Newspaper Page Text
SOVIET RUSSIA'S CODE OF LABOR LAWS
1 The Code of Labor Lnws shall take effect
from the moment of its publication in the Compila
tion of Laws and Regulations of the Workmen's
5 Feasant's Government. This Code must be ex
pensively circulated among the working class of
the coantry by all local organs of the Soviet
Government and be posted in a conspicuous place in
all Soviet Ir.ititutions.
IT The regulations of the Coce of Labor Laws
shall applv to all persons receiving remuneration
for their work and shall be obligatory for all en
terprises, inrtitutions and establishments (Soviet,
public, private ar.d do.ueslic), as well as for all
private employers exploiting labor.
III All existing rpgulations and those to do
issued on questions of labor, of a general character
orders of individual establishments, instructions,
rules of internal management, etc.), as we 1 as in
dividual contracts and agreements, shall he vaii'l
only in so far a they do not conflict with this
IV All labor agreements previously entered into,
as well as all those which will be entered into in the
future, in so far as they contradict the regulations
of this de, shall not be considered valid or
cbligatory, eiher for the employees or the employ-
eT8' v In enterprises and establishments where the
work ;s carried on in the form of organized co
iteration (Section 6, Labor Division A of the present
Code) the wage earners must be allowed the widest
possible self-government under the supervision of
the Central Soviet authorities. On this basis alone
can the working masses be successfully educated in
the spirit of socialist tmi communal government.
VT. The labor conditions in the communal entei
prises organized as well as supported by the Soviet
institutions (agricultural and other communes) are
Tegulated by special rules of the all-Russian Central
Executive Committee and of the Council of People's
Commissars, and by instructions of the People's
Commissariat of Agriculture and Labor.
The labor conditions of independent artisans are
them for cultivation are regulated by the Code of
The labor conditions of nidependent artisans ore
regulated by special rules of the Commissariat of
On Compulsory Labor
1. All citizens of the Russian Socialist Federated
Soviet BepnWiC, with the exceptions stated in sec
tions 2 and 3. shall be subject to compulsory labor.
2. The following persons shall be exempt from
(a) ' Persons under 1G years of age;
(b) All persons over 50 years:
(c) Persons who have become incapacitated by
injury M illness.
3. Temporarily exempt from compulsory labor
(a) Persons who arc temporarily ir capacitated
nwning to illness or injury, for a peri id necessary
for their recovery.
(b) Women, for a period of 8 weeks before
and 8 weeks after confinement.
4. All students shall be subject to compulsory
labor at the schools.
5. The fact of permanent or temporary disability
shall be certified after a medical examination by the
Bureau of Medical Survey in the city, district or
province, by accident insurance office or agencies
representing the former, according to the place of
residence of the person whose disability is to be
Note I. The niles on the method of examination
of disabled workmen are appended hereto.
Note IT. Persons who are subject to compulsory
labor and are not engaged in useful public work
may be summoned by the local Soviets for the ex
ecution of public work, on conditions determined by
the Department of Labor in agreement with the local
Soviets of trade unions.
6 Labor may be performed in the form of
(a) Organized cooperation;
(b) Individual personal services;
(c) Individual special jobs.
7. Labor conditions in Government (Soviet)
establishments shall be regulated by tariff rules ap
proved by the Central Soviet authorities through the
People's Commissariat of Labor.
8. Labor conditions in all establishments (Soviet,
nationalized, public and private) shall be regulated
by tariff rules drafted by the trade unions, in agree
ment with the directors or owners of establishments
and enterprises, and approved by the People's Com
missariat of Labor.
Note. In cases where it. is impossible to arrive
at an understanding with the directors or owners of
establishments or enterprises, the tariff rules shall
be drawn up by the trade unions and submitted for
approval to the People's Commissariat of Labor.
9. Labor in the form of individual personal ser
vic.o or in the form of individual special jobs shall
be regulated by tariff rules drafted by the respective
trade unions and approved by the People's Commis
sariat of Labor.
The Right to Work
10 All citizens able to work have the right to
employment at their vocations and for remuneration
fixed for such class of work.
Note. The District Exchange Bureau of the
Department of Labor Distribution may, by agreement
with the respective unions, assign individual wage
earners or groups of them to work at other trades
if there is no demand fcr labor at the vocations of
the persons in question.
11. The right to work belongs first of all to
those who are subject to compulsory labor.
12. Of the classes exempt from compulsory labor,
only those mentioned in subdivision "b" of section
2 have a right to work.
13. Those mentioned in subdivisions "a" and
"c" of section 2 arc absolutely deprived of the right
to work, and those mentioned in section 3 temporar
ily deprived of the right to work.
14. All persons of the female sex. and tho3e of
the male sex under 18 years of age, shall have no
right to work during night time or in those branches
of industry where the conditions of labor are es
pecially hard or dangerous.
Note. A list of especially hard and health-endan-
Washington News Letter
(Continued from 1st page.)
So much for what the federal re
serve board thinks abaut labor and
the cost of living. Thcr is a word to
add about what Glenn K. Plumb,
spokesman for the railroad brother
hoods, thinks about the federal re
It appears that the reserve banks
hao power during the war to ad
vfciice cash to individuals and firms
Hint had eos.tracts wWl the govern
nent. L'nc'.n Sam's promise to pay on
tho deli"cy of commodities olnkij
I'll pretty good collateral
So, overv contractor formed the
thrifty hibit. it is oa.d of running to
a federal wave bank anl pawning
:if new government contract for
ns much M t cash as he could pet
for it. And the banks were libetal. The
theory was that when tho treasury
paid for the anticipated goods the
leserve banks would tak.i the coin and
cancel the private loan.
And that is what Ihey did in many
instances, there is no doubt.
But the war came to an enl more
or less suddenly. And right up to Nov.
II, 1918, when the armistice was
&ignod, the war, navy and other de
partments went on letting contracts.
A week later the Bame departments
were cancelling their contrncts.
And they cancelled a huge number
of contracts on which firms and in
dividuals had gone to the bnnks and
borrowed money. They were bent on
snving money for their own depart
ments, and that is the way they did
The contractors had tlM cash, tho
federal reserve bonks had the paper
contracts, nnd the departments didn't
want tln goods delivered That, is still
the way matters stand.
No less than $1,500,000,000 of public
money has been issued by the federal
reserve bnnks on government eon
tracts that have been cancelled anl
will never be paid, according to thoso
who have attempted a survey of the
How the tangle can be strnightched
day the treasury department is re
fusing to pay vouchers for these
cancelled contracts upon which tho
federal banks have loaned money.
Much of the money has been spent
by the persons who borrowed it on
the voided contracts. The government
got nothing for it. Neither did tho
taxpayer. Merely an incident of war.
And if the efderal reserve bank
can make its books balance it will
be nil right.
The Black Sheep
Confirmed from page 2.
She was not yet aware that life
knows no strangers.
"See to it that he gets well passed
minot, or hell, or somewhere, and tell
him that this neighbor-hood will bo
damred unhealthy for him if he ever
"What? ITuh! Then why did you
jail him All we want is the money."
"Didn't have much? The people he
worked for told me he had about a
hundred ybere did it go to. Vou aint
pocketing it, are you?
"If you do, I'll get your goat, as
sure as God made little apple."
"Spent it in your blind pig."
"Sent it home before you had a
chance to arrest him You are a bright
bunch. You are. What do you have of
Only fifteen dollars, That is at
leatl eighty gone to hell."
O damn the others It is right
to "can" them, that will discourage
tho kind that send their money out of
the country. Pntroniz.e homo industry.
That is right."
As Olive over heard these words sho
felt sick with anger and shame, she
realized that her father hod nev
roall revealed him self to her ns he
really whs. Ouly onco had ho given
her n ghmpc and that was on the
Sundny evening she had returned from
her visit to the jail. She percieved
that he had forced her to live a lie
As lis daughter she wanted to llvo
as hd father lived, and now she saw
I lint he had given her no real part in
wanted no pact in it. In his ignorance
of life's deeper things he had imagined
that he could feed genius on deception
and not reap the reward.
"Alright Judge," he concluded.
"Make a good job of it and send the
bill to me."
As he turned arround from the
phone, Olive, who had arisen from
her seat was standing in the door way.
She was very pale and nervous but
did not say a word.
Continued next week.
out nobody appears to know. Every hjg life nnd what was more, she
BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE
gering occupations shall be prepared by. the Depart
ment of Labor Protection of the People's Commis
sariat of Labor, and shall be published in 'he month
of January of each year in the Compilation of Laws
and Regulations of the Workmen's and Peasants'
Methods of Labor Distribution
15. The enforcment of the right to work shall be
secured through the Departments of Labor Distribu
tion, trade unions, and through all tho institutions of
the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic.
16. Tho assignment of wage earners to work
shall be carried out through the Departments of
17. A wage earner may be summoned to work,
save by the Department of Labor Distribution, only
when shosen for a position by a Soviet institution or
18. Vacancies may be filled by election when the
work offered requires political reliability or unusual
special knowledge, for which the person elected is
19. Persons engaged for work by election must
register in the Department of Labor Distribution
before thev re accepted, but they shall not be sub
ject to the rules concerning probation set forth in
Article IV of the present Code.
20. Unemployed persons shall be assigned to
work through the Departments of Labor Distribution
in the manner stated in sections 21-30.
21. A wage earner who is not engaged on wont
at his vocation shall register in the local Depart
ment of Labor Distribution as unemployed.
22. Establishments and individuals in need of
workers should apply to the local Department of
Labor Distribution or its division (Correspondence
Bureau) stating the condition of the work offered
as well as the requirements which the workmen must
meet (trade, knowledge, experience).
23. The Department of Labor Distribution, on
receipt of tho application mentioned in section 22.
shall assign the persons meeting the requirements
thereof in the order determined by tho same.
24. An unemployed person has no right to refuse
an offer of work at his vocation, provided the work
ing conditions conform with the standards fixed by
ihe respective tariff regulations, or in the absence
of the si'nie by the trade unions.
25. A wage worker engaged for work for a period
of not more than two weeks, shall be considered un
employed, and shall not lose his place on the list of
the Department of Labor Distribution.
26. Should the local Department of Labor Dist
ribution have no workers on its lists meeting the
stated requirements, the application must bo immedi
ately sent tc the District Exchange Bureau, and the
establishment or individual offering the employment
shall be simultaneously notified to this effect.
27. Whenever workers are required for work out
side of their district, a roll-call of the unemployed
registered in the Department of Labor Distribution
shall tike place, to ascertain who are willing to go;
if a sufficient number of such should not be found,
the Department of Labor Distribution shall assign
tho lacking number from among the unemployed in
tne orler of their registration, provided that those
who have dependents must not be given preference,
before tingle persons
28 If in the Doportments of Labor Distribution,
within the limits of the district, there be no work
men meeting t.'ie reouitements, the District Exchange
Bureau has the right, upon agreement with the re
upective trade union, to send unemployed of anothor
class approaching as nearly as possible the trado
29. An unemployed person who is offered work
outside his vocation shall be obliged to accept it, on
the understanding, if he so wishes, that this be only
temporary, until he receives work at his vocation.
30. A wage earner who is working outsido his
specialty, and who has stated his wish that this be
only temporary, shall retain his place on the register
on the Department of Labor Distribution until he gets
work at his vocation.
31. Private individuals violating the rules of
!abor distribution set forth in this article shall bo
punished by the order of the local board of the
Department of Labor Distribution by a fine of not
less than 300 rubles or by arrest for not less than
one week. Soviet establishments and officials violating
these rules on labor distribution shall be liable to
32. Fiiia) acceptance of workers for permanent
employment shaJ be preceded by a period of
probation of not more than six days; in Soviet in
stitutions tl.p probation period shall be two weeks
for unskilled and less responsible work and one
month for skilled and responsible work.
33. A;cord:ng to the results of the probation
le wage earner thai either be given a permanent
appointment, or rejected with payment for tho period
of probation in accordance with the tariff rates.
34. The results of the probation (acceptance or
rejection' shall be communicated to the Department
of Labor Distribution.
35. tip to the expiration of the probation period,
the wage earner shall bo considered as unemployed,
and shall retain his place on the eligible list of tho
Department of Labor Distribution.
36. A person who, after probation, has been
rejected, may appeal against this decision to tho
union of which he is a member.
37. Should the trade union consider the appeal
mentioned in the preceding section justified, it shall
enter into negotiations with tho establishment or
person who has rejected the wage earner, with the
icquest to accept the complaint.
38. In case of failure of negotiations mentioned
in section 3, the matter shall be submitted to the
local Department of Labor, whoso decision shall be
final and subject to no further appeal.
39. The Department of Labor may demand that
tne person or establishment who have without suf
ficient reason rejected a wage earner provide the latter
with work. Furtl-emorc, it may demand that the
said person or establishment compensate the wage
earner according to the tariff rates for the time
lo3t between his rejection and his acceptance pursuant
(Continued next week.)
With the publication in tins JsBue of the Introductory chapter of Pro
letarian Science, wo want to again call every reader's attention to tho neces
sity of completing the organisation of study classes. To the many comrades
who have itnrted organization of classes, we say, take up this first chapter in
class. And to thoie who have intended to start organizing a class, we say,
hurry, if possible get the class together for this first chapter. And to those
who havo neglectod to consider the organisation of a class, we say, you will
be sorry If on do not get at least a few comrades together each week and
take up the chapters of this splendid and instructive work.
With each succeeding chapter we believe our readers will become more
deeply Interested in Proletarian Science. Thoie is a world of good in it, pre
pare to get all the good by studying it in class. No better way can be imagined
to spend a profitable evening than in proup study of this work.
SANDUSKY LITERARY PARROT
SHIES BOOMERING AT
We quote the following from a re
cent number of the Sandusky Star
Journal: Ever read "THE TOILER"
The official organ,
(Organ is right obsolete)
Of the Communist Labor Party
Of the State of Ohio?
Ts a rank imitation
Of "The Appeal To Reason"
Tn fact it is about the worst
Accumulation of bolsheviki rot
That we've ever glanced over.
It tin. powers at Washington
Would subscribe for "The Toiler"
And follow its suuuestions
This country would be heaven
For "Free Love Artists"
SOAP BOX ORATORS,
ANTI FREE SPEECH supporters
Aid people who
Believe in the old maxim
"To Hell With the Government."
I Thank You.
The fact that it pays to advertise'
and likewise pays to be advertised.
borne home to us with increasing
conviction With the cliurinir nhnvn
s j o t
quoted n Sandusky comrade sends dj
eleven yearly subserintions whi.'h
cllnche our faith in the mnxim that
has become an established rule of
Tn all probability, without this in
vi'aiion shouted from the house tops
of Sandusky, fignretively speaking,
llieve eleven new renders of The Toiler
m old have rcmnined in ignorance of
i he fact that The Toiler had something
of real vnlue to offer the workers
Of course, we can hardly approve the
"literary" quality of this crippled
imitntion of K. C. B. But where origin
ality is non-existent it is perhaps per
missible to resort to inharmonious
parrot quackings oven to the extent
of revealing one's complete lack of
Knowledge, of present day problems.
We desire to express our apprecia
tion to the Star-Journal for its good
work for The Toiler. Wre hope that
the "prose poets" of its staff will
continue to belabor us in the samo
way its good for our business, it re
lieves the presure upon the brains
of the Journal staff, allowing the gases
and poison of ignorance to escape be
fore they completely wreck the interior
of their containers. Yes, hit us some
more, it looks better in the Star
Journal than so much boiler plate,
amuses our renders and creates more of
them, so why should we object? On
the contrary, we feel obliged to scy:
do it some more! Perhaps next time
you may bring us twice eleven readers i
A LETTER TO THE EDITOR.
Recently at a dinner given in New
York by tho National Mfg. Ass. of
which F. P. Fish is president, T. V.
O'Connor and George L. Berry accepted
tho invitation and were present. They
were discussing the recent strikes, and
when it came to breaking contracts,
which they claim the printers and the
longshormen broke, Robert Ely, secre
tary of tho club proposed three cheers
for the labor union lenders who be
lieve that a continct is a contract acd
that there is only one thinir to do
with it, to live up to it. Tho wildly
enthusiastic applauso of tho twenty
two hundred diners was a glowing
tribute to the splendid work of these
two men, which culminated in a
victory over the bolshevist foreigners
and I. W. W. The next on tho pro
gram was Kerry, president of the
printers union. He said, At least
seventy per cent, of the appeals com
ing to the Int. Union today, are from
members who hnve been fined for
breaking machinery in the recont
strike. This union had 2 strikes sinco
tho war, those 2 strikes wero illegal,
and in both instnnees we joined with
tho employers in breaking them, wo
made every bolshevik go back to work,
on our conditions" (applause) (cheers
Then O'Connor, President of the
longshormen union, started to tell how
ho broke the last striko nnd how he
kiekot out altlho I. W. W. (?) and
Bolsheviks (?) from his organization I members of the I. W. W. in N. Y.
(there are 30 thousand longshormen City aloae).
Read and Remember
We do not want to see another big railroad strike.
But if by chance one should come, we should certainly
keep our weather eye fixed upon the State of Kansas.
We have hitherto called attention to the new law of that
State, prohibiting strikes. Now we observe that Gov
ernor Allen says that "the Kansas laws will be en
forced," and that in case of need he purposes to "find
out whether there is a man, or a set of men, bigger
than the laws of this State." So let someone start a
strike in the Sunflower State and see what happens.
Feb. 21st 1920.
The Publication of
THE TOILER EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET SERIES
THE CODE OF LABOR LAWS OF SOVIET RUSSIA
This Series will be of great educational value aud la intended for
the non-socialist. At the same time will bo of interest to aU workers.
Leaflot number 2 is in preparation, others wlU follw.
OROANLti FOR EDUCATION!
These leaflets will be sold praticaU7 at coBt and will deserve
a wide distribution. The demand for leaflets is large. Every workor
in mine, mill and shop should read the Code of Labor Laws of Soviot
Russia, and all the leaflets of this series.
The education of the workers in the principles of Socialism,
which alone can free them from their economic bondage, depends in
part upon YOU.
Let evory worker do his part NOW.
Order Leaflet No. 1 at above prices.
Address The Toiler.
Price announced next week.
Twelve Titles of London
Continued from page 3.
13. Nome the chief causes of human misery.
14. Name the four basic sciences.
15. Name the four classes of ideas? Explain each!
16. What great fundamental truth is ignored or
concealed by bourgeois educators t
17. Of what does the science of Biology consist?
18. What is the science of Anthropology t
19. Of what does the science of sociology consist!
20. Is proletarian education necessary? Why?
at veiy low price.
Wo have a fow titles of London, some of his best, that we are closing
out at 60c each. There are only a few of thorn and as wo are potting in a
higher priced stock of these books we will hnve no more of this cheap
edition after these are told.
Here are the titles, pick out yours
House of Prido Sea Wolfe
Adventure Faith of Men
South Sea Tales White Fang
Martin Eden Burning Daylight.
Children of the Froet Before Adam
Cruise of Snark When Ood Laughs.
Address The Toller.