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Socialist, February 21, 1917, at the Post Office at Cleveland, 0.,
Under Act of March 3, 1879.
EDITOR .Elmer T. Allison
Published Weekly by The Communist Labor Party of Ohio at
Telephone: Harvard 3639.
CLEVELAND, OHIO, FRIDAY, APRIL 30th 1920
Another Straw Man Down.
Socialists are familiar viht certain objections made to Socialism to the
effect that if the ownership rind control of industry were taken out of present
capitalist hands and placed under control of the workers, they would imme
diately settle into a state of inefficiency, laziness and general sloth. The as
sumption being that unless a man is exploited of a great part of his products
he will cease to feel an inceutivo to work.
Socialists are no longer constrained to reply to such objections except to
cite the case of Russia.
Russian workers, after routing the counter revolutionaries under Denikin
and Kolchak, in the first woeks of the reorganization of Russia's life and
industry established the eight hour day as the basic workday. But so great
was Russia's need in the beginning of her reconstruction period that the
workers are volunteering to work twelve hours without extra pay. The Allied
blockade of Russia is still on. Trade with the outside world is prohibited by
the shortsighted politicians who rale by the right of capital in America and
Europe. In order to fill their needs under these circumstances the Socialist
workers are willing to do what they would never have consented to under
the regime of the Czar, They are lending their wills and their strength for
the rebuilding of their industries.
While American railroad workers are waging a fight against their ex
ploiters for a little higher wage, the Russian railroader is volunteering foor
extra hours work a day for tho sake of putting the railways in the best of
condition. Workers in the railway material production plants are establishing
new records each month in the amount of products turned out. So in other
Industries. All workers are shouldering the responsibility of work for they
realize that only increased production can avert the destruction which the
Allied governments are attempting to bring down upon them by the most
damnable blockade of history.
Russia is answering the objections to Socialism in object lessons that
EDITORIAL & PARTY NEWS PAGE
Some Emigration Facts.
We have so much Democracy in America that the inhabitamts are getting
away from it is fast as possible. At least the emigration statistics seem to
indicate they are. For the five months ending last November 126.000 persons
left the country while only 19.000 entered here. While figures for the months
since then are incomplete there are to indications of a let up in the rate
of emigration over immigration. It is claimed that a million and a quarter
people are preparing to emigrate from these democratic shores at the earliest
possible moment. Steamship lines have their passenger lists filled for months
Another interesting fact about this situation is that the percentage of
women over men arriving here and the reverse it regard to those leaving is
very large. The authorities claim that nearly three women to one man are
arriving. The European countries are encourageing the emmigratlon of women
while man power is retaired by stringent emigration laws. Europe's economic
condition is such that any but actual producers are regarded as so much ox
cess baggage. While the percentage of men leaving America over women is
not so great it is very large. If the present rates continue we shall soon have
a preponderence of women over men with a dwindling population to boot.
Probably the greatest exodus whicn has ever occured in this country will
take place within the first year after trade is resumed with Russia. Not of
Russians alone, thousands feel drawn toward Russia and would gladly assist
her in the rebuilding of her Industry under Socialism. Russia presents the
spectacle of a vast social experiment. Every revolutionist feels the lure of her.
She stands to become the Mecca of world travellers in the immediate future,
as well as that of oppressed peoples everywhere.
In the meantime tho rays from he Statue of Liberty reach OUTWAED!
Rents and Capital.
I am a clerk in the office of the and I find myself in a hard
row of stumps sometimes for lack of information. The other day an
argument came up as to the justice of RENTS. I iook the stand
against them for the roason that the income was not "earned" by
the recipient. Of COURSE everyone in the office called me Bol
shevik and everything. Now, will you let me know how the Com
munists stand on the Bent Problem.
Another Argument: if Capital is abolished (if you really mean to
abolish Capital Itself along with the Capitalists) where will the in
itiative come from to shove industry out along new lines and develep
menta? I am in a quandary in this respect. Would the people have
to wait on a slow government before they could have improvements
or would you allow a mild form of Capitalism by permltlng a limited
dividend, say 5 or 0 per cent?
- A White Collar Rebel.
Proletarian Science History
An economic interpretation of history especially arranged for use as a
text-book for study classes, or for home study.
By W. E. REYNOLDS.
Copyright 1920. By W. E E.
OUTLINE FOR UPPER SAVAGERY.
Beginning Invention of the bow and arrow.
Tools and Weapons . . .Bow and arrow, improved spears, stono and fire-
bunt tips, cutting tools of hard and polished
Transportation Natural locomotion dugout canoes later, bark
and skin canoes.
Subsistence Cooked flesh, including tho larger animals and
fowls. Cooked foods, fish, dried meats. Mixed
Shelter C:;,es, skin tents, huts of various kinds.
Clothing More general use of skins. Beginning of orna
mental clothing of woven fabric.
Environment Migration to cooler micltaes, along shores of
Organization Gens developed and perfected. Punaluan family.
No religious organization. First appearance of
the medicine man.
Arts and Institutions. .Primitive picture writing, weaving and pottery
making. Duration Shorter than middle savagery.
The third age of human history is known as the age
of upper savagery and dates from the invention of the
bow and arrow.
We have no definite record of the invention of the
bow and arrow, neither do we know what were the
special circumstances that made its invention necessary.
The general circumstances are evident. The nautral
operation of the law of fecundity, increasing the popula
tion to numbers in excess of the available food supply,
compelled mankind to invent weapons with which to kill
larger game. As larger game was more elusive and often
more dangerous to the life of man, a weapon was neces
sary with which man could strike at a distance. The bow
and arrow was the result of this necessity.
Tyler) maintains that the throwing of the spear
suggested the bow and arrow. Anyone who has followed
an amateur woodsman over a trial heavily overhung with
branches, has probably had first hand information of the
power which these branches manifest when strongly bent
in one direction and then suddenly released. It may be
that such an' experience first suggested the idea of the
bow. The arrow was simply a spear adapted hi size to
the capacity of the bow.
Fire-burnt tips for arrows and spears grew out of
the utility of five. Experience demonstrated that charred
wood had greater resistance than other wood and hence
was use! for cutting and stabbing purposes. Hard stone
was used for a similar reason.
It was minis age of human history that the dug-out
canoe evolved from a fire-burnt log, to be followed later
by an artificial log made of bark. In some localities dur
ing the latter part of upper savagery skins began to be
used for canoe-making.
Land transportation was still natural locomotion
only, with woman as the beast of burden.
The use of the bow and arrow added to man's diet
his products pass from his hands to the capitalist landlord to him rents
mean exploitation and tobbery.
Accepting as a definition of justness of ronts that they must be actually
produced by the possessor to be justly possessed, which is in line with tho
viewpoint of rlass conscious workers, we must inquire into the nature of rents
and loam just what they are.
Land is not the product of human labor hut a common heritage of man
kind. All original titles to land rest upon conquest and theft. Rent is not
"earned" by the landlord but by him who tills the soil. Bent is a form of
exploitation. Tho owner owns ami rents to another for the purpose of reaping
a financial reward thru this form of exploitation. The renter is tho victim
of legalized theft. Simply by tho process of legal ownership, landlords nro
able to exact a toll from their less fortunate fellows for the use of mankind 'a
common heritage. Kents arc imposts upon production based upon privilege.
Workingmcn nsually attempt to arrive at the justness of a social problem
by looking at it from the viewpoint of the profit taking class. This is ap
parent in their acquioscenco in the wages system which has been made legal
with their consent. If they wcr6 class conscious they would view all soeinl
question in the same way that the capitalists do--from the viewpoint of their
own economic interests.
ARE RENTS JUST?
Socialist economists agree that tho capitalist system is based upon throe
forms of exploitation, ront interest and profit. Abolish these three and the
capitalist system collapses.
Justice is a relative tern, depending for its definition npon the viow
point of the individw. this viewpoint being colorod by his cconomio interests
Tho justness of ronta thcroforo rests upon the answer to tho question do
they or do they not servo the interests of the particular person or dnis in
quostionf The capitalist reaps a financial roward (unearnod) from rents. To
bim rents are just and sanctioned by God and law. The renter (exploited) sors
WILL COMMUNISM ABOLISH CAPITAL?
What is capital! Capital is that portion of wca'h 7hich the race has
accumnlated over and above its needs thruout tho ages which is usod in the
production of more wealth. To mention a few of its forms. Cleared and developed
lande) farms, cities, dovebped mines, improved harbors and rivers, all the
machinery of production and distribution. These nre capital, necessary mcaii-t
of producing tho necessities of the raco in cither the Socialist or Capitalist
Communists have no intention of abolishing capital. We could not if w.'
would, tho law of self preservation would intervene to provent it.
As to where would arise the initiative to pursue a courso that would
increase tho happiness and welfare of the race thru increased productivity
Tho initiative would bo far g.-cator under Communism than under Capitalism.
For whoroas now industrial development must await the guarantee of n profi:
to tho capitalist promoters, undor Communism the benefit being a direct on)
to tho workors, they would havo tho greater incontivo to dovelop industry.
Communism has answorcd this question in Russia today. Faced with a demoral
ization of industry unparrallod in history tho Communist workers of Russia
are volutarially giving their best for reconstruction. Knowing tl.nt all that
is produced bolongs to tho producers, they find all necessary incentive to
profound achievomor.ts unequalled iu capitalist controlled nations.
Communism completely inaugurated docs away with even tho smallest
amount of exploitation and cnpitalist profit. During the period of transition
Communist govornraonti may under certain conditions be forced in tho inter
est of reconstruction to render profits to capitnlist concerns) but only os
Communism, once established completely wipes out the last vestige of all
slavo and class societies. Communism will abolish tho capitalist but not
the flesh of larger animals and fowls. Animals whioh
hitherto had been too swift or too dangerous for him to
attack, now became his easy prey.
The use of the bow and arrow was also a large factor
in establishing primitive democracy as the man equip
ped with a bow and arrow was more than a match for
the strong-arm bullv armed with onlv a spear or a
The ability to kill larger game compelled mankind
io solve two other problems, the problem of the preserva
tion of the meat and also the preservation of the hide.
Here is the cradle of economics, as economics is the
science of management. Both of these problems were
solved in a primitive-way by the same method by dry
ing. As drying was difficult in a wet climate artificial
heat was resorted to, which gave origin to smoke cured
meats. Here as in all departments of economics necessity
was over the mother of invention.
Hunting and fighting were the chief occupation of
upper savagery, and for a game seeking population,
tanned skins greatly simplified the problem of shelter.
The tent is ever the shelter of the nomad.)
Tanned skins made possible a sort of primitive camou
flage which enabled the savage to approach within kil
ing range of game. Wild grasses were also worn as a
camouflage while stalking game. This led to the idea of
ornamentation which evolved the idea of dress. The use
of wild grass while stalking game, logically led to the
art of weaving, braided or woven grass being more easily
carried or worn than loose wisps of hay.)
With the protection against the elements afforded
by fire, and tanned skins life in colder climates wat
made endurable. The course of migration generally fol
lowed the streams and game and fruit bearing forests.
It was the bow and arrow that emancipated man from
forest life and gave him the freedom of the plains. This
gave man a wider range, a wider vision, and correspond
ingly multiplied his problems.
The first .step in domestic organization was the Con
sanguine Family which means a family based upon ties
of blood relationship. It is the lower form of group mar
riage, having as its chief characteristics female suprem
acy and descent.
The next step towards the formation of the family
appears in the higher form of group marriage known as
the Pnnaluan Family. This form of group marriage was
so organized as to bar cohabitation of the first of kin.
Female supremacy and descent still customary.
It was during this age of history that the priest
made his first appearance in the form of the tribal
The desire on the part of the primitive for an explana
tion of phenomena gave rise to an opportunity for the
medicine man to substitute his imagination for the lack
of knowledge on the part of his fellows. The medicine
man quickly discovered that by using his imagination he
need not use his muscle and yet have first fruits of the
season and the fattest of the flock.
The foremost arts of this age were crude picture
writing and weaving of crude baskets and clothing. The
imitative faculty of man early evolved a crude art in
The duration of upper savagery was much shorter
than the middle age of savagery and ended with the in
vention of the art of pottery-making which is a further
development of the art of basket-weaving.
The primitive epoch of human history is divided
into three grand divisions, the lower, middle and upper
ages of savagery. (
Lower savagery dates from unknown antiquity.
Middle savagery dates from the discovery of the
utility of fire.
Upper savagery dates from the invention of the bow
and arrow and ends with the invention of the art of
QUE3TIONS TOE CHAPTER SIX.
What great invention marked the boginning of upper savagery?
Name tho economic causes making this invontion imperative.
Why wero spear and arrow tips f ire-charred!
Name tho methods of locomotion of this age.
Name somo of the animals which the bow mado available
as food. , .
Flow did tho bow and nrrow affect primitive democracy
What is meant by the term "economics"!
Name two great economic problems resulting from invontion of
bow and nrrow.
Name the uses of tanned skins in upper savagery.
What wns tho probable cause of the discovery of the art of
Name tho factors which made the habitation of colder climates
What was the first step in domestic organization!
Defir.e the term Consanguine. Punalnon.
Explain tho difference between tho two forms of group marriage.
Who was tho fore-runner of tho priest!
Wns the "modlcinc-mnn" a product of necessity
Rxpltia the origin of picture writing.
What is meant by female si pre.mae.y and descentf
Name the foremost nrts of this age of history.
What invontion marked the closo of savagery!
) Tho student is referred to page 1926 of Edward B. Tylor's
) The franmrs of tho American Constitution were cognizant of
this fact. "Tho right of the pooplo to boar arms shall not be deniod."
U. S. Constitution.
) Tho tent has ever hern tho shelter of tho nomad thruout
the ngos, but m the age of modern industry a new form of nomad
arises, the army of the unemployed, and these in their nomadic waudor
ings usually seek tne shelter of the modem box-ear.
) Tho names of mnnv of tho American Indians are said to havo
hud tlnir origin in the kind of nklns they wore while stalking game. Such
nnmcs ns Sitting Hull, Standing Honr, 1.oue Wdf, Spotted Klk are
Tho idea of ornnmcntntkvc dross may have had its origin in the
boastful egotism of the savage, strutting 'eforo his follows in hit
ncossful camouflage after tho kill.
(Continuod next week.)