of the
Andea. The valley is watered by a canal, dug.
probably, at a period antedating the advent of
the Spaniards. In the vicinity are several ha
clendas, such as Huachipa and La Niverea. and
an occsional' "tambo" or rural inn. where, if
you care' to, some kind of refreshment may be
had. These. however, are hardly visible from
the ruins, near which one solitary hut is to be
seen. Years ago. when Squier visited the place.
the ruains were the haunt of robbers that gave no
little trouble to the Peruvian authorities, but the
milroad has driven them out of business, and it
ththought of rbbers was not connected in my
ut ruins which stretched to a great distance to
is now qite saleft.e to visit Cariveamar they In faseemed t,
the thought of rpbbers was not connected in my
mind with Cao thrmarque plla, until I read Suier's says that they
work.Middendor estimates their extent at four square
During our brief stay among the ruins it was
mposible to mae anything of immense measurements,
except with the eye, but as far as the vision ex
tended towards the mounthin we saw nothing
buoft rseveral which stretched to a dmissioneat distance to
right and left. doTowad the river they seemed to
melt away into the plain. Squter says that they
cover an area of nerly a squince fale league, and
Mithddendori estimates their extent at four square
kilometers. From my observations, the ruins
conriginal height of hoses buirhapslt of immense adobe blocks, To
closely adjoining each other, he sand there sep
arated by streets. ome of the houses consist
of several apartments. Admission is gained
through a low doorway, but nowhere is there a
sihe of a window. As in Pompe ity, the roofs,
whatever may have been the material of their
construction, have long since fallen in. Outside
the building, the soil has risen to a great height,
sometimes nearly to the top of the wail, but in
side the walls the depth gives an idea of tsi
original height of perhaps 10 feet or more.mains in The
ward the mountain, a large portion of the city is
abimot completely bandried in the sandarticles, whsuch in
dead. Some of agthese pithas arome riftino haedown frvedm
thers were cThertainy graves. The inhabitants ofa
the city buried by temples otheir tort.dead within or ein the imme
diate vicin and wity ofut their houses, wialth aough the massof
sfrome distancewo to four and a depth ranging from sixthe residences. Many
shape ofof these pits, excavated bones ire found witin the hard soil are in
pithe for scattered over urn, while others are square.r with
Squier thus describes the ruins, such as corn-he saw
them:ad. ome of these pits are said to have served
The prpose onsif st of threhouse greats or granareoups of buwhild
n and around the cently graves. The inhabitanreets of
the city buribe this complicated mazewithin of massiven the imme
diadote vicinitywalls, most of theirm still standinges, although the masst
of thidea of thple pyramidal edifices, rising stage onpolis,
sotame with terraces and broad flights of stepsMy
ofeading to their summits, excavated in the hard soil, are in
He form of aadds that the historyn, while of thers place has been
oSquier tradition.hus describes the ruins as he saw
heAs standingst one an eminene, grroups onded buld
then rains, wiatnd the silentralce of deass with streetsupon you.
passingyou look doween upon whaem. It was oculd be a cimpossiblety cap
ble to describe this complicatedion of ten of twelmassive
adobe auslsnd, you wonder what peopill standing, albeitwelt there.
The accmldds thation the history ofand the fplact thas been
The accumulation of soil and the fact that a large
ort'of the city is buried would indicate remote an- sl
luity, and a possible destruction of the place long
fore the advent of the Europeans, were it not for
hat Estete tells us. Miguel Estete accompanied
ernando Pizarro from Caxamarca to Pachacamac, p1
the time when Atahualpa's people were scouring cl
e country to collect sufficient gold for the ransom It
their unfortunate chief. He gives us the itiner
y of Hernando day by day until the return to "1
mxamarca. Wherever he goes he finds the country tU
ickly populated with towns and villages, surround
I by cultivated fields of maize and orchards, with
)cks of a kind of sheep. He judges that Pacha- pi
Lmac is of considerable antiquity, and he finds -
Ithin it a certain number of ruins. No mention is
ade of Cajamarquilla, yet it. is probable that his
journey led him through
the valley of the Rine. 1
and Markham even sup
poses that he passed i
over the present site of
Aecording to Midden- tl
dorf, who infers his
statement from- astete's
narrative, the valley was
at that time thickly
populated, having be. h
sides many maller
places thyse large
towns, Huades, now Ruae
tica, Armatambo, and U
he says was the pritci
pal town of the distriet.
Its ruins still exist be.
tween Lima and the vi.
lage of Magdalena, but -
they seem to be ev
less known than
of Cajamarqull. .
The valley, together
with the entire coast,
was overrun and con
quered by the Inaas, a
century or more before the arrival of the Span
lards, about the time that these lords atof the -
Peruvian uplands imposed their rule on the
Grand Chimu farther north and on Phsebacanae
Though there is little or nothing to ndiaeste an
Inca occupation at CaJamarquilla, it is' quite like.
ly that after the conquest its population more or
less mingled with the conquerors. To Judge from
the names of places in the conquered districts,
the victors imposed their language, no doubt
gradually supplanting the original tongue, of the
valleys and coastiands. Caxamarca is a Quechua
name. meaning "rook city." Cazamarqgllia is the
Spanish diminutive of Caxamarca. The city in
the Rimac valley was thus called Little C'a
marca, to distinguish it, no doubt, from that other
Caxamarca to the north, so intimately connected
with the sad history of Atahualpa.
Among old writers whd have treated of the
coast people that preceded the Incas, Don Fran.
cisco de Avila, priest in the principal village of
Huarochiri, may be profitably consulted. is
work was translated and published by Sir Clem
ent Markham. in the fortyeighth volume of the
Unfortunately, CaJamarquilla furnishes little
data to the archaeologist. It contains no inserip
tions, no works of art, and its pits have been
opened and searched, probably by treasure hunt
ers, who have long since ~arried of any objects
of value they may have contained.
Yet the ruins are of the greatest tinterest te
the beauty Of their situation, ,their -general plan,
and their adobe architecture. Caamarquilla
must rank as one of the finest remains of that
mysterious pre-Inca civilization which dilsted oa
the coast between the Pacific ocean and the
mighty 'Andeh ranges. Unlike the massive
ruins on Lake Titicaca, or the oft-mestioned
Pachacamac. it huas attracted little attention on
the part either of tourist or scientist, and its
history does not exist. Yet a caretal study of
its houses, with their apartments, of its etreets
and of its burial places may. I think, throw some
light on the mode of life of the primitive people
that once dwelt within it The ethnologist may
also find some material in .the skulls that lie
scattered throughout the ruined city, or buried
in its pits.
As you wander through the Rimac valley and
contemplate its vast solitudes and crumbling
ruins, you ask yourself what has become of the
population. Alas, what has become of the Indian
population of the West Indies, and where are
our Indians of the United States? They have
melted away before Caucasian civiliation.
Some day a patient explorer and archaeologist
may pitch his tents among the ruins of Cajama
quills to study them in detail and foree them to
reveal some of their secrets. At least he may
give us a plan pf the city, and reconstruct it,
drawing some order from its'oontislon.
For the present, CaJamaraquina in a mystery.
It has neither Bisto nor tradition; no lesgeds
cluster around it; Ms existeace i gnred; er
archaeologists appear to neglect it It is is vam
truth, a dead city of the dmert.
FOR THE AILMWNTS OP DIXIE AND
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Bowels right ahd you keep wqll. Just
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ALL DRUGGISTS, 25 CENTS. Adv.
Choosing a Wife.
An old Virginia gentleman who said
he knew the way to pick a wife was '
willing to recommend it to young men. 1
His advice is: "See how she looks in
the morning!" The old Virginia gen
tleman, when getting married himself
sent his valet across the country to.
take a look at two sisters in the early
morning. One looked well and one
didn't. One found a husband. One
didn't. So, ladies, beware! these facts
are important if true. And true they
are as sure as you are women. Men
hate a woman who looks frowzy in
If your appetite is not what it should be
perhaps Malaria is developint. It afeetc
the whole system. OXIDINE will clear
away the germs, rid you of Malaria and
generally improve your coditian. Adv.
"Miss Oldgirl says that you ought
not to show your feelings; that no
matter what happens she can keep her
"No wonder; she couldn't give it
Uncle Joe on Utoplanm.
"Uncle Joe" Cannon, seated on the
piazza of a sesside hotel, condemned a
certain prominent type of social re
"They're great borrowers," he said,
"these chaps who are going to make
the world over again."
With a chuckle he added:
"The worst thing about your Uto
pians is that they're all I-O-U-toplias."
"Did yeW see that double piay in the
"No; I had a girl with me and was
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As a summer tonle there is as nsdielue
that qoite compares with OXIDDIE. It not
L b tid- Ma the. a ru. buht a. me
A man Isa't far -from s t i+*bi
he's wila to admitt that he b It the'
Sml an wach dehw 's t when ya ae
Red Quar rhR EB:. vhitr dBam
maw. A greerss. Adv
"What Interest has the dog In tthe
chase of the poor cat?"
"I gues It is .some parr ses't."
5 PER CENT 8oLtJ1ý
Kill Gelt-rn ·"Ir·
of Dist pep r, Pink Eye,
ea all 3o
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.00 3wf. Res[
It. D. IaoeVnrU, of MYuPle Ky., 3, s
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s V= tiC t o f ydr d Umiear sa dd .a*b '
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Ms. JI. UWImZWOOD, dfsod Warns Ave.,
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b ,coupatloS. and els l ast Septelahr ha
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Mends told me about yo cbome.
Pimn s. lpB.,o med-· PM J
a ud aA 1 will aeirwer
ut LU U·k..
semd 1r .low's tree boucm hs11
k Dr. Earl S. Sloan.
* ~ - D..mHins
A ajt oisity o r ill. are
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ehode a b aeo re but two esmp
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"A thing is never so when it- is
"I'll bet it is if your wife says it
(- . io ULI . n o l el.i
i.,V. 534 t" Is,
S"Doesn't the sight of a peach mate
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makes me want to smack her lips."
BAD BACKS DO
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Backache make the daily tol. r
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Many of these poor m erer ben
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mess and depondmpr
When soring sy try Dsea'n *
aePyl the best-rmeeomsea4m
_er% - one" C.
DO AN"S3 I.
vn U sU C0o.. UWVt .
am r m ..
sn~~ rkrRr cs aai