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FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR IN EUROPE
SKELETON HISTORY OF WAR
June 28--Archduke and Archduchess
Francis of Austria slain by .erblan
August 1-Germany declares war on
August 2-German forces enter I.uxem
burg. Germany demands passage
August 5-England announces state of
war with Germany.
August 7-F-rench Invade southern Al
August K--British troops land in
France and Belglumn.
August ll-Germans pass lisege forts.
August IZ-E-ngland and F'rance de
dlare war on Austria.
August 15-Austrians Invade Serbia la
August 7--Beginning of five tays' hat
tile between Serblans and Austrians
on the Jadar, ending In Ausrlian
August 20---ermans enter Brussels.
August 21-Gernmnº enter %nmur anti
attack Mona. Austria announces vie
tory over Russians at Krusnik. Japan
August 24-British begin retreat from
August 25--French evacuate Mluelhau
August 27-l.ouailn burned by Ger
August 25-Battle off Helgoland. sev
eral German warships sunk.
August 20-Russians crushed in three
days' hattie near Tannenberg.
September 3--Rlusasans occupy Lem
September 5-Battle of the Mlrne be
gins. German right 'sing de'feted
and retreat begins.
September 7-3lnleunge falls.
September 12-German retreat halts on
September 20 - Germans bommbardt
Relms and Injure the famous cafthe
October 9--Antwerp occupled by the
October 12-Hoer revolt starts.
October 14-Allies occupy 1 pres. Bat
tie begins on 'istula.
October r15-Osteud occupied by the
October IJ---lFirst battle of -prep be
October 24-Ten days' battle before
Varsaw ends In Gmermatn retirement.
October 27-Rmusslans reoccupy I.odz
October 29-Turkey begins iwar on Rus
November .-German squadron bom
bards British coast.
November 5-Dardanelles forts bom
November 6-Tsingtau surrenders.
November 12--llassians defeated at
Llpno and Katno.
November 15-Russians defeated at
November 17-Austrian victory over
Serblans at ValJevo announced.
December 2-Austrians occupy Bel
December 5-Serbians defeat Austrians
in three days' battle.
December 0--Germans occupy I.odz.
December 15-Austrians evacuate Bel
December 16-German cruisers bom
bard Scarborough and Hartlepool, 150
December 20-24--Severe fighting on the
line of the Bsura river.
January 3, 1915-French advance across
Alane north of Soissons.
January 14-French driven back across
January 24-Naval battle in North sea.
German armored cruiser Blueeher
,January 30S-Itunmlan occtupry 'Tabrl.
F'ebruoiry (6-Fallure of iGermuan attacks
weni of 11arsaw
February -Beginning ou battle In
East Pruslia, endnlog in Ruslian de
February 1--(Germlan formnl mubmna
rlne "blockade" on Great Britain be
Febrlruury 24-Ru1iasilnns driven from
March 10-British make advance at
March 21-Zeppelins bombard Parls.
March 22--Surrender of Plrzemnal to
March 3l1-uslianm penetrate Dukla
pass and enter Hlungary.
April 5---Irench begina violent attacks
on Mlhlel salient.
April 14-ltorrulas at Setropko, 20
nulles inside liungary
April I-.ussians evicuate Tarnow.
April 22-Secofnd battle of i pres be
April 25---Allies leaIse Gatllipoll penln
sull. muifferlug fearful losses.
April 2"---4-1el annloulnce recapture to
tIzerne Ieft Nan and ilartuantaoneiler
Ma I.--lerllin reports capture of 3:t.
(100 itumtan prisoners in west G(;ll
ela nod elizure of three villlnge near
Many e-H.-ussians fall back fromn I)ukli
May 7--Berlin reports capture of Tar
non ilth .manu Itusian prlnoners.
May '--(,ernman sulmarine sukil the
Ilalianta, ilmaore thlan 1.1 0 los t. lieis
alains in full retreat froll ('nrrptl
SMay --tIernlansn capture I.Ilhanu Hlatltl
Maiy 12--re relc cap e Ferelllony.
north of $rran. at great eaot.
May 14-- kllticlan first ubtluaarine note
May 24-llall declalrems uanr on Aur
1ay 2t-ita:liann Invade 4uslrinla.
Mliay 21-Italltllans take (;roinao. Iussians
tlcheck (;ermanlo at SlernaiH.
lat) ,31-Flrmst (Gertman note on subnun
rlue reacnhes %11 bllngtou. Zeppelltil
drop boumbs in I.ondou.
June i-P'rzemnnil fulls to Austro-Gecr
June iO--(ermlann capture .alniliau.
June 1-Neceond I. S. suhlnta;rlne note
to G;eritumany made publlc. Italians
June I --itlailusa take (;radis,;ia.
June Id-A uttlro-;.ermlnltan tocciupyv Tor
June 22--l'rench take Metzeral.
June ýt--IFrenuch uuner occ'upation
of the *Il.nhyrinth.' north of A.rr.m.
June 21-Aunltro-i;ernallan captllre letim
June 2 nstrinans cross the I)ulester
Juine 2-taHlilcz falls.
July 'r--Husmaln defeat G(erman at
temnpt to land at V. iudau.
Junl 3--luaso-G;eralun naval battle of
July 4-Il--lilans take Tolmnlno.
July 5--Berlin announeem gatns In the
July 16-(Germans take Plrzainmsvz, 50
miles north of Warsaw.
July 19-Ge-(rmans advance at manny
points In Iusala. taking Windau. T'u
kumt. Blonde and Grohlec.
July 20-Russians report sinking of 511
Turkish nailing vessels. Gterman
guns reach outer forts of Warsaw
und damage the I.ublin-('holm rail
July 21-Third U. S. submaraine note
goes to Gernl: -
July 22-Tuirkain-Germa n expedition
landed In Tripoli.
July 24--German take two forts near
July 26-Russ-ians repulse Austrians in
THE WESTERN THEATER OF THE WAR
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CAMPAIGNS IN THE WEST
The first month and a half of the
western campaign was made up of
startling, swift moves. On September
12, after the defeat on the Marne, the
Germans took up defensive positions
along the Aisne river. The ten and a
half months since then have seen a
The battle line of the Aisne and the
Olse quickly extended northeast to the
sea. Fighting has been continuous,
with tremendous losses. The general
situation has remained unchanged,
gains of a few miles for one side at
one point offset by minor gains for
the enemy in other sectors.
At the beginning of August the
kaiser took possession of the little
state of Luxemburg and demanded
passage through Belgium to the Fran
Permission to pass denied. Von
Elnem attacked Liege (August 4),
while other German armies passed
around the city and swept over the
level Belgian roads at a terrific rate.
The little Belgian army yielded Brus
sels and fell back to Antwerp and
First Big Engagement.
Not until the Germans had almost
reached the French border did the
first important engagement take place
This is generally known as the battle
of Mons-Charleroi (about August 20
28). but at the same time there was
severe fighting along the whole line
through Thionville in Lorraine and
along the Vosges in upper Alsace,
which the French had invaded with
This battle resulted in defeat for the
French and English.
While obtaining some successes in
counter-attacks on the advancing Ger
mans at Peronne and at Guise, the
French were obliged to fall back rap
idly to the line of the River Mlarne.
On the left the French had with
drawn to below Paris and the western
most German army, under Von Kluck,
The garrison of Paris was put in
thousands of motor cars and hurled on
.on Kluck's flank. The latter was not
taken entirely unawares and met the
attack strongly, but at the same time
the army of General Foch attacked the
German army on Von Kiuck's left and
drove it back.
Driven Back From Paris.
The Germans had begun the battle
with five armies in line. The with
drawal of the two farthest west now
caused the retreat of the third, fourth
and fifth in that order, each in turn
finding its flank exposed by the with
drawal of the troops on its right. At
the same time the movement on the
east end of the German line was ac
celerated by a strong attack from the
French fortified zone of V'erdun.
The G;etrman retreat was as orderly
as that of the French and English bad
been The invaders tool: up an ad
mirable defensive position, It ran
just north of the Aisne river, on a
series of bluffs, then just north of
('halons and through the wooded,
rough regions of the Argonne and the
W\oevre, joining hands here with the
troops besieging Verdun. The allies
have triedl this line in vain ever since.
Iloth combatants now tried to turn
the west flank. Enormous bodies of
cavalry. tn the part of the French
Flanders. On the part of the French
there was largely the desire to link up
with the Blelgians, now being attacked
in Antwerp. The mighty siege guns
of the Germans made short work of
the Belgian seaport, however, and it
fell on October 9. The remnants of
the Belgian army retreated along the
sea coast and the Germans in a final
rush reached Ostend (October 15).
Line Extended to the Sea.
The battle lirne of the Aisue was now
extended to the sea, the Germans hold
ing the important French city of Lille,
while the allies kept Ypres in lielgium
andl, partly by tloodiug the lowlands,
held the position of the Yser river and
Frmnt October 1ti to November 10
was fought the desperate first battle
of l'rl's. whenl the Germans suffered
enormious losses il attempts to break
through the linet in Fland ers and reach
!'alais. They succeeded in pushing
back tlith allits only a little and the
invasion of Silesia by the ('ossacks
finally induced them to desist and
seInd r-e l foreI' tnl nts to Russia.
The (;ermanis in September had per
fornmid the feat of pushing a salient
into the French line south of Verdun.
i hiicth terminated on the west bank of
the Mleuse ri\ver at St. Jlihiel; while
the 'Fr1cri.h had taken the offensive
with some success in Champagne at
about the same time.
For the most part throughout the
winter the fighting consisted of regu
lar siege warfare. with heavy artillery
combats and mnine and counter-mine.
The flooding of the River Aisne
from winter snows gave the Germans
a chance to entrap the French troops
on the north side of that river in the
vicinity of Soissons for a considerable
distance and kill or capture most of
them (January 14).
Take Offensive in Spring.
With the spring, the French and
English attempted to take the offensive
at several points.
In the Vosges the dominating height
of Hartmannsweilerkopf was taken
and retaken several times in sanguin
ary charges and finally remained in the
hands of the French.
The salient of St. Mihiel was also
subjected to tremendous French pres
sure on both "legs." The Preach suc
ceeded in gaining - ltti lrotd, but
the Germans, despltei
weakness of the sharp wedgktWsy a
driven into the French line, could not
be dislodged and later succeeded in re
gaining some of the territory they had
The Iritish also reported "victories"
at Neuve Chapelle and Hill No. 60, in
Flanders. Whether these should be
accounted successes for the allies is
doubtful. The BIritish suffered enor
mous losses and at Neuve Chapelle
bungled affairs to the extent of shell
ing their own men who had taken Ger
The next development was the un
expected use of poisonous gas fumes
bh the Germans in attacks just north
of Ypres. With this novel weapon
they succeeded in taking several small
villages and more than compensating
for the Blritish gains south of Ypres.
The losses of the French, Canadians
and British were severe, but they suc
ceeded in stemming the German on
slaught effectively a few miles back
from their former position.
Begin Series of Attacks,
The German line makes a salient at
Soissons, though not such a pro
nounced one as at St. Mihiel. The
French now began a series pf at
tacks on the upper side of this salient,
to the north of Arras. Expending hun
dreds of thousands of shells, they time
and again blasted away the barbed
wire entanglemrnents and concrete
trenches, held by Crown Prince Rup
precht of Bavaria's men, and then
charged across the desolate ground for
The fighting centered about the su
gar refinery of Souchez and the great
German work called the Labyrinth.
Fighting went on in cellars and tun
nels below the earth and the casual
ties were heavy. The French bent the
German line and captured the Laby
rinth, but whether the gains justified
their sacrifice in human life is ques
In July. Crown Prince Frederick
William's army attacked in the Ar
gonne forest, west of Verdun, and
succeeded in gaining several hundred
yards of shattered woodland and cap'
turing several thousand Frenchmen.
There were rumors that the Ger
mans were re-enforcing for another
great drive toward Calais or Paris,
but the Teutonic campaign in the
West continued to wait upon the
crushing of the much weaker enemy
A Souvenir of Solferino.
The recent Solferino anniversary re
called not only the occasion of a great
victory by Italians over Austrians, but
also the birth of the Red Cross. "Un
Souvenir de Solferino" was the title
of the work that stirred the conscience
of Europe. It was written by a young
Swiss. Henri Dunant. who had been
among the nurses at the front and
seen the sufferings of the wounded.
That "souvenir" brought an invitation
to Dunant from the Geneva Society of
Public Utility to propose an interna
tional scheme of trained nurses-n-.
violable-under guarantee by all na
tions. It was that pamphlet which
brought the signing of the Geneva con
vention in 1864, with the Red Cross on
white ground in compliment to Henri
Dunant's country.--Westminster Ga
Every day on every British war
ship, whether in the North sea, or
bombarding the Dardanelles, or guard
ing the Atlantic trade routes, there
are prayers, as well as a regular
church service every Sunday.
If there is no chatlain on board,
the captain conducts the service. The
"church" Itself is the deck, the part
chosen being as sheltered a position
as possible. The sailors' favorite
hymns are those dealing with the sea,
particularly "Almighty Father, Strong
There is one thing about these serv
ice· on board 'hip: every Jack Tar is
keen on attending them, and though
they are a matter of routine they are
This is a sure and harmless cure
for warts. Go to the drug store and
get ten cents' worth of cinnamon oil
and put it on the warts every night
and in the morning if you wish. Do
not be afraid of getting it on the other
skin around the warts, for it will not
hurt it. The warts will soon start to
disappear as quickly as they came. It
is best to apply with a toothpick.
Not Altogether His Fault.
Eddie had traded a nice pocket knite
for a forlorn-looking dog, minus his
tall. His father teasingly reminded
him that he got the worst of the bar
gain, as the dog had no tail. Ed sob
bingly answered. "Well, daddy, he was
sittin' down when I traded."
Penalty of Progress.
When we get telephones that can be
seen through every R oman will have
to look into the mirror before she
answers a call.-Toledo Blade.
THE EASTERN THEATER OF THE WAR
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(,, * • .LC% v. , e.s ***. . Jan I
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The (ierltans aglu huave penetrated as close to Na-rsuw as the star
wshlch anarka lie "higbh tide" of in.t autumin.
CAMPAIGNS IN THE EAST
The first twelvemonth of fighting
between the Russians on one side and
the Austrians anid Germans on
the other is a story of great changes
of fortune, both combatants being re
peatedly driven back only to show
the greatest resiliency in defeat and
soon to resume the offensive in a most
RIussia's losses in the first year of
the war are not approached by those
of any nation in any war of history.
Slow to Mobilize.
On August 1, 1914, Germany de
clared war on Russia. Almost imme
diately the Germans crossed the fron
tier at Thorn and the Austrians south
of Lublin. They were practically un
opposed because of the slowness of
mobilization in Russia. The Grand
Duke Nicholas Nicholalevitch was
forced to gather his main armies well
to the rear of the line of great fort
resses running through Kovno, Grod
no. Ossowetz, Novo Georgievsk, War
saw and Ivangorod.
On account of his desire to do all
he could to relieve the French. who
were being driven from northern
France by, the amazing German rush
through Belgium, Nicholas attacked
than. he otherwise would have
o As a result, he met two disas
He sent General Samsonoff into
East Prussia from the south and
General Rennenkampf into East Prus
sia from the east, the latter winning
the first large engagement of the war
in the East at Gumbinen.
At this moment the Germans, be
lieving that the French were well in
hand and about to be surrounded on
their eastern frontier, quickly with
drew 250,000 men from France and
hurled them by rail into East Prus
sia, where they fell upon Samsonoff
with crushing force in the great Ger
man victory of Tannenberg (Aug. 28).
Meanwhile, the Austrians, leaving
only a few troops in Galicia to hold
back the Russians advancing from
Tarnopol on the line of the Gnila-Lipa,
struck the Russians en masse at Kras
nik and routed them to Lublin.
Most Bloody Drive of War.
With two armies in difficulty, the
grand duke decided to abandon one
to its fate and save the other. He
threw re-enforcements into Lublin
and ordered the line of the Gnila
Lipa river be forced at any cost. In
one of the most bloody drives of the
war the Russians advanced into east
ern Galicia and occupied Lemberg.
The Russians then advanced to
Rawa Ruska and took the Austrian
armies in Poland in the rear, cutting
them up frightfully.
Meanwhile Von Hindenburg had
completed his victory over Samsonoff
by turning on Rennenkampf and clear
ing East Prussia of Muscovites. But
though Rennenkampf had been de
feated and Samsonoff almost anni
hilated, the Germans.
The Russians were now as far west
as Tarnow in Galicia, while their
Cossacks were able to make raids into
Hungary farther south. Hlndenburg
concentrated a great force suddenly
in Silesia and began a drive from the
west against Warsaw and Ivan
gorod. The Siberian corps arrived
in the nick of time to save Warsaw
from the enemy.
Hindenburg then drew off the north
ern section of his army in Poland to
the north, thinking to take the pursu
ing Russians in flank with the south
ern section. But the Austrians were
too slow to carry out the field mar
shal's plans and the Russians, slip
ping into a gap in the lines between
the Germans and their allies, slaugh
tered the latter. The result was the
high tide of Russian invasion. The t
Austrians withdrew over the Carpa
thians again, leaving Przemysl to be
besieged a second time. The Ger
mans withdrew to Silesia and the Rus
sians, following closely, were able
for a brief moment to raid this rich I
province at Plesehen. At the same c
time they entered East Prussia t
But again the German strategic r
railways pIroved their undoing. Hin
denburg concentrated at Thorn and
drove into the right flank of the Rus- t
sian main forces, throwing them back t
on Lodz. I
He advanced too far, however, and f
when he had the Russian forces near- c
ly surrounded, he suddenly found Rus- t
sians in his own rear. In this ex- a
tremity, the Russians say, he tele- a
graphed for re-enforcements.
But before the re-enforcements
sent from Flandets arrived the Ger
mans had managed at frig',tful cost
to hack their way to safety. This was A
the bloody battle'of Lodz.
Wins Second Victory.
With stronger German forces oppos
ing them the Russians withdrew to
the line of Bzura, Rawa and Nida 1
rivers. At the same time the Aus- 1i
trians, attempting to debouch from f,
the Carpathian passes, were driven It
brick everywhere, leaving 60,000 pris- r
With January Hindenburg made a t
third desperate attack on Warsaw. s
For ten days, both night and day, the
Germans came on. Then, having lost 0
probably 50,000 men and the Russians c
nearly as many, they gave it up. e
Unable to reach Warsaw, hindenburg t
concentrated twice Siever's' force in 1
East Prussia, and won his second g
overwhelming victory there. Enor- l
mous captures of Russians were made, n
and the fortress of Gradno was at-: t
tacked farther west, from Ossowetz
to Pultusk. The Germans retreated v
to Mlawa and then tried to flank the t
Russians at Przasnysz, which city. C
they took. But the Russians again t
flanked the flanking party, as they had Ii
done at Lodz and won an important t
success (February 22-28). 14
In March and April, the Russians
pressed through the western Carpa- N
thian passes and entered Hungary. jj
Just when their future seemed bright- ti
est, the Germans broke the Russian a
line in West Galicia and let through h
enormous forces. a
Pressing westward irresistibly, they t
took the Russian Carpathian armies in
the rear. The latter tried to retreat,
but vast numbers were captured.
Przemysl, which had succumbed to
the Russian besiegers March 22, fell
again into the hands of the Austro
From Przemysl Von Mackensen
drove east through Mosciska and
Grodek and captured Lemberg, the
Galician capital. Then he turned o
north and marched upon the Warsaw
Ivangorod --Brest - Litovsk triangle s
from the south. g
The Germans now began the grand- I
est maneuver ever seen in the history r
of human warfare.
From the Windau river in the'Bal- h
tic provinces all the way along the i1
border of East Prussia and in a gigan- a
tic sweep through the vicinity of Ra- 1
dom, west of the Vistula, and a line c
south of the Lublin-Cholm railway l
they deliv .ed' smashing blows and e
have reached the very gates of War- t
Cost in Men and Money.
The estimated casualties of the first
year of the war are as follows: Teu
tonic allies, 4,430,000; entente allies, d
The total cost of the first year of
the war is estimated at $16,500,000,000. c
ALL SOUGHT POWER ON SEA
Ancient Nations Recognized What It
Meant to Be Supreme on
The Phoenicians were the first to
make long voyages and the first to
armi their vessels for war. T'hey read
Ily availed themselves of the ad
vantages of a marine and thereby soon
secured an ext ansive conimnlrcre. In
time they as:.-unnd the llempire of the
sea, a sovereignty they long continued
to enjoy, during which time they be
came tyrants of the sea and ,ixercised
piracy. They were the first s,a pirates
known to history.
After the pthoenicians, the ,A\tinetans
and then the ('retans assumed ldomin
ion of the sea during various epoc(hs,
but it remained for the inhabitants of
the island of Ithod-s to c.r,;att,. digest
and promulgate the first -) -r,.n of
maritime laws of which u, have any
authentic knoe ledge So great was
the success they attained, rh.ir code
has always been referr .d tf, as thte
"cradle of maritime law" : ,e' rthe
less, as far back as the, reign of KinK
Ilammurabi, .\ho was a cont 'npl, orary
of Abraham. .,.-, years b:for. Christ,
we find in the code of Ilanir~alurabi nu
merous sections which fix the obliga
lions arising under contracts for boat
building, hire or charter of vessels,
transportation of g:,ods fur hire. col
lisions, etc., and the principles there
laid down are. in many instances, rec
ognized at the present time as the rule
The Persians, and then the (;reeks
in turn, succeeded the fth,)dians as
masters of the sea. These two coun
tries maintained large fleets of war
vessels, called by the ancients, as a
class, "vessels of force." as distin
guished from their merchantmen or
"ships of burthen." The great naval
battle of Salamis, fought by these
countries, in which it is said over fif
teen hundred vessels took part, fol
lowed by that of Plata-a and Mycale.
demonstrated to the Greeks. with the
success of their arms, the inmmeasur
able value of sea power. They lost no
time, and spared no efforts in the crea
tion of a still greater navy, and adopt
ed measures they deemed judicious in
furthering th6 interests of their mer
chant marine. Among other things
they established a special jurisdiction
at Athens to pass upon maritime trans
CARLYLE PRIZED FIRST LOVE
Margaret Gordon Was the Original of
Blumine in "Sartor Resartus,"
Says the Critic.
During the year 1818 Thomas Car
lyle, the Scotch philosopher, was liv
ing at Kirkcaldy, and he seems then
for the first time to have fallen in
love. The lady appears not to have
returned the attachment. although ' *
with great Insight at the age of twen
ty-two perceived the genius of her
suitor of twenty-five.
In the letter in which she took leave
of her admirer she used these signifi
cant expressions. "Cultivate the mild
er dispositions of your heart, subdue
the more extravagant visions of the
brain .... Genius will render you
great. May virtue render you be
loved! 'Let your light shine before
men' and think them not unworthy
Many years after, when Carlyle
wrote his reminiscences, he described
the episode. He says that Margaret
Gordon "continued for perhaps some
three years a figure hanging more or
less In my fancy, on the usual roman
tic and latterly quite elegiac and si
The real interest of the story is this,
Was Margaret Gordon the sole orig
inal of the Blumine or "Sartor Resar
tus?" One critic would have us an
swer that although Jane Welsh might
have inspired some of the details, it
was Margaret Gordon who was the
When Scot Meets Scot.
A Scottish farmer was one day sell
ing some wool to a carrier, and after
weighing it in the yard hie went into
the house to make out an invoice.
Coming back he missed a cheese which
had been standing on a shelf behind
the outer door and glancing at the bag
of wool he observed that it had sud
denly increased in size. "Man." he
said to the carrier. "I hae clean for
gotten the weight o' that bag. Let's
pit it on the scales again." The car
rier could not refuse. Being duly
weighed, the bag was found to be
heavier by the weight of the cheese
inside. A new invoice was made out,
and the crestfallen carrier went away.
The farmer's wife at once missed the
cheese, and, rushing to the yard, told
her husband that some thief had stol
en the cheese. "Na, na, Meg," replied
the farmer quickly; "I hae just selt
the cheese for twa shillin's the pund."
-St. John (N. B.) Telegraph.
Was it a Dark Horse?
An ex-bookmaker tells this one: One
day in the palmy days of horse-racing,
he was operating a book at one of the
western racetracks. There had been
considerable betting on the third race
of the day, and just before post time
an excited rural-looking individual
rushed up to the stand with a roll of
bills in his hand. The man shouldered
several fellows out of line and posted
himself in front of the stand, but then
seemed to lose himself in his reflec
"Well, come on." exclaimed the
bookmaker. "Don't stand there. Who
do you want to bet on?"
"Mister," sighed the man, "I can't
:ell you. It's a secret."-Loulisvill