Newspaper Page Text
Independent in all tilings.
JAS. EEED & SON, Publishers.
S2 in .Advance.
ASHTABULA, OHIO, SATURDAY, OCTOBER IT, 1874.
Vol, XXV, Xo. 42.
Whole Number 1293
RATES OF ADVERTISING.
One Inch In space makes a square.
iBa7Ba 8 sqs'Vcol'SC'l fccol 1 col.
I Week..$l.O0 V W f s .oo..uo w.ui.fs.w f woo
8 weeks .. 2.00
1 month .-i oil
t moutht S.i
I mourns 4.0t)
a monthe 6.00
.9u(- 5.001 .0ul 7.00, K.0II
7.0JI S.(Wl2.00!15.0o 23.00
d.ooi 12-00 is.oo; so.uo(
.0U1.00 1N.0U 21 0015.00,
a months 8.00
12.00 16.0U24.00 8 00145.00:
, I year ..ilOMj 16.u0jo0i-J.01)i40.iX)5a.oaj
Local Notices. 10 cents per line.
Toarh. .nil Mimamxi inoprtMl fvntti
Transient Advetisementa to be paid tor invariably
in ad vane. . . r ' .
Yearly advertiser win be charged extra tor ins
solntioo and other Notices, not connecusu
inelr regular business.
t ...... .-i , . . i nr line..
Administrators' and Executors' Notices charged
$2. All other Legal Advertisements charged 75
cents per sqaere each teisereion. : -
.. H. St E. W. SAVAGE dealers In choice
Family Groceries and Provision, also, pnre Con
. ' fectionerj, and the finest brands ejf Tobacco end
. Cigars, j X. i J861
S B. WELLS. Produce and Commission Mer
chant, for the purchase and sale of Western Kc-
erve Butter.iUneese ana lined t ruita.
jiain Street, Ashtabula, Ohiu. 1224
Staple Dry Goods, Family Groceries, and Crock
ery, aontn store, clarendon uiocE, Aantanuia,
GILKElf & PEtkltY. Dealers in Dry Goods,
Groceries, Crockery and Glass-Ware, next
door north of Fiekllouse. Main st. AshUbula,
J. BI. FAULKNER & SON, Dealers In
Groceries. Provisions. Flour. Feed. Foreipnand
Domestic Fruits. Salt. Fish, Plaster, Water-
. Lime, Seeds Ac, Main street, Ashtabula, Ohio.
W. REDHEAD, Dealer in F'oar.Po'k, Hams,
Lard.-and all kinds of Fish. Also, all kinds of
Family Groceries, Fruita and Confectionery.
Ale and Domestic Wines. l1
RORRRT.4AV Ar RRO.. Dealers in
every desenption ofBoots, Shoes, flats and Capa.
Alan nn liAnH a .tnrlr nf r.hoiefi Familv GrOcer-
. es. 'Main street, corner of Centre, AshUbula,
- hin. 8b9
D-W. HASKELL, Corner Spring and Main
sts. Ashtabula, Ohio, Dealers in Dry-Goods,
Groceries Crockery. Ac. Ac 105
in ii ;t iwlt v Ac SISRDEKOR. Dealers la
Drv Goods. Groceries.
Boots ana eaoea, uats.
-Caps, Hardware, Crockery.
Books. Paints, Oils
HAHTIN NEWBERRY, DrnggiBt and
Apothecary, andgenerai dealer in ilruS, Meai
ctues. Wines and Liquors for medical purposes.
Fancy and Toilet Goods, Maine street, corner of
CHARLES E. SWIFT. Ashtabula, Ohio,
Dealer in Drugs and Medicines, Groceries, Per- I
I umery ana r ancy Articles, super-or Teas, uoi
. Tee. Smces. Flavoring Extracts. Patent Medi-
cuies of every description, Pain-, Dyes, Var- I
msaes. Brashes, r ancysoaps. Hair Hestoratives,
Hair Oils, Ac, all of which will be sold at the
lowest prices. Prescriptions prepared with
saitable care. 1095
GEORGE WILLARD. Dealer In Dry-
Gootis, Groceries, Hats, Capa, Boots, Shoes, Cro
ckery, Glass Ware. Also, wholesale and retail
w dealer in HanLware, Saddlery, Nails, Iron, Steel,
umgs, meaicines, raints. oils, Dyestuna. kc.
Mitn St. Ashlabnta. - .. i0V.il
Prap.: This Honse has lust been thoroughly ren-
ovatea ana reiurnisnea. Livery and omnibus
- line connected with the Honse. 1261
AMERICAN HOUSE, T. N. Booth Propri
etor, eoath side of the L. S. A M. H. sution.
This Honse has re ently been refitted and Im
proved, and offers pleasant, subrUntialand con-
... renient accommodations to persons stopp
over ulght. or for a meal, or for those from the
interior, 'wishing suble accommodation for
teams. The House is orderly, with prompt at-
, tenuon 1.0 guests, and good Ubie and lodg
ing. . 1232
FISK HOUSE, AshUbnla, Ohio. A. Field.
Proprietor. An Omnibus running to and from
every train of cars. Also, a good llvery-suble
kept la connection with this house, to" convey
pepseagers to any point. iaoi
D. E. KELLEY, successor to G. W.
Neison, Main Street, AshUbula, O. '87
i P. E. HALL. Dentist. AshUbnla. O.
Office Center street, between Main End
W.T. WALLACE, D. D. 8. AshUbnla, 0.1S
prepared to anena to ail operations in his pro
fession. He makes a speciality of "Oral Sur
gery" and saving the natural teeth. Office
and residence on film St., former residence of
jcaj. nuuuaru. 1261
GEO. W. DICKINaON,
i,, tieweier. rtepainng
' of ail kinds of Wathces, Clocks and Jewelry
Stars in AshUbnla Honse Block, AshUbula, Q.
IAJHKS K. 8TEBBINS. Dealer in Wate
es. Clocks, Jewelry, Silver and Plated. V
Ac. Repairing of all kinds done well - are
orders promptly attended to. Main' . and all
tabula Ohio. street. Ash-
J. 8, -ABBOTT, DeaJo-
Jewelry, etc Engr- - in Clocks, Watches
pairing done to o' aving, Mending and Re.
Coxoieant, Oh1 .aer. Shop on Main street,
' ,o. - 838
' JOHN DXICRO, Manufacturer of, and
Dealer InFurniture of the best descriptions,and
every variety. Also General Undertaker, an d
Manufacturer of Comus to order. ' Main' street,
North ot South Public Square, AshUbnla.
TINKER, 6c GREGORY Manufacturers of
Stoves, Plows and Columns, Window Caps and
Sills, Mill Castings, Kettles, Sinks, Sleigh
Shoes, Ac, Phoenix Foundry, AshUbula. 0. 1091
ATTORNEYS AND AGENTS.
W. V. HUBBARD. Attorney and Counsel
or af La w office oyer Newberry's Drug Store,
A shUbnla, Ohio will practice in all the courts
of. the SUte. Collecting and Conveyancing
made a specialty. H21
BHER1HAN A HALL, Attorneys and"Conn
aelors at Law, AshUbula, O., will practice In
the Courts of AshUbula, Lake and Geauga.
Labah S. Biib, Theodora1 Hall.
EDWARD H. FITCH, Attorney and Coun
r eellorat Law, Noury Public, AshUbula, Ohio.
Special attention given to the Settlement of Es
tates, and to Conveyancing and Collecting. Al
so jto all matters arising nnder the Bankrnp
I.'O. FISHER, Justice of the Peace and
Agent for the Hartford, Sun, A Franklin Fire
Insurance Companies. Office over J. P. Rob
ertaon's Store, Main St. Ashtabula, O. Ill
CHARLE8 BOOTH, Attorney and Conn
sellor at Law, AshUbula, Ohio. 1095
htovea, Tin-Ware, Hollow-Ware, Shelf Hard-
. ware, Glass-Ware, Lamps and Lamp-Trimmings,
Petroleum, Ac, opposite the FiekHouse,
Also, a fall stock of Paints, oils, Varnishes,
Brusbes, Ac. 1251
GEORGE C. HUBBARD, Dealer in Hard
ware, Iron, Steel and Nails, Stoves, Tin Piste,
Sheet Iron, Copper and Zinc, and manufae
turer of Tin Sheet Iron and. Copper Ware,
Fisk's Block AshUbula, Ohio: 1095
F. D. CASE, Thrstclan and Surgeon, office
over D. W. Haskell's store, corner of Spring and
Main Sts., AshUbula, Ohio. 1289tf
H. H. BARTLETtV M. D. Homnpathlc
Physician and Surgeon, (successor to Dr.
Moore.) ofBce No. 1 Main street. Residence in
Shepard a building, first door south of office.
r . , 1254 '
DR. O. 8 9IAR TIN, Homtenathle Phvstclan
ana surgeon, reepeciiully asks a share of the
patronage of, Ashtabula and vicinity. Office
and residence In Smith's new blotk. Centre
OB. E, L. KING, Physician and Sureeei
office over HeaHiry A King's :,tore, resiienc
near St.PeUir'sChoich. AshUbula.. O:
--. MRS. E. . RICKAH D, MtUtnsry A Dress.
.tr making. A choice kit of Millinery goods and
the lattsst styles of Ladies and Children's Pat
s terns. Shop and salesroom over Ralph A Burn
ham's store. Main St., AshUbnla, O. Iyl239
$. C. CULLET, Manufacturer of Lath,
Siding, Mouldings, Cheese Boxes, Ac. Planing,
Matching, and Scrowl Sawing done on the
shortest notice. i Shop on Main street, oppo
. sits theDpper Park. AshUbnla. Ohio. - 440
FHBHCH & WEIBLEN Menufactcrers A
Dealers Ln all kinds of Leather In demand In this
market opposite Phoenix Fonndery, Ashuhu-u-
TJD" tc EKSTES, Dealers ln Graniteand
Aiarbe Monuments, Grave Stones, TableU, Man
tels, Gr-iss, Ac Building stone. Flagging and
urblng out to order. Yard on C en Ler street
1SHTABCLA flATIONAL BANK,
Ashtabu'a. Ohio. 11. Fassett. I'res't.
bum ULTT.C'ashier. Authorized Capital,
OiiO Cash Capita! paid in $100,000. U. Fassett,
J B. CBOSBr. b. Ot. 1JK0CE. U. J. NETTLETOH.
B. NEXUS. " - UflflHII, E. O. WlCKIE,
M. U. wick. r. r. wxia, directors. 1204
P. C. FOIIO. Msnniacrnrer and Dealer la
dles, Ilarnesn. -Bridles, Collarn, Trnaks. Wnips,
c, opposite Flsk llonse, Ashtabula, Ohio.
197 BD1LD1KQ LOT FOB MIBI
Dealer in U'mpr l.imi Ktureo. Land
Keal Estate and Loan Aireht. Ashtabula Depot.
1209. WILLIAM uinrnitai.
ED61R H AM,, Fire sod Life Insnranceana
vevancer. Oillce over Sherman and Hall's Law
Office, Ashtabula, Ohio.
GRAND BIVEB INSTTJJTK,it Austin
hnroh Ashtabula Co.. Ohio. J. Tuckerman. A,
M.. Principal. Winter Term begins Tuesday,
Dec. 9d. Send for Catalogue.
k. wiTROUs. fainter, uiazier, auu
Paper Uanper. ah wora; mourn viu hmu.
w KiTTvs. m. w'B'is. Aent tor tne
Ixindon uiooe insurance vo. whu"""- ,
L000,0o0Gold. In the U. 8. $3,600,000. M"ca-
holders also personally liable.
BLAKESLEE & MOORE, Photorrapne
anl rim or in Pu HTM. Kn rn Y1I1K T1
c . , -i .1-"Mrtnfdini?8 of Tftll-
o. deacriptions,is prepared to frame anyth ng
in the nicturenne. iiion - - . .
beat style. Second door of the Hall store
door South of BankMaiin street.
... . . mj tii.bkut. nunuiactur rs
Lath and Shingles; also, mouldings of allbde-
JAlvlKS REED : SON,Plain and Ornament-
Bl Jnh Printers, and general stationers, opvci-
mens of Printing and prices for the same sent
on application. Office corner Main and Spring
treeta. Ashlabula. O. ll
NOTARY PUBLICS, ETC.
JOHN H. 8 HER1! AN, Notary Public and
Attomev and counselor at lmw. vuice in ana-
kell'e Block. Main St, AshUbula, O. - 13ti0
vrnw A R n G. PIERCE Dealers In Clothing,
Hats Caps, and Genu' Jfnnusninguooas, aenia-
ItTl IS t 11,111.
GEO. W. WAIT E, Wholesale ana Ke-
tail Healers, n KeaaT Siaae ciotnine:. x muiru-
!ni7 Hnoris Hm CaDS. ,ic. AshUbula 1251
WW rims. House. Sien and Carrlase paint
ing erainmg andpaper nangiug. onop on
tre street, near J. P. Robertson's store. All
work warranted. Ordcie left witB Kohertson
or Newberry will meet prompt attention. 1
DR. .TO O II H I S CROHN, Veterinay Bur
ffeon.wil Dractice within forty miles orjetierson
Horses left at my own sublc, will be well cared
for. Charges reasonable.
Jeflereon Junejtjth 1874. , . , - JSmi
ASHTABULA YOUNGSTOWN &
CONDENSED TIME TABLE-May 1, 1874.
BCNNINO SOCTH. BUmniie IIOBTH.
T. a. r. m.
12 45 8 40 .j...
12 37 8 32
12 81 8 28
12 18 8 14
12 10 8 OH .....
11 59 7 57 .....
11 47 7 46
11 86 7 34 .....
11 82 7 80 ....
11 21 7 18 ....
11 06 7 03
10 57 6 64 .....
10 61 6 48 ....
10 45 S 42 .j'
10 84 6 30
10 23 6 15 l.
10 20 S 00 S 40
10 05 5 45 84
9 52 5 80. S 60
48 5 17 t 58
9 35 &K 7 50
6 lfi i 00 25
A. j. K. r. M.
2 4 6
. . ITftrhnr
I S. A M. S. Cr
.. cloomflc d. ..
A. A G.W . Cros.
. Vt arren
.. Briar Hill...
S 25 11 15.
All trains daily, except Sanday.
F. B. MYERS, GenTasa. Ticket Agent.
CONDENSED TIME TABLE-May 1, 1874. L. S. & M. S.-FRANKLIN DIVISION.
From and after June 82, 1874. Passenger Trains
will run a follows : !
No. S No.4 No.8
r i I 4 r
Oil City East.,
i Oil City West
1 151 z Reno .
' 4 18'
1 7 21'
a Stoneboro ....
A G W Cross..
' 9 30
1 9 00
Trains stop only on Signal. xTrains do not
Stop. zTelegraph SUtions. Cleveland Time.
" The Way Freight trains stop at Jefferson in
going West, at 3.42 P.M., and going East at 7.41
A, M. These trains carry passengers.
Passenger fare at the rate of 3 cents per mile ;
to way stations counted in even half dimes.
Abstract of Time Table Adopted June 15,
PULLMAN'S best Drawing-room
and Sleeping Coaches, combining all
modern improvements, are ran through on all
trains from Buffalo, Suspension Bridge, Niagara
Falls, Cleveland and Cincinnati to New York,
making direct connection with all lines of for
eign and coastwise steamers, and also with
Sound Steamers and railway lines fcr Boston and
other New England cities.
8 85 A H
8 20 "
5 37 '
4 35 1
4 45 '
5 20 '
8 00 Pi
8 10 "
8 15 "
9 60 "
6 37 "
7 86 "
11 18 "
12 26 AM
;T8 50 "
1 35 "
2 40 "
6 00 "
10 08 "
10 38 "
6 00 pm
7 87 "
11 50 p m
8 40 "
6 06 -
6 53 "
6 28 "
11 46 A X
12 26 P
12 65 "
tl 08 "
t6 48 "
1 68 "
2 25 "
4 05 "
6 00 "
12 27 A.M.
7 85 "
8 07 '
10 02 ax
2 20 p x
4 45 "
5 39 "
7 00 "
7 40 '
10 48 a X
11 42 ..
. 12 00 x.
Patterson . . .
1 48 px
7 89 "
7 2(7 "
7 40 "
2 18 "
2 21 -
7 55 T M
6 00 AM
No. S, Special New York Kxpresb leave. r-n
ton 7 00 A. M., Suspension Bridge 7 05, Nlacara
Fall 7 10, Buffalo 7 40. HomeUvllle 10 65. Coriiine
12 11 P. M. 14
Arrives at Elmira 12 41 P. M., Binghamton 42,
t Snsquehanna 8 90. Hancock 4 54. Port Jervis t 25
Middletown 8 16, Patterson 10 06, Newark 11 17
Jersey City 10 42, New York 10 65.
Dally; . t Meal Stations- "
Ask fhr tickets bv way of Krle Railway.
For Sale at all the prfncloal Ticket Offices.
J no. N. AbBOTT, Gen. Pas. Agent.
: Edwin XXa.ll,
Wtadowa'nrtn8 DOORS. A BLINDS, also
Window and Door Frames made to order.
Bperfal agent for the sale of
-rC0?PWmD 8A8H WCK.
forha.TnVeI.ewnheer,e, 8tOCk Dd PriC b
Office opposite A., Y. A P. Depot.
Residence for Sale.
X HE late residence of
the Rey. J.
M. Gillette, on Lske Street, will be sold ver.
cheap fo cash, or short time. Apply to
AMOS 0. FISKL
2 50 "
4 10 "
7 40 '
8 00 "
8 45 "
MT. RIGI AND ITS INCLINE-PLANE RAILWAY
MT. RIGI AND ITS INCLINE-PLANE RAILWAY-THE LAKES OF THE FOUR CANTONS-A
PARK-THE EMERALD HIGHLANDS
OF EUROPE-SWISS FARMING-
STREAM TRAVEL TO THE ALPS-HOW
THE COUNTRY IS MADE PLEASANT TO
TOURISTS-PROSPERITY OF SWITZERLAND
TOURISTS-PROSPERITY OF SWITZERLAND-THIRTY MILLION DOLLARS LEFT
YEARLY BY VISITORS-THE FERTILE VALLEY
THE AARE-GRANDEUR OF ALPINE
THE AARE-GRANDEUR OF ALPINE SCENERY-SWISS MANUFACTURES
THE AARE-GRANDEUR OF ALPINE SCENERY-SWISS MANUFACTURES-FEATURES OF THE GOVERNMENT-
THE NEW CONSTITUTION.
Correspondence of the Chicago
MT. RIGI, LAKES OF THE FOUR
MT. RIGI, LAKES OF THE FOUR CANTONS. Sept. 15th, 1874
The finest and most oompreben
f . 1 3
sive nanoramic view .01 owiizuriauu
is to be had from the top of
which has the advantage of standing
issolated in the edge of the great
Swiss plain or V alley of the Aare,
Having a free situation, it commands
an exceedingly extensive . sweeping
landscape. Abe mountain is one
mile above the lakes which surround
and touch Us base, k torn the spot
where 1 sit, the observer can see in
every direction cleaf" around the ho
rizon for a circuit of more than 400
miles! Within range" of view are
the white tops of the high Alps
which look down into Italy on the
south, and over among the Tyrol
peaks on the east. Away to the
northeast can be discerned the dim
outlines of the Black-Forest range
in Uaden, brermany; and in the
southwest, peering over the heads
of ' intervening 6now-covered peaks
and domes, is Mt. Blanc, the Mon
arch of European mountains. The
whole scope of vision on the west or
French side is bounded by the loner,
dark range of Jura Mountain, which
the eye can trace alone; a line of
more than 100 miles of frontier, be
tween b ranee and Switzerland.
Within the raDge of sight lied
spread out before the ' spectator,
like a map, the great Swiss Valley
of the Aare River, which is the
south branch of the Rhine; the oth
er brancn encircles (Switzerland on
the southern and eastern sides,
From the elevation of Mt. Rigi, the
Valley of the Aare looks like a vast
rolling plain, spangled with lakes
and silver ribbons of - water-courses,
while the plain itself is thickly stud
ded with tarm-houses, villages, and
cities, as the heavens at. night with
stars. When one travels through
tnis plain, it seems hilly and lrreeru
lar in most parts, yet exquisitely
beautiful; still light and distance
soften down the landscape, and add
enchantment to the view.
For the easy convenience of the'
multitudes of excurtionists who visit
the Rigi to view the glorious pano
rama an English- Swiss company of
capitalists nave constructed
AN INCLINE PLAIN RAILWAY
trom tne landing place to tne sum
nut of the highest pinnacle. It has
a.gradeof 20 to 24 feet rise per hun
dred feet, and looks as ' steep as the
root to a house. Ihe length of the
track is 5 miles, and the ascent is
made in an hour the fare beiDg
?i.4u vip, and ,nait that amount
down. A powerful locomotiye, with
an upright boiler, pushes ahead jof
one car, which has seats for sixty
tnree persons. A double rail, with
steel cogs, is laid on the middle of
the track looking exactly like a
ladder standing against a house.
Up these, steel steps of the iron lad
der the locomotive climbs, by means
oi two cog wheels fitting the cogs
of the centre rail, w-hich are revolv
ed by the steam pistons. Standing
a little distance aside, the machine
bears a striking resemblance of a
hod, carrier going up the ladder with
a hod of bnek. .Last year the doz
en "steam, men" employed earned
lOO.OQfl tourists to the top of the
mountain, and the net profits of the
company exceeded -40 ' cer cent.
That amount was divided among the
stockholders, leaving untouched : a
considerable reserve fund. - The
whole capital is only 1150,000. "The
great success of the undertaking
has caused the organization of sev
eral- other companies 'for -the-con-
6truction of ""other similar1 railroads
up even higher and more difficult
mountains in other parts of Switzer
land. : ; ' . : ; '
A large part of the people who
ascend the mountains remain ' over
night to witness the -
WONDERFUL BRILLIANCY OF THE SUNRISE,
rise, : 'v', - . ;
the prismatic hues and
ed from the snow-capped mountains
around halt the horizon, and the
gradual changing of the dark shad
dows, which fill the valleys and cov
er the lakes with golden light as the
God of Day mounts into the heav
ens. I witn essed the glo iving, goi -
geous sconce, but feel utterly unable
to describe it or "do justice to the
From my porch on the crest of the
Rigi, I counted fourteen lakes some
in the distance, and others clustered
around the base of the mountain
the chief being the one called
THE "LAKES OF TOE FOTJE CANTONS,"
which is really half-a-dozen lakes
linked together most curiously, re
sembling in shape the letter T at
tached to the letter L, or perhaps
more like the figures oT a cross and
a carpenter's square constituting
six lakes joined together by naviga
ble straits, each being from 1 to 10
mnes long Dy 0ne third as much in
,width. As they lie among hills and
mountains, they cannot all be seen
at once from any" point of observa
tion;, but any chango of position
gives the spectator new and beauti
ful views of them, as they seem to
wind and coil around the headlands
and peaks of the mountains.
The next largest lake in full view
is Lake Zug, on the north sido of
the mountain. It comes so close up
to the walUf rock that it seems as
if one could cast a stono into it. It
extends out into the plain a dozen
miles, and its shores are studded
with towns and -villages, on every
pretty spot is erected a chateau or
a hotel. Away round its farthest
end, the trains of cars can. plainly
be seen coming fiom Zurich, or "Lu
cerne, while glimpses of Lake, Ja..
rich itself, 40 miles off. can L St ¬
over the depressions of the rango of
hills behind which
30 or 40 miles,
These lakes are navigated by nu.
merous steamers of the American
river style, which may be seen .dart
ing about in every direction, cover
ed with passengers, wniie scores
and hundreds of sail-boats glide over
their placid sunace, like bo many
It was around the shores of those
THE SWISS CONFEDERACY WAS FIRST
more than six and-a-half centuries
ago, by the onion of four little Can
tons, eacn oi auout ine size 01 an
average Illinois- county. 1 Other
Cantons were admitted from time
to time, until the whole numbered
twenty-two, wLich now constitute
the Swiss Federal Republic Around
the four Canton lakes was laid the
scene of William Tell s mythical ex
ploits. A halo of rich historical
and legendery tales surrounds those
lakes and fills these valleys tales
told to childhood, and implicitly be
lieved by all good and true tswitz-
ers. VV ithin nistonc times the Swiss
have evinced a special partiality and
affection tor the region of the
"Lakes of the four Cantons," and
Mt. Rigi has been a sort of ML Zi
on in their eyes. Some synical wri
ters have ascribed the peculiar af
fection of the Swiss thereof, less to
the romantic beauty of, the -region,
than to the abundance of excellent
fish found in the lakes declaring
that a fat salmon more enchanted
their imagination than the loftiest
mountains and loveliest valleys.
However this may be, it is certainly
true that their descendants of the
present time understand the art of
converting the admiration of stran
gers for the enchanting region into
annual showers or gold.
After a month of industrious
sight-seeing, rapid traveling, and
erland' finishipg' "with agrand
panoramic look at the whole coun
try from the top of Rigi, the gen
eral impression produced upon my
mind is, that Switzerland is a great
European or rather
This thought forced itself on the
mind at every step, for everything
one beholds seems to fit into that
ideal " Very many readers of the
Tribune have seen the beautiful
New York Central Park, which is
far ahead of any "artificial park in
Europe in variety of .'surface, in
picturesque loveliness, and in imita
tion of mountains, valleys, lakes,
water-falls, glens, crags and chasms.
The New York Park may, with a
considerable degree of accuracy, be
called "Switzerland in ,'the miniar
ture." There; is certainly no.- other
park in the world which imitates
so many of the features of SwitzerT
land, and it is the .very thing which
constitutes the charm of that park,
and rendeis it so far superior to all
Now try and. imagine five or .six
thousand New York -Central--' Parks
all in one, with the mountains lifted
up to altitudes to correspond with
the enlargement; with the lakes and
plains spread out in proper propor
tion; with rivers, and valleys, and
water-falls to match; with an infinite
variety of surface, from sunny
slopes and quiet rural landscapes to
the most terrific 'chasms, and preci
pices of dizzy height,, and vast crag
gy mountain-summits - covered ' with
eternal ice, down whose rugged sides
tumble avalanches of snow, and on
whose torn face hang rivers of fro
zen water; and then you get some
idea of how Switzerland actually
looks. It is park like in all its parts
and in its entirety, its extremes em
EVERYTHING IN NATURE.
from the simple to the sublime;
from secluded dells, and sunny val
leys, and vine clad slopes, to rocky
deserts, sunless gorges, and. bleak
desolation. Colorado possesses
some austere features, not unlike
those found in Switzerland. It has
mountains almost as high and pre--.
cipitous, and covered with perpetu
al snow;, but for want of rain in
summer and of mildness in' winter,
its valleys lack the verdure and fer
tility of those of Switzerland, lhe
newly discovered beautiful region
among the Black Hills, from the de
scriptions I have just been reading,
must bear considerable resemblance
to some of the less' rugged portions
Switzerland. The Yosemite val
ley, in California, finds its counter
part in some respects among these
mountains ; but, while , h'ave Been '
nothing in Switzerland Neither" like
or equal to that marvelous vaUley,
there are sights to beheld most a ron-
.derful and tremendous,- ' and which
hnd a parallel in no other part of
tlle globe. There is one peculia; rity
of the country which contribi ites
much to its beauty: its moisture al
ternated with - suushine. Irelam 1 is
called the "Emereld Isle." . Swit zer
land may with equal truth full less
be called the
'EMERALD HIGHLAND OF EUROPE."
The most rugged and precipit sous
mountains are covered with d ense
forest almost to the very snow-line,
wherever there is a particle of e arth
on the face, or in the crevices of tho
rocks to support tree life; and grass
grows and flowers bloom whurever
there is enough soil to hide their
roots. The Swiss farmers in the
deep mountain-valleys, have for the
last fortnight, been cutting jmd
gathering their third crop of hay
for this season. It looks curious , as
one rides along up a valley, to see
hundreds of men and women m ow
ing grass on the sides of the moun
tains steeper than th roof to a
house, and toiling aay up there
half a mile to a w'Li0 above your
head. While sorae aro cutting the
grass, others dro engaged in car
rying hay or, their heads, or haul
ing it on sleyjs (jown to their little
barns. T man not ro omnloved are
digging 'nntotnna nn frio nilla nf f ile
mount ,iM per1Ap9 up to the cloui-
Vards tho region of porpetual snow'
uuuiuo. inousands ot poor Swiss
women thus toil in this desperate
struggle for life working liko
beasts of burden on monntain-sides
where vcn mules cannot go, anJ
goats can harldy find a foot-ho'-
After a hard climb, one day, to a
certain spot, 6,700 feet above the
sea, where was to bo had a splendid
view of the towering of Jungfrau,
Monk Eiger, and other sharply out
lined horns, and domes, on the oppo
site side of the ; narrow chasm-like
A VILLAGE CALLED MURREN,
containing forty families, actually
located several hundred feet above
the limit of the growth of the pine,
lhey were obliged to descend a con
siderable distance to get fuel. They
subsisted chiefly on cattle and goats,
which found pasture on the sunny
side of the mountain, and picked up
a little gold acting as guides and
carriers for tourists. I saw numer
ous patches of potatoes up there,
growing luxuriantly, while women
were clipping grass -with hooked
knives where Vna mountain -was so
steep that I felt dizzy in looking
over the brow of the declivity down
to where they were clinging and cut
ting. Over on the opposite side of
the chasm, which seemed only
pistol-shot off, but was really three
miles. the depth of the valley be
ing considerably more than a mile'
the snow and ice hung in vast'masses
on the crags and jutting rocks, f ajly
2,000 feet below the level of the
village of Murren, where I stood
Every now and then a crashing
rumbling sound,-like that7 of distant
thunder, would .issue, from the icy
caverns and crags of the mighty
Jungfrau, accompanied by a rush of
prodigous mass ot snow and ice far
down the sides of the mountain. ;
-The avalanches in the spring-time,
after a warm rain, are so immense
in bulk, and have so much pressure
from behind, as sometimes to pro
ject themselves into the valleys be
low, burying up 'whole villages and
destroying the inhabitants in their
Switzerland is used as
- . r- --.
THE PUBLIC PARK OF EUROPE.
Tens of thousands of tourists swarm
over it continually from the middle
of May till -the middle of Septem
ber each year. During these four
months the, crowds of sight-seers
and seekers after better health are
so great that nearly the whole Swiss
population' seem to be employed
in one way or another in waiting on
them feeding, sheltering, convey
ing, and guiding them. The num
ber of visitors this year is estimated
to exceed 250,000, and the money
left behind them in the country will
amount to more than 130,000,000.
Experience has demonstrated that
no medicine or mineral waters are
qual in efficacy in removing such
ailments as dyspepsia, languor, and
general debility and restoring sound
sleep and good digestion, strength to
the limbs and. bloom to the cheek,
as a foot, or mule-back tour up hill
and down dale in the pure, bracing
air of Switzerland. Wherever I go
among these mountains and valleys
meet crowds ot men and women on
foot, climbing up and down steep
mule-paths,-.hunting for glaciers,
and high difficult out-looks. (They
aro mostly English and Germans.)
Mixed among this streaming multi
tude are people of . feebler strength
from age or- -disease, making their
pilgrimage on mule-back. '. It is per-
fectly. astonishing to see the number
of English ladies clambering . over
these lofty mountains, "Alpen
stocks" in hand, keeping step with
their robust male relations. 1 hey
think nothing of a tramp of 15 or
20 miles in a day, half up and the
other hair, down a steep mountain,
on narrow.- difficult- - mule-paths.
Whenever I meet a woman carried
on a sedan chair by four Switzers
up a mountain to see a glacier, an
avalanche, or a cascade,' it is not ne
cessary to look at her prodigous
mass of black hair to know that she
is not English,
Sometimes English women those
not in good health ride horses or
. .. , 5 i -' -
mules on tnese nara mountain-excursions,
but I never saw one car
ried on a chair mounted on men's
shoulders. This mode of r convey
ance is peculiarly American. There
is another difference; the English
men carry with them about one
quarter, and their women one-tenth,
as much "luggage" as the American
men and Women drag round with
them. The former travel light, and
consequently swiftly and economic
ally in comparison with the Ameri
Next to the British, the Germans
.. . a
are the most numerous ana saga
cious, as well as the boldest Alpine
climbers. Since their late successful
war with the French they seem to
be flush of "gelt" for some reason,
and swarm over. Switzerland, note
book in hand, studying the geology,
botany, and topography of the coun
try in their methodical and system-'
QUITE AT HOME
in; Switzerland,, as most of the na
tives are their countrymen, speaking
the same language, belonging to the
same race, studying the same litera
ture, and holding similar views in
Dolitics, science,-; and religion. It
" ... . 1 V(-n V.n
Will not lie many veaio uciuiv; i.u
Germans will visit Switzerland in
i . i . j . i. ..
pven greater crowus man uo iuc
English, as the taste for' travel is
becoming a national passion, and
Swit zerland adjoins their own erri
fnrv And can je visited with little
loss of Aime ' and at very
Next to the Germans, the Italians
appear to b e tho most numerous, al
though the Russians stay longer, be?
cause they have farther to come.
The Italians bave quite caught tho
English spirit of Alpine climb"'?'"
and havo 'organised Alp Clubs in all
the chief cities; tiHe Kome Club inun:
bere500 me!f,,,,So.mo;of the nvo-1
difficult ascents made last n,wn""lf
. , . , li.ili'ins. 1I1I
this one havo been by ii "1' .
.. ..;,.m)iis bV me"
the Jrencn aro con""
absonce. A few ''
the diligom-e from 'Ba
Son -ch sidc. it .n.
they will sit on
of their hotel,
OPERA-GLASS IN HAND,
7;111K at the majestic beauties
-o monarch1 of European mountain
an d admiring Its granJeur because
1 Wpens to bo within tho limits
nf Franco (Mont Ulano is mainly
:..i , Province of Savoy, which was
rill ed from the Italians in l59)j
but o can hear of but few I reiujh
men who ever undertake the labor of
us ascent, as they are averse to all
such severe exercise. They prefer
.-vujr uirougn their spy-glasses
...v. j-ugnbu ana uermans mount
iug luewaiis of the rocks like squir
re going up a tree, to emulating
tneir aanng ana endurance. Thev
are not the men to fight the German's
now that the latter are united and
they possess not the muscle, the
steadiness of nerve, nor coolness of
brain, to compete with them in dan
gerous sports, norm war-like strug
gles. They have no longer a Bona
parte, and without one they are not
ot much account in war or politics.
Calling the Swiss the park-keep
ers ot this European pleasure snd
excursion ground, they
ARE ADMIRABLY ADAPTED TO THE BU-
and have certainly put the grounds
in most beautiful order. They hav
constructed railroads over every
part of the country where it seems
possible to build them, and enuinned
them with the American style of
cars. Where railroads cannot be
operated, they have made excellent
x !1 11 , .
luriipiites, regaruiess or labor or
cost, and supplied them with com
modious and carefully-managed dili
gences, or public stages. VV here
horses cannot haul coaches, they
have hewn out mule-paths; and
where mules cannot go, they have
cut steps in the face of the preci
pices, fastened iron ladders and
railing over gorges and chasm, and
provided trusted and sure-looted
carriers to carry delicate ladies on
sedan chairs up acclivities which
test the strength even of strongmen;
and they have trained an licensed
guides to direct the feet of tourists
in safety across glaciers filled with
hidden pitfalls, or . show the adven
turous athletic pedestrian the way to
scale nearly perpendicular walls of
rock, to see Natnre in her . solitudes
and sternest moods.
But this is not all. For the suste
nance and comfort of the tourist,
the Swiss have erected and furnish
THOUSANDS OF HOTELS,
placing them an every conceivable
spot where grand or pleasing views
may be had, or where they can do
most good. Thus the traveler, after
a desperate and fatiguing climb to
some nearly inaccesible pass or ele
vation, to see the glaciers or ava
lanches, or high mountain domes
and peaks, will be almost sure to find
up, there a comfortable inn, well
supplied with meat, drink, and to
bacco, clean beds, and a reading
room in which are the latest English
German, French and American dai
ly papers. When the tourist is
steaming around any of the charm
iug Swiss Lakes, he cannot help
being struck with the number of el
egant and capacious looking hotels
built on beautiful locations along
the shore sometimes on a little jut
ting; headland, or in a sheltered
cove, or on the side of a lovely slop
ing lawn. In every instance they
are surrounded by a little park,
planted with ornamental trees,
adorned with flower-beds and shrub
beryj and usually having a foun
tain and statuary. One feels at
tempted to go ashore and spend the
remainder of the season in some of
those delightful looking tourists'
THOUSANDS DO THAT VERY THING
In other cases the hotels will be
placed at the foot - of a mountain
cascade or high falls, or at the end
of a vallev breaking through a
mountain and exposing some famous
snow-clad chain beyond. Wherever
there is a good view of any attrac
tion or popular object, whether of
rock, or cataract, chasm, glacier,
cone, lake, valley, pass, or whatever
it may be, there you are pretty sure
to find a hotel, or perhaps several
of them, seated in the midst of
trees, shrubs, and flowers. As a
rule, they are well kept, with good
tables, and supplied with careful,
polite, and honest servants. Swiss
hotels have greatly multiplied with
in Tate years, and improved as well.
The extension of railroads, and mul
tiplication of steamers on the lakes,
have rendered traveling so cheap
and speedy that thousands now visit
Switzerland where hundreds did 20
years ago. Hence the necessity for
more and larger hotels.
Switzerland is now in. a
The people are growing rich quite
fast. The evidence of increasing
wAnlth Aiinear on all sides. Look at
any city or' large town, and you will
find tho exterior portiuna mm vu. m
wide streets and capacious squares
and improved quite recently in mod
ern style, while the interior consists
of narrow, crooked streets, cioseiy
lined with quaint, - ancient, shabby
houses, occupied by the poor and in
digent classes.. The beautiful vil
las and chateaus which abound so
plentifully appear mostly to be new
structures, and the lawns, parks, and
gardens about them exhibit modern
rural taste evidently imported
from England, which seems to bo
authority on the Continent in rural
architecture and landscape garden-(
- A quarter 'of a century ago Switz
erland was a poor country. It hd
few resources and httlo foreign
Z.JZe The farmers living m
th?fuitful Valley of tho Aare were
lne 1 "r,...i,ir. mreunistances: but
were obliged to sen uicn
eheau and buy their goods
, iBt. as farmers do now in the
Western States of America. But
an Englishman invented the loco
motive and railway track, and an
American the steamboat for river
mid lake navigation. Tho intro
duction of these "modern improve
ments" made Switzerland accessible
to- the seekers of recreation and
health. - Thoso who came returned
home full of enthusiasm over tho
wonders, beauty, extent and grand
eur of Swiss scenery, and, relating
their adventures and stories to their
friends, and in the columns of tho
press, and in books of travel, and
exhibiting their improved health,
scut tens of ' thousands in q,ltsl r
the name pore air, pleasurable mir
prises, and recuperation ' exhaust
ed energies. All these scattered
? . .i . i. .... .1 r i,1 throuiru
hard own W J valleys, and
the raouutaiBH na . ,
along tne suoreo v " i-
A new employment was quickly fur
nished tor the frugal German and
quick-wited Celt of those hills and
dales, who saw golden showers in
their snow-clad peaks, and mines of
silver in their fruitful valleys, which
they have since been
CATCHING AND EXTRACTING TO SOME
The surplus population were no
longer obliged to wander abroad in
search of work and subsistence;
there was abndance of employment
found at home, in guiding, convoy
ing, and entertaining the tens of
thousands who have now swollen
to hundreds of thousands of annu
al visitors. The inhabitants of the
poorest and most inaccessible val
leys, overhung by stupendous moun
tains, and threatening with ava
lanches of snow, ice, and rocks, now
find a ready market at high prices
at their doors, for all their fruit,
flesh, poultry, trout, milk, butter,
and eggs, they can produce; while
their sons can earn, with a mule, or
as guides and carriers, two, three, or
four gold dollars per day ; from
May to October, in helping foreign
tourists up and down their moun
tains, and over their dangerous pass
es and crevassed glaciers. It is no
longer necessary for the hardv stol
id, fearless Swiss to offer his merce
nary service as a body-guard to any
Prince or potentate, to fight for a
came for which he knows nothing
and cares less. The only foreign mil
itary service in which any Swiss are
now found in Europe is that of the
Pone, in Rome, who emdovs a bat-
talion of them around the Vatican
not being willing to intrust his . sa
cred and infallible person to the
keeping of his suspected Italian
brethren. It is estimated that the
tourist who visited Switzerland last
year left behind them
THIRTY MILLIONS OF DOLLARS,
and the amount this year is still
greater; and next year it will prob
ably be greater than this; and each
succeeding year it must increase,
for, great as the number of people
who have visited Switzerland, it is a
mere drop in the bucket compared
with the millions who wish someday
to make the tour. He it remem
bered that Switzerland is eurronnd
ed by civilized nations, aggregating
800,000,000 souls. And, this, too,
without including the tens of mil
lions in trans.-Atlantic countries.
The golden shower will then con
tinue to fall on this attractive and
enchanting land for ages to come,
perhaps for all time, while. man re
tains love for the beautiful, grand,
and wonderful in Nature, and needs
pure, wholesome air, and vigorous,
exhilarating exercise, to recruit bro
ken health and recuperate wasted
constitutions. People flock to Paris
for sensuous indulgence and to rev
el into the butterfly-fashions of the
h our; they visit Italy to study and
enjoy the great works oi tne anciem,
.Masters ot Art; but iney swarm
over ftwitzeriana to coin.euipiai.e
the works of Nature in her limitless
diversity and sublimest grandeur,
and to return home better, and, wiser,
and healthier men. 4
THE LATITUDE OF SWITZERLAND
imparts to the valleys and lower
slopes of its mountains the climate
and uroductions of Southern Ger
many, Central France, and Northern
Italy. While its higher mountains
are covered with perpetual snow
and ice, its valleys bear the wine
grape, fig, silk mulberry tree, orange
and peach; and, in most of them,
corn and tobacco grow as luxuri
antly as-wheat and grass, or sugar
beets, and barley. Before travers
ing Switzerland, I had greatly un
derrated its agricultural capabilities,
and the proportionate extent of its
arable and fertile land. Like many
others who had obtained their in
formation from books and unob
servant travelers' letters, J have sup
posed that Switzerland consisted
mainly of snow-covered mountains
and desert wastes of granite rocks,
imposing a few narrow valleys and
deep glens, from which the poverty
stricken peasants, with goitre necks,
scratched a miserabh subsistence
under the shadows of overhanging
cliffs; and that those not employed
eked out a scanty existence by the
manufacture of watches and jewelry,
and carvings in wood.
Judge, then, of my surprise when,
after entering Switzerland at B3sle,
a few weeks ago, I passed through a
country for ten hours' rido of the
train to Geneva, literally flowing
CORN AND WINE, MILK AND HONEY.
It was a rich as as a
farming eountry, highly cultivated,
very productive, finely improved,
and thickly inhabited. The train
crossed scores of beautiful, rapid
flowin" streams, as it ran along up
the Valley of the River Aare for 130
iniles, and passed by or through a
multitude of villages and towns.
The country, as a whole, was neither
level nor mountainous, but presented
every imaginable variety of surface,
from broad, level valleys to ranges
of hills and low mountains. Tjie
landscape was continually changing
but was always charming. Away off
to the westward as far as one could
see, was the, long range of Jura
Mountains, whose sides and tops
were densely covered with pine for
ests, except a few of the highest
peaks, on which the snow glistened
under the rays of the sun. On the
other side, to the east and southeast,
the snow-peaks of the high Alps, 50
to 60 miles distant, could be seen
looming over the intervening lower
mountain ranges. Towards the mid
die of tho afternoon, the train left
tho Valley of tho Aare, and, plung
ing through a long tunnel tinder a
high hill' which crossed iu track,
suddenly emerged On tho other side
thereof, upon "Lake Geneva, at the
height of 1,800 feet above iu sur-
flee. It followed aiuug lue omo mu
of the lake, most of the way through
viueviiiils, for 30 miles, down to the
City'of Geneva, which lies in the
Valley of tho Rhone, on both sides
of the river, where it flows out of
the lake away down through France
into tho Mediterranean.
THIS BEUTIFUL AND FERTILE
at Lake Constance, at the northeast
end or angle of tho country, and ex.
BOuthwest to the Lak of Ge-
neva, a distance of nearly 200 miles,
with a varying width of 60 mile at
the broadest to 25 at the narrowest,
and embraces more than one third
the entire area of the little Republic,
which contains 15,400 square miles,
and supports a population just about
the same as that -of Illinois. If all
of Switzerland were as fine nnd fer
tile as the portion drained by the
Aare, it would never be thought of
as mountainous or sterile, but only
as exceedingly beautiful and produc
tive. It would be visited by multi
tudes for the sake of its salubrious
air, pure water, charming lakes, and
lovely landscapes. The General al
titude above the sea of the Aare
Valley and the lakes of Switzerland
is 1,200 to 1,600 feet, which necessa
rily imparts a breezy, temperate,
But it is the other half of Swit
zerland, lying to the southeast of the
part above described, which has giv
en Switzerland its
as a country of vast and austere
mountains, where "Alps over Alps
arise;" where frozen rivere, er.llad
glaciers, abound; where avMa-.sches
of snow bury villages end inhabit
ants; where the rays of tho cun nev
er penetrate to the bottom of the
chasms and gorges; where naked
rocks and fields of snow reign su
preme in an eternity of desolation;
where the foot of man or beset has
never trod; where cascades aro so
lofty that they seem to fall from the
clouds; where only narrow iiiule
paths can penetrate its valleys; and
where the miserable inhabitants, un
til adventurous tourists gave them
employment as guides, eked out a
half-starved existence. In this part
of Switzerland few travelers have
been able to exaggerate the strange
sights they have seen. Nature here
has put on her wildest aepectf, and
presents to man the most eubiimc as
well as terrific manifestations of her
power, as if to mock his puny efforts,
crush his pride and egotism, f.nd
make him feel his littleness mJ in
significance. One view will 11 the
traveler with wonder and adniira
tion; -another with fear and trem
bling; another with awe and rever
ence. It is not upon the pursuit of agri
culture alone, supplemented by the
money of tourists, on which the
Swiss depend for a living. Fully
one-third of the entire population
MANUFACTURES AND MECHANISM OF
are employed in
making watches in Geneva, Berne,
Neufchatel, and elsewhere; oiher
thousands in the fabrication of jewel
ry for the Paris and other markets.
The City of Zurich, which contains
60,000 inhabitants, is tha hexdocar
ters of the extensive Swiss silk man
ufactures, and it possesses tha -eat
Polytechnic Institute, one of the
most celebrated in Europe, tnd -vaose
laboratories produce millions of dol
lars worth of chemicals for cale in
all markets. It is owned and opera
ted by the Government. Intsrlaken
is the centre of the wood-carving in
dustry, which gives employment to
5,000"familie8. It is surprising to
what perfection these Swiss vilL jers
have carried the art of sculpture in
wood. There is scarcely an article,
animal, or bird figure, or group of
statuary, in marble, terra-cctta, or
bronze, but they reproduce in vood,
linden wood being the favorite
material, on account of its fine raia
and softness. All this branch of inr
dustry has been built up, and the srt
itself brought to perfection, within
the last forty years. The Govern
ment now maintains ft school of de.
sin for teaching boys and girls ia
modeling and carving. Ine rale and
export of wood carvings realize more
than $4,000,000 per annum.
Schaffhausen, at the falls of the
Rhine, is the chief seat of iron foun
dries and locomotive and car build
ing in Switzerland, and also for tnsy
manufacture of cannon and fro-.trms.
The water of the falls f arnkhes the
motive power, where may be reen
turbine wheels, of 700 to 1,0C; horse
power set in motion by the prepare
of .the cataract, which, if cr.3 had
never seen Niagara Ftilj, feni he
considered something great rnd re
markable, as well as beautiful and
Every Swiss city and large town
Some excel in one branch of manu
factures, and some in another; but,
taken in their entirety, they t prjre-
gate a very respectable production
for so small a nation. Whil the
Swiss raise more than enough meat.
butter, and cheese for their own con
sumption, they are obliged to import
about 1,500,000 barrels of flour per
annum from France and Germany,,
Nor do they grow nearly enough
wool to clothe themselves; cu from,
the proceeds of their sales of silk and
cotton fabrics, of embroidery, watch
es, jewelry, chemicals, and wood
carvings, they are abundantly able
to supply all their wants in the aliape
of imported goods and f ood The
Swiss are certainly the race, indus
trious people in the wrld, as well as
the roost frugal. Everybody xrorks,
men, women, and children. Ihere
is no leisure, idle, or loater class,
and few drones, in this busy hive.
Switzerland is a
MOST UNIQUE COUNTRY
monarchies, it is a pure Republic.
While every other European nation
has an Emperor or a Kinj for a ru
ler, or is waging civil vrar io restore
a deposed Royalty, SwlUeriAad has
no Prince or potentate, net even a
PresideuU Her executive ratbonty
consists of a Council of Stte, ap
pointed by the Legislature for lim
ited period of timo, snd wi'h the
power of removal. Onecf tb'iCouu- .
Cll lioara is ajiyviuun v.i..uL i u va
the Board for one year, -ri'.h fie ti
tle of President, l-zi hs no
patronage, no power of "-nvel 01
pardon, nothing creep ' -3 riyil-JS
of presiding at tho si'.t;f of Uia
Council of State sud ce!Et?rif;ng
iu resolutions and orJcr?. i
same as if the Aroemrr. s.r
electad the Cabinet cnioc. ua tb
the Presiding Officar cf ai Joard,
and, at the sama tixa, cbole tji?
otfioeof President or CV.if V;;
MOST UNIQUE COUNTRY Contained on the page.