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ONE YEAR I BUNDLE RATES . SIX MONTHS
$1.50. I $1.0 Per Hundred I 75c.
Address all mail and make all checks payable to
3207 Clark Ave., Cleveland, Ohio.
Entered as Second Class Matter, under the name of The Ohio
Socialist, February 21, 1917, at the Post Office at Cleveland, 0.,
Under Act of March 3, 1879.
EDITOR . .Elmer T. Allison
Published Weekly by The Communist Labor Party of Ohio at
Telephone: Harvard 3639.
CLEVELAND, OHIO, FRIDAY, APRIL 16th 1920.
The Leaven is Working
The hopes of those who expect the lion and the lamb to lie down peace
fully together are bound to be withered. Even in America the despair of some
revolutionists who proclaim the impossibility of American workers ever awaken
ing fc the fact of their exploitation, the red menace discontent, himger, im
possible living conditions is stalking forth upon his roiuids.
The switchmen's "unauthorized", "illegal" and "headless revolution"
brings one up with a quick jerk of realization of the facfc that all the elements
Of real working class uprisings are with us and liable to break out at any
moment. And calling the insurgents names as the capitalist press is doing
will not alter the conditions that underlie this latest revolt, nor will they
have a soothing effect upon the minds of the strikers.
Five years of world-wide destruction of lifo, property, wealth of all
descriptions has rendered the capitalist machine of government and production
incapable of working to the satisfaction of the world's workers. It is breaking
down, incapable of feeding, housing and clothing the inhabitants. All the
world's in turmoil, nowhere is there a sign of coming peace and a basis upon
which human life may continue its existence nowhere lut in Socialist Eussia,
which is solving the problems of production by first eliminating the exploiters
of the masses.
The switchmen's strike contains in it all the elemental characteristics of
a revolution. At the bottom lie insufficient incomes to enable the workers
to live. They have tried all ' legal" methods to increase their wages. Failure
has resulted. The machinery which they have heretofore functioned thru
the craft unions, now prove utterly incapable of securing to the members a
livelihood. The weapon which has heretofore beeu used in a redress of grieve
iences utterly fails in the hour of crisis. The wise ones among the rank and
file see:' ig its uselessness discard it. And here developes another characteristic
of revolutions the rank and file seize authority. Along with the former
weapon is also discarded the conservative officials of the union. Power aud
authority are seized by tha rank and file. They take their destiny into their
own hands. All authority save their own is cast away. The stage is now
leached where the fight Is on between the t evolutionists and consevatives for
A further development along lines followed by revolutions is apparent.
The union officials, feeling their power slipping from them, go over to their
historic enemy in this case call upon their exploiters and the capitalist State
for assistance in putting down the revolt. The union heads deserve the brand of
Cain for this traitorous act to Labor. Nothing conld illumine more brightly
than this infamous act the supliant and renegade character of old line, conser
vatie trade unionism. For years the A. F. of L. brand of unionism has been
disintegrating. The loss of the steel and coal strikes have filled the workers
with discontent and hava convinced them of the futility of craft unionism.
More than one rebellion has broken out against the union officials who are
straining every nerve to keep the rank and file in leash. The rank and file
are demanding a new doa. and a clean deck.
To what extend the switchmen's strike will spread cannot be determined
at this time. It has already paralyzed industry in many cities and adherents
ire walking on: in increasing numbers. Meanwhile, the "regular" officials are
crying frantically for "loyalty" on the part of the membership and seeking
aa alliance with the capitalist State aud the railroad owners to assist them in
breaking this revolt of the masses against an impossible economic condition
and an outgrown form of labor unionism.
Whatever be the results from a material standpoint, it will have a
tremenduous educational effect upon Ubor. America seems on the verge of that
condition which logins with spasmodic bubblings of discontent and ends
-n victory of the workers.
EDITORIAL & PARTY NEWS PAGE
In Orderly Sequence
We are afforded a glan:e at a late development of the class struggle
in the local laudscapp. Behold a picked group of Cleveland city police at target
practice with machine guns! A new thing indeed. Eows of railroad ties stood
on end, trees, answer for targotF. A veteran of the World Massacre is In
charge. The suburban atmosphere is charged with all the smells and noise of
battle tho no blood flows as yet
Such a phenomena raises numerous questions in the mind of the curious.
Indeed, since the war to end war was fought and wou with such overwhelming
success and suffering humanity cries for peace and a beating of swords into
plowshares it IS a curious thing to see a police squad training in the use of
the latest murder dovises. Are 18 inch clubs and automatics insufficient to
keep order In a Christian nation which has just concluded a victorious war
for Democracy and Bighteousness?
The answer is furnished by the police themselves. After one such de
monstration of the arts of war, a question from a spectator as to "What's the
grand idea," the .mswer was givou, "We expect a lot of troublo on May Day'."
Such an act of self delusion can be precipated by only one thing fear
of I just retribution. Machine guns follow in logical sequence the course
that has baen followed by the capitalist dictatorship in its treatment of
Cleveland workers. Time was when worker-citizens ot Cleveland legally olected
two conncilmen and a member of tho school board to represent them in tho
governing of the city. Soon after, they were useated at the behest of the pro
fiteers and political poltroons who infest tho city hall and the Chamber
Having ruled out of office tho representatives of the workers, steps were
immediately taken to see that no moro were allowed to enter the sacred pro
cints of the governing body of the bourgeoise State. Having nullified the work
ers' franchise it was arranged to disfranchise them completely. The political
party of the workers was set upon by as conscienceless a crew of pirates as
ever cut a throat or throttled justice. After eighteen months of unremitting
terrorism, raids, searches, unlawful seizures, persecutionn, arrests, spying,
insults, destruction of thousands of dollars worth of property, we find the task
about complete. The workers of Cleveland ABE dts'ranchlsed insofar as useing
their ballot in the interest of their own class. They can neither write, speak nor voto
as free men, but must comport themselves at all times and places in conform-
Proletarian Science History
By W. E. REYNOLDS.
An economic interpretation of history especially arrarged for use as a
text-book for study classes, or for home study.
Copyright 1920. By W. E R.
OUTLINE CHART FOR AGE OF LOWER SAVAOERY.
Rerinninr Unknown except through Geological, Archeolo-
g gical and Biogenetic research.
Tools and Weapons ...Sticks and stones.
Transportation Now, except natural locomotion.
Subsistence Fruits, nuts, raw fish and shell-fish, edible roots,
bark, worm-, grasshoppers, locusts and other
Shelter Natural shelter only, such as trees, ledges,
Environment Tropical and Semi-Tropical climate. Tree life.
Changes caused bv geologic phenomena. Natural
Organization No conscious organization. No family life. Greg
Arts and Institutions. Sun and ghost dances. Germs of nature worship
Duration An immense period of time, variously estim
ated. Probably millions of yean,
A Scientific Interpretation of Historical Epochs.
The epoch of Savagery is divided into throe ages,
liOwer, Middle and Upper.
Lower age: This dates from unknown antiquity.
The first men had no history except as animals
have history, and left no history except such as may be
read from the record of the rocks, wherein we find tho
bones of early main and the animals he had eaten or by
whom he had been eaten, Prior to the advent of modern
science, hut little could ho known of this remote aa;e.
Today, thanks to the development of the sciences of
biology, zoology and archaeology, the story of the past
is slowly but successfully being retraced.' )
HaeOkol) says that "The ontogeny of the in
dividual recapitulates the phylogeny of the race."
The term ontogeny means the development of the
individual from inception to death. Phylogeny means
the development of the race from protozoa to man.
The Law of Biogenesis teaches us that in its de
velopment from the parental cell to maturity, each in
dividual passes trough all the stages through which its
race has passed in its evolution from the primordial
protozoa to the present time.
A typical illustration of this law is to he found in
tho destructiveness of children. A stick in the hands of
a small child, instantly becomes a club wielded for de
structive purposes, as many a household pet can testify.
A stono to a small boy is merely an excelent something
to throw regardless whether the object aimed at is ti
window, a bird, a dog, a cat or a playmate. The reason
for those activities is to be found in the fact that sticks
and stones were man's first tools.
In the lower age of savagery the chief desires of
man were to satisfy hunger, keep warm, and out-wit the
A study of the skulls of men of this age shows that
in thought and action they were brute-like.)
The tools of lower savagery were sticks and stones;
tho shelter, trees and caves, (natural shelter only as man
had not vet learned to hnild). No clothing was worn.
Mankind at this period was just a gregarious hot do
of human animals living on worms, locusts,) grass
hoppers, fish, shellfish, fruits, nuts and succulent roots.
Man in the age of lower savagery, had few words,
little communication of ideas, and these mostly by
sounds, signs and gestures. He was almost entirely at the
mercy of the hostile forces of nature.
Savagery may be defined as that period of human
history dating from the time man first assumed an up
right posture to the time of the development of the arts
of agriculture and potteiy-making. Tt marked the begin
ning of minn's conscious mastery of the hostile forces of
Man's first great achievement was the development
of his ability to stand erect, which gave him the free use
of bis front feet to use tools and carry burdens. Tt is main
tained by some scientists! that the ability to stand erect
and to use tools brought him in more intimate contact
with a variety of objects, thus necessitating the coining
of words to distinguish one from another, hence the
development of articulate speech is sychronous with the
development of tool?.
ity with the will of the capitalist class expressed by rules laid down by tho
poUce and the Loyal American League, who are the agents of the bourgooise.
Retching the present stage, what is the next step which must logically
be taken if the workers are to be kept in submission? Since force has proved
to be the magic wand to randor subject the slaves of capital, why not accent
uate its uso and influonce? And, since discontent is eveu more rife today, than
previously among the slaves the machine ;un suggests ltsolt.
. . . ' Tis true, we anticipate to Immediate use of tt. Considering present
circumstances we can't imagine any use for machine guns, nor even a "hiUy"
on May Day. Tho daily press informs us that May 1st will be celebrated as
American Day. Being such, we presume that the Declaration of Independence
and tbe Constitution and the various Amendments will be read and considered
deeply and prayorrnlly by every straight thinking dwoller of Cleveland. We re
commend that they do so. Esporlally do we recommend that each inhabitant
"learn by .Wrt" th first Amendment and tnke It as a rule of his political
and civil life.
Should these suggestions bo followed In the administration of city affairs
and ALL Its inhabitants adhere strictly thereto, we are positive that the bitter
mouths of machine guns would bo closed with mst. That would mean the
peaceful passing of the capitalist dictatorship -but history teaches that no
ruling class ever passes from power except thru a sea of blood of Its own
The elemental form; of language may be traced to
the animal world. The warning cry of the cock upon
sight of a hawk may be distinguished by any one from
the call he uses to notify his harem of the discovery of
another fat worm. The purr of a cat is readily dis
tinguished from its nocturnal loveeAng,
The language of animasl may be said to be vocalized
expression of mental reactions to definite facts in its
environment that may affect the individual for weal or
woe. Human language differs from the language of other
animals in this; it has evolved definite sounds for de
finite things, while animal language has certain sounds
for various emotions. A dog howls, whines or bark
according to his mood.
Human language began in the lower age of savagery,
evolving from sign and gesture language, and marks the
vsccond great achievement of man. Without language as
a vehicle of expression no high order of thought is pos
sible. No high order of language is possible without a
high order of social development. The vocabularly of all
savage tribes is very limited.
Thought is a mental reaction to experience. Man can
not articulate that which he has not experienced, hence
it follows that the greater the social experience the
more ample the individual vocabulary. Tho vocabulary
of this early age was limited for the reason that the
racial experience was limited.
Man in lower savagery had no conscious social or
ganization. During this age the faint beginning of a
primitive marriage system developed out of promiscuity.
Rudimentary forms of religion also developed in the
form of Sun dances and kindred nerve-reactions.
Primitive religions rose from the nerve-reaction
which primitiv man experienced at the coming of the
dawn. To tree-dwelling man the night was a time
of terror. Large poisonous reptiles glided noiselessly
trhough th trees and monstrous camivora prowded along
the ground. To escape being crashed by the one often
meant being crunched by the other enemy. It was thus
ihat the night was a time of continuous' nerve tension
which was suddenly released at tho coming of the light,
manifesting itself bv shouting and dancing, for now the
enemies were visible and could be the more easily eluded.
Modern religions still describe evil as darkness and good
This age of human history closes with the discover"
of the utility of fire.
) "Tho Men of the 01,1 Stone Ape" by Venry Fairfield Osborne
See also. The Stono Ago in North America, by Warren K. Moorehead.
(2 vol. 1910).
) "Riddle of the Universe."
) The reader is referred fro an exeellen work on the Riogonetie
Law by Professor J. Howard Moore, entitled, "The Law of Hio"encsis "
) Huxley's "Man's Place in Nature."
) "Tlis meat was locusts and wild honey. "Bible.
"Professor Garner in "Researches on African Apes."
QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER POUR.
1. What is meant by the term savagery!
2. What is meant by the lower ago of savage -yf
3. Name the duration of lower age of savagery.'
4. What sciences teach ns of the history of early man!
5. What is meant by the terms, archeology, geology, bioloev?
antogeny! philogcny? 6 J' w
6. Who was Tfaeckelf
7. What is the Law of Biogenesis?
8. Show by illustration, other than the text, vour concent of the
biogenetic law. 1
9. What were man's first, tools!
10. What we.s the chief desires of primitive man!
11, Name the foods of primitive man.
J2- Wha' were tho primitive styles in clothes!
13. How did primitive man communicate his ideas!
14. What was man's first achievement! Second!
15. What is thought
lfi. What influence upon the expression of thought may be traced
to the uso of tools .'
17. Have animals any form of language?
18. Give illustrations, other than the text, of animal language
IV. What causes language to grow?
20. Kxplnin the social organization of lower savagery.
(Continued next week)
The Lesson of Albany
Walter B. Dillon
There is much food for thought for
all Communists In not only the r-snit
of the investigation that took place at
polled from the legislature at A41bany
vr. elected to office bv the votes
of l rndreds. norhans thousands, of
., but the actual testi-: those who at the time wcro members
Statements made bv the'or svronath
defendant Socialists. In fact, wo ns
ommunist workers are far moro in-
Party, but who aro now Communists
or Communist Labor in affiliation or
terested in the attitude adopted by sympathy. Where are we going to
the defense at Albany than we need
be in the result of the whole farce.
U this point, however, in view of
the fnet that this is a presidential
year, wo must look the matter fairly
In the face from a purely political
angle also. We aro vitally interested in!
the outcome of this legislative tangle,
first, ns showing the limits to which
( :i:iitu! is prepared to go to dominate
stand when the afield test is nut
to the electorate of theso assembly
districts again? That is what we must
Prom all indications we are not
going to be allowed to place a Com
munist Labor ticket n the field and
through such a ticket exercise
right of franchise, If not, t.hould
voto for the Socialists whom we know
me stare an,, lecond, as den, twt be about as valuable to the work
concus.vcy rne HupucitV, ,lo.Jng class and as powerful in
pnviiy nmt utter wortiilossness of. :,.,.,., nJ vwt ; n
. ... in i in in ur
and utter worthlcssncs
-uch loaders" nf Socialism as Kill-
ejnit, Stedman, et i),
There nre very few of us, perhaps,
who needed the developments at ai
buy to prove the fad! tscarlot mi
tun of the Socialist lartv to the work
rensky In Russia! For myself, I most
respectfully decline to waste my time
voting for puppets of the bourgooise,
but I am not sure that such is the
attitude of nil of us. Neither am I
suro that to leave tho tiaht nm.n
as the partv Is ronresentcd h,bttwew tho cohorts of Cnpitnl on the
such nun as Hlllqutt, Stedman, WtMiww BM" flml ' niiddlo class reform
man nnd mnny others of their ilk. "m a represented by the Socialists
Mat to thousands of good nnd loyal on ",0 "'her hand, would lie conducive
Socialists who chose to remain with
the old party rather than split awi .
such a lesson was absolutely essential
to demonstrate the close affinity of
Mich socallcd Socialists to the Kerens
kvs, Schcideinanns, Nnskes, Fbcrts
end Thomases of Europe. Let us hope
t at the Icon was not lost on our
honest comrades of tbe Socialist i'arty.
From a purely political angle, how
ewer, we nre much more interested. It
is a fnet that the men who were ex-
to tho best interests of tho workers
In tho long run, of course, tho reaction
will set in nnd wo will logically take
our places at tho helm, but we should
not stand aside and let tho Socialists
be crushed if by enving tbeir skins
wo can prevent a great deal of suf
fering by tho ontiro working calss.
It is certain that in tho evont that
I ho Socinlist Part) is wiped off tho
slate ns well us ourselves, there will
(Continued on page 4.)