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SOVIET RUSSIA'S CODE OF LABOR LAWS
THE TOILER EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET SERIES NO. 1 PRICE 60c PER HUNDRED IN ANY QUANTITIES.
124. The n.les of internal management must in
clude clear, precise and, as far as possible, exhaustive
directions in relation to
(a) The general obligations of all wage earners
(careful handling of all materials and tools, com
pliance with instructions of the managers re
garding performance of work, observance of the
fixed standard of working hours. etc.);
(b) The special duties of the wage earners of
the particular branch of industry (careful hand
ling of the fire i;. enterprises using inflammable
materials, observance of special cleanliness in
enterprises producing food products, etc.):
(c) The limits and manner of liability for
breach of the above duties mentioned above in
subdivisions "a" and "b".
125. The enforcement of the rules of internal
management in Soviet institutions is entrusted to
the responsible managers.
120. The enforcement of the rules of internal
management in industrial enterprises and establish-r-ients
(Soviet, nationalized, public or private) is en
trusted to the si If government bodies of the wage
earner (work or similar committees).
Protection of Labor
127. The protection of life, health and labor of
persons engaged in anv economic activity is entrusted
10 the labor inspection th" technical inspectors an
the representatives of sanitary inspection.
12S. Tre labor inspection is under the jurisdiction
of the People's Commissariat of Lai or and its local
branches (Departments of Lai or) ni-.d is composed
cf elected labor inspectors.
12fl. Labor inspectors shall be elected by the
Councils of Professional Unions.
Note 1. The manner of election of labor inspect
ors shall bo determined by the People's Commissariat
Note II. lii districts where there is no Council of
Trade Unions, the Local Department of Labor shall
summon :t conference of representatives of the trade
iinions which shall elect the labor inspectors.
13d Tr. performing the duties imposed upon them
concerning the protection of the lives and health of
wage earners the officers of labor inspection shall
enforce the regulations of the present Code, and
decrees, i.-truct ions, orders and other acts of the
Soviet power intended to safeguard the lives and
iiealth of the workers.
1.11. For the attainment of the purposes stated
in Section 110 the officers of labor in pection are
(a) To visit at any time of the day or night
all the industrial enterprises of their districts
and all place;; where work is carried on, as well
as the buildings provided for the woikmen by
the enterprise (rooming houses, hospitals, asylums,
baths, etc.( :
(b) To demand of the managers of enterprises
or establishments, as well as of the elective or
gans of the wage earners (works and similar com
mittees) of those enterprises or establishments in
the management of which thev are participating,
to produce all necessary books, records and in
formation: (c) To draw to the work of inspection repres
entatives of the elective organizations of employ
ee':, as we , officials of the administration
(managers superintendents, foremen, etc.);
(d) To bring before the criminal court all
violators of the regulations of the present Code,
or of the decrees, instructions, orders r.r:d other
acts of the Soviet authority intended to safe
guard the lives and health of the wage earners;
(e) To assist, the trade unions and works com
mittees iu their efforts to ameliorate the labor
condition in individual enterprises as well as in
whole branches of indnstrv.
132. The officers of labor inspection are author
ized to adopl special measures, in addition to the
measures mentioned in the preceding section for the
removal of conditions endangering the lives and
health of workmen, even if such measures have not
been provided for by any particular law or regulation,
instructions or order of the People's Commissariat of
Labor cr of the Local Department of Labor.
Note. Upon taking special mei-surcs to safe
guard tne lives and health of wage earners, as
authorized by the present section, the officers of in
spection shall immediately report to the Local De
partment of Labor, which may either approve these
Measures or reject them.
133 The scope and the forms of activity of the
organs ol' labor inspection shall be determined by
instructions and orders issued by the People's Com
missariat of Labor.
134. The enforcement of the instructions, rules
and regulations relating to safety is entrusted to
the technical inspectors.
185, The technical inspectors shall be appointed
bv the Local Departments of Labor from among
engineering specialists; these inspectors shall perform
within the teritory under their jurisdiction the duties
prescribed by Section 31 of the present Code.
136. The technical inspectors shall be guided in
their activity, besides the general regulations, by the
instructions and orders of the People's Commissariat
of Labor and by the instructions issued by the tech
nical division of the Local Department of Labor.
137. The activity of the sauitary inspection shell
determined by instructions issued by the People's
Commissariat of Health Protection in conference with
the People's Commissariat of Labor.
APPENDIX TO SECTIOX 79.
Rules Concerning Unemployed and Payment
1. An "unemployed" shall mean every citizen of
the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic sub
ject to labor duty who is registered with the local
Department of Labor Distribution as being out of
work at his vocation or at the renumeration fixed
by the propel tariff.
2. An "unemployed" shall likewise mean:
(a) Any person who has obtained employment
for a term not exceeding two weeks (Section 23
of the present Code);
(b) Any person who is temporarily employe!
outside his vocation, until ho shall obtain work
at his vocation (Sections 2!) and 30 of the present
3. ine r'gh's of. unemployed shall nst bo ex
tended (a) To persons who in violation of Sections
2, 24 and ?! of the present Code, have evaded tho
labor duty, and refused work offered to them:
(c) To persons who have wilfully quit work,
for the term specified in Section 54 of the pres
4. All persons described in Section 1 and sub
division "b" of Section 2 of these rules shall be
entitled to permanent employment (for a term ex
ceeding two weeks) at their vocations in the order
of priority determined by the list of the Department
of Labor Distribution for each vocation.
5. Persons described in Section 1 and subdivision
"b" of article 2 of these rules shall be entitled to
a subsidy from the local fund for unemployed.
0. The subsidy to unemployed provided in section
1 of the present rules shall be equal to the renumer
ation fixed by the tariff for tho group and category
on which the wage earner was assigned by the
valuation con. mission (Section 01).
Note. Tn exceptional cases the People's Commis
sariat of Labor may reduce the unemployed subsidy
to the minimum of living expenses as determined for
the district in question.
7. A wage earner employed temporarily outside of
his vocation (Subdivision "b" of Section 2) shall
reeehe a subsidy equal to the differences between
the renumeration fixed for the group and category
in which he is enrolled and his actual remuneration,
in case the latter be less than the former.
8. An unemployed who desires to avail himself of
his right to a subsidy shall apply to the local funds
for unemployed and shall present the following do
cuments: (a) his registration card from the local
Department of Labor Distribution; and (b( a
certificate of the Valuation commission showing his
assignment to a definite group and category of wage
9. Before paying the subsidy the local funds for
unemployed shall ascertain, through, the Department
of Labor Distribution and the respective trade union:
the extent of applicant's unemployment and the
causes thereof, as well as the group and category to
which he belongs.
10. The local funds for unemployed may for good
reasons, deny the application for a subsidy.
11. If an application is denied, the local fund
for unemployed "shall, within three days from tho
tiling of the'application, inform the applicant thereof.
12. The decision of the local fund for unemp
loyed mav within two weeks, be appealed from by
the interested parties to the local Department of
Labor, and the decision of the latter may be appealed
from to the District Department of Labor. The "o
ciMon of the District Department of Labor is final
and subject to no further appeal.
13. The payment of the subsidy to an unemployed
shall commence only after he has actually been laid
off and not later than after the fourth day.
14. The subsidies shall be paid from the fuud of
15. The fund of unemployment insurance shall be
(a) from obligatory payments by all enter
prises, establishments and institutions employing
(b) from fine- imposed for default in suca
'(c) from casual payments.
16 Th-i amount ant. the manner of collection ot
tho payments and fines mentioned in section 15 of
these rules shall be determined every year by a
siecial order of the People's Commissariat of Labor.
APPENDIX TO SECTION 80
Kules Concerning Labor Booklets.
1. Every citizeu of the Russian Socialist Federat
ed Soviet Republic, upon assignment to a definite
group and category (Section 62 of the present Code),
shall receive, free of charge, a labor booklet.
Note. The form of the labor booklets shall bo
worked out by the People's Commissatiat of Labor.
2. Each wage earner, on entering the employ
ment of an enterprise, establishment or institution
Comrade Veney is on the job at
E. Liverpool. Five subscriptions from
him last week proves that real REDS
nevai desert and seldom die.
J. W. llnlley sends in two subs
from the mining region of southern
Looks like the workers of the Arma
K.ans. section will hn.? a hard time
dodging the Toiler if eomrde Moore
sticks to his post ns he is. His latent
list comprises two.
new on, as long as I have any in
flnonce, I shall make it my husiness
to see to.it that you will not get away
with this high handed stuff. I'll take
care of yen papa for your own good."
So oaying she tossed her head and
sailed out of the room.
Well I'll be eternally "
vociferated her father as he pounded
tho desk with his fist.
(Continued next week)
Another literature order that deserv
es ntetntion comes from comrade Flo
dinr of Jamestown, N. Y. It includes
empolying pnid labor, shall present his labor booklet
to the management thereof, and on entering the
employment of a private individual to the latter.
Note. A eony of the labor booklet shall be kept
by the management of the enterprise, establishment,
institution or private individual by whom the wage
earner is employed.
3. AH work performed bva wage earner during
the normal working day as well as piece work or
overtime work, and .all payments received by him as
a wage earner (remuneration in money or in kind,
subsidies from the unemployment and hospital funds),
must be entered in his labor booklet.
Note. Ln the labor booklet must also be entered
the leaves of absence and sick leave of the wage
earner, as well as the fines imposed on him during
and on account of his work.
4. Each entry in the labor booklet must be dated
and signed by the person making the entry, and
also by the wage earner (if the latter is literate),
who thereby certifies the correctness of the entry.
5. The labor booklet 'hall contain:
(a) The name, surname and date of birth of
the wage earner:
(b) The name and address of the trade union
of which tho wage earner is a member;
(e) The group and category to which the wage
earner has been assigned by the valuation com
mission. 6. Upon the discharge of a wage earner, his labor
booklet shall under no circumstance be withheld
from him. Whenever an old booklet is replaced by
a new one, the former shall be left in poscssion of
the wage earner.
7. In casu a wage earner loses his labor booklet,
he shall bo proided with a new one into which
shall be copied all tho entries of the lost booklet; in
fuch a case a fee determined by the rules of in
ternal management may be charged to the wae
tamer for the new booklet.
8. A wage earnor must present his labor booklet
u.ion the request:
(a) Of the managers of the enterprise, estab
lishment er institution where he is emploved;
(b) Of the Department of Labor Distribution;
(c) Of the trade union;
(d) Of the officials of workmen's control and
of labor nrolection;
(d) Of the insurance offices or institutions
acting as such.
APPENDIX TO SECTION 5
Rules for the Determination of Disability for Work.
1. Disability for work shall be determined by an
examination of the applicant by the Bureau of Medi:
r.l Experts in urban districts, or by the provincial
insurance offices, accident insurance offices or in
stitutions acting as such.
Note. Tn case it be impossible to organize a
Bureau of Medical Experts at any insurance office,
r.ach a Burcru may be organized at the Medical
Sanitary Department of the local Soviet, provided,
however, that the said Bureau shall be guided in its
actions by tho general rules and instructions for in
2. Tho staff of the Bureau of Experts shall in
clude: (a) TTot loss than three specialists in surgery;
(b) RoT.rcser.tPtivcs of the Board of Directors
of the office;
(c) Sanitary mechanical engineers appointed by
the Board of the office;
(d) The specialists in surgery on the staff of
the Bureau bhall be recommended by the medical
sanitary department, with the consent of the Board
of Directors, preferably from among the surgeons
connected with the hospital funds, and shall be
confirmed bv a delegates' meeting of the office.
3. During tre examination of a person at the
Pureau of the Medical Commission, all persons who
have applied for the examination may be present.
4. An application for the determination of the
loss of working ability may be; made bv any person
5. Applications for examination shall be made
to tho insurance office nearest to the residence of
th? person in question
6. Examination shall take place in a special room
of the insurance office.
Note. If the person to be examined cannot be
lrougbt to the insurance office, owing to his con
dition, tho examination may take place at his
7. Every person who is to be examined at the
Bureau of Medical Experts shall be informed by the
respective insi-rnncc office of the dny and hour set
for tho examination and of the location of the section
of tho Bureau of Medical Experts where the same is
to take place.
8. The Bureau of Medical Experts may use all
methods approved by medical science for determining
disability for wrk.
9. The Bureau of Medical Experts shall keep
detailed minutes of the conference meetings, and
tho record embodying the results of the examinations
shall be signed by all members of the Bureau.
10. A per-on who has undergone an examination
Mid has been found unfit for work shall Teceive a
certificate from the Bureau of Medical Experts.
Note. A copy of the certificate shall be kept in
the files of the Bureau.
11. The records as well as the certificates shall
show whether the disability is of a permanent or
temporary ehaiacter. If the disability for work be
temporary, the record and certificate shall show the
date set for examination.
12. After tho disability for work has been
certified the proper insurance office shall inform
thereof the Department of Social Security of the
local Sox iet. stating the name, surname and address
of the person disabled, as well as the character of
the disability (whether temporary or permament).
13. The decision of the Bureau of Medical Ex
farts certifying or denying the disability of the ap
plicant may be appealed from by the interested part
ies tn the People's Commissariat of Health Protection.
14. The People's Commissariat of Health Protect
ion may cither dismis the appeal or issue an order
''or the re-examinatign of appelant by a new staff
of the Bureau of Experts.
15. The decision of the new staff of tho Bureau
of Experts shall be final and subject to no further
16. Re examinations to establish the recovery of
working abi'ity shall be conducted in the same man
ner as the f'rst examination, with the observance of
the regulations of the present article of the Code.
17. The expenses incurred in connection with tho
examination of an insured person shall be charged
to the respective insurance office. The expenses in
curred in connection with the examination of a person
not inusred shall be charged to the respective en
terprise, establishment or institution.
18. The People's Commissariat of Labor may, if
necessary, modify or amend the present rules for the
determination of disability for work.
Rules concerning payment of sick benefits (sub
tidiest to Wage Earners:
1. Even' wa.ge earner shall receive in case of
sickness a subsidy and medical aid from the local
hospital fund cf which he is a member.
Vote 1. Eeach person may be a member of only
one insurance fnnd at a time.
Note II. A person who has been ill outside tho
district of the local hospital fund ow which he is a
district of the local hospital fund of which he is a
member shal receive the subsidy from the
1aken ill. All expenses thus incurred shall be charge !
lo the hospial fund of which the particular person
is a member.
2. The sick benefits shall be paid to a member
of a hospital fund from the first day of his sickness
until the day of his recovery, with the exception of
those days during which he has worked and accord
ingly received renumeration from the enterprise,
establishment or institution where he is employed.
3. The sick benefit shall be equal to the renumer
atien fixed for a wage earner of the respective group
Note I. The group and category in which the
wage earner is enrolled shall be ascertained by tho
local hospital fund through the Department of Labor
Distribution or through the trade unions.
Note II. The subsidy for pregnant women and
those lying-in shall be fixed by special regulations of
the People's Commissariat of Labor.
Note lit. In cxceptionl cases the People's Com
missariat of Labor may reduce the subsidy to tho
minimum of living expenses as determined for the
4. Besider the subsidies, the hospital funds shall
also provide for their members free medical aid of
every kind (i'irt aid, ambulatory treatment, home
treatment, treatment in sanatorium or resorts, etc.)
Note. To secure medical aid any hospital fund
may, independently or in conjunction with other local
funds, organize and maintain its own ambulatories,
hospitals, etc., as well as enter into agreements with
individual physicians and establishments.
5. The resources of the local hospital funds
shall be derived:
(a) Fiom obligatory payments by enterprises,
establishments and institutions (Soviet, public
and private employing paid labor:
(b) From fines for delay of payments;
(s) From profits on the investments of tho
(d) From casual payments.
Note. The resources of the local hospital funds
shall be consolidated into one common fund of In
surance against sickness.
6 The amount of the payments to local hospital
funds bv enterprises, establishments and , institu itlOM
employing paid labor shall be periodically fixed by
the People's Commissariat of Labor.
Note 1 In case these obligatory payments be
not paid within the time fixed bv the local hospital
funds, thev shall be collected by the local Department
cf Labor;' moreover, in addition to the sum due, a
fine of 10 per cent, thereof shall be imposed for tho
benefit of the hospital fund.
Note II In case thc dem-v bc flu0 t0 thc fa" .
the responsible managers of the particular entcrpme,
(stablis'hment., or institution, thc fine shnll bo col
lected from the personal means of the latter.
7 The decision of the hospital funds may bo
o i pealed from within two weeks to thc Department
i f Labor. The decision of the Department of Labor
-hall be final and luibjcet to no further appeal.
8. Thc People's Commissariat of Labor may,
whenever neoesiarv, change or amend the foregoing
rules concerning sick benefits to wage earners.
(Continued from page 2.)
trouble in this berg. We'll get that kid
out of town and then forget about
him, It's romance you hnve in your
bean, and romnnce dou 't sell in the
market. It's all right in a COVCl, 'Taint
no good on the counter." Then after
ti moments reflection, "T wonder whnt
(Continued from page 1.)
Amalgamated Association may as well
hiss itself goodbye!
Tn thil late decision the Court at
tempts, andwith poor grace to justify
one of the greatest swindlers and violv
lions of law of recent times commonly
known ns the Tennessee Stenl.
This is still fresh in tho minds of
the people; how the Steel Corpora
tion forced its only formidiblc com
petitor the Tennessee Coal & Iron Co.
to the wall how thc astute Judge
Gary and Mr. Frick mado their famous
midnight ride on a special train to
you've bjen reading. Where do you Washington how they closeted Roose
r. u.tuitii I I J . ..... .. m.
von now inoy iook over tne icnncssee
Co. for something over thirty mil
"I hnve been reading a pnper thnt
Cera Smith brings tc Bchool. It is
called "The Progressive Woman," she
"1 thought so. Your yarn was too
long for vour own spinning. I don t
know what the government means by
letting such junk go thru tho mails.
Any way I'll attend to Smith's hash",
he said rlcnching his jnws.
"Not if I am awake," Olive an
swered ns sho arose to leave the office
"That is some more of the wny in
which you assert your power, but from
lions of dollars and how ,1. P. Mor
gan later said it was fully worth n
billion! Do you sec now how usoful
it is to have a well informed Judge
the head of affairs!
This outrage againrt law u,.d de
cency stunk to high heaven. And thc
Stanley commission appointed by Con-
the Steel Corporation, bad deliberative-
lv lied to a deceived Roosevelt. But
Roosevelt with his usual obstinacy
denied this but stoutly maintained
that he and the Corporation through
this gross violation of law and
brigandage had prcentcd a great
national onalmity purely imaginary
of course. You know what hnpponed to
thc Steel Corporation? Nothing! In
spite of the fact tint the Stuulcy re
port said "this unlawfully acquired
lower is a menncc to the welfare cf
In this late decision Judges McRey
nobis and Brnndeis, by some sort of
hocus-pocus were not allowed to par
ticipate; they had formerly opposed
the Corporation. Had they stood by
their past record ind been permitted
to vote the decision probably would
hnve been B tc 4 against, the Corpo
ration. Justice Day ia the minority
opinion clearly shower that this or
ganization had been organized in de
fiance of tho law, that it wns abovo
thc law, and more, that this decision
prnetienlly nullified tho Sherman Anti
Trust Lnw. And no sensiblo person
will dispute this. What in tho name of
all that is holy nro tho American
people to do, when theso infamous
organization-, are bolstered and up
hold in their power to ravish the peo
ple by a court that hold itself superior
to the will of tho people, tho authority
of Congress and is responsible to no
This most astonishing decision brings
forcibaly to mind tho famous saying
of Englnnds greatest jurist, Lord Mans
field, Lord Chief Jtntico of the Kings
who said "The law is like a spider's
web; the big flies go through, but tho
smaller ones aie caught."
gross in 1911 to " iuvestigato " this,
reported thnt those spotless angels, of Henrh during tho American Revolution,
The British Labor Movement
(Continued from page 1.)
hitt th( nltornev general of the
United States had publicly character
ized James Mnurer as a dangerous
"red." and they enjoyed n hearty
laugh when shown American news
paper clippings on the occurence.
For contrast there need only bo
mentioned I meeting in London a fow
nights ago nt which II. N P.railsfnrd
leetlMd on Parliament and Soviet in
a miiniK-r very disparaging tn the pres
ent constituional government of ling
land mid distinclv lnudntory to that
of Unssia. His romnrks were suf
firiontlv "seditious" to hnve Btined
him a 20 years jail sentence in the
United States. Here they brought
courteous attention and loud npphuwo
from a respectable middle class uu 1
lenoi who bad pnid 50 and 75 cents
for their seats. Moreover there wore
no secret service ngents present and
no scare headline in the press next
The third striking difference about
the English labor movement is the
close practical co-operation of all its
units. Adherents ot mrreront scnoois
of ecor.omic thought, left, center ami
right; and members of nil working
class organizations, whether political,
industrial or co operative, are all work
ing in himoaj which is the mott
marked contrast with the disunion of
ln tho English labor world indivi
dual differences are being buried,
group makes concession to group,
strength is increased a hundred-fold
by union. It is everywhere recognized
that the first aim of eliminating cap
italism in favor of a socialized indust
ly is common to almost all, and that
thc diffcienees between individuals
and iheso can best bc thrashed out
fter, and not before, that end is
achivied. For that reason there is
virtually no antitiarlinmentarianism
in Encriand now and labor is getting
control of the political hand in hand
with the economic field.
In domestic affairs nationalization
of basic industries, beginning with
the coal mines, is an issue which has
been taken up by the entire labor
Movement. A great campaign for state
Ownership of the mines, and control
by district nnd pit committees, "re
presentative of tho national govern
ment and the various classes of work-
era, including those engaged in the
managing, trchnicnl, commercial aim
manual processes," still goes on. Tho
campaign for this program very sim
ilar to the Pluinbplan, is now being
pressed in every section of the country,
despite the action of the recent Trad
es Union congress.
Nationalisation of the minej is only
the entering wedgo of thc broad pro
from ot industrial democracy for which
the British labor movement is work
ing. The mines come first because
conditions happen to be not! advent-
i h - in that industry, for it is
i (-cognized that in practical working
out tho socialization of the railroads
would bc oven easier. But in thc min
ing industry not only is labor most
strongly organized and progressive; it
also fncee n situation peculiarly suit
able for rndical economic change. Tho
Lloyd (leorge government has violated
tho' confidence of labor in refusing to
adopt either the letter or the spirit
uf tho roport brought it. by the com
mission of experts nppointed to in
vestigate the ramshackle and inef
ficient condition of the British min
ing induslr.r under private control, it
has also been forced by the capitalist
to withdraw a compromise bill limiting
net profits exclusive of the infamous
royalty system) to 25 cents a ton.
Now that the government tins deceived
labor and sui rendered to capital on the
coal issue, labor intends first to edu
cate the public on the facts and
merits of tne case ann scconn, to iau
such action as- may be necessary to
mnkn ihr rovcrnnient live un to its
pledges. Campaign! for thc socializa
tion of other industnes win ronow
in due course. As Frank Hodges of
the miners said at the opening mass
n.AAHno of the "mines for the nation"
campaign--"The drama opened tonight
will witness in its last act the death
of the whole capitalist system in
The spirit of direct action, in tho
ense of political strikes to coorco tho
govornment into making concessions
vhich cannot ho brought about by
uMili-imr-ntnrv ureHsiire is. however.
-..in- thing noticeable distasteful to
British labor. These tactics will "iv
hp iiMoil -u II li.st recourse. Tho EllJZlbih
workers by the millions nro getting iu
'top with socinl evolution now witn
II rapidity whi.-li fully merits on invest
igation by the judiciary committee of
the United States senate.
Meanwhile in the political field tho
labor party is daily gaining inoro ex
perience and power, instilling tho
vision of a now and better world
into the people in every section of the
country, ami preparing itself to tako
over the reins of administrative gov
ernment as the trnde unions nre pre
paring themselves to take over tho
roins of industry. Fvery municipal
election, every parliamentary byc-elcct-ion
sees a steady increase of tho labor
vote and every dny thnt goes by sees
n development of the ability of its
leaders in the fiold of honest state
craft. A general election hold tomor
row would sco labor cutting tho pres
ent huge nnd untruthful majority of
conservatives by scores. When tho
great tost does come thc results will
be a shock to thc reactionaries tho
world over and thc fight is crucial
because overthrow of thc coalition
government by labor will obviously
be followed by overthrow of capitalist
control in England.