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The toiler. (Cleveland, Ohio) 1919-1922, May 14, 1920, Image 3

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The Toiler
ONE YEAR i BUNDLE RATES SIX MONTHS
$1.50. I $1.00 Per Hundred I 75c.
Address all mail and make all checks parable to
THE TOILER
3207 Clark Ave., Cleveland, Ohio.
Entered as Second Class Matter, under the name of The Ohio
Socialist, February 21, 1917, at the Post Office at Cleveland, 0.,
t Under Act of March 3, 1879.
EDITOR ... .Elmer T. Allison
Published Weekly by The Communist Labor Party of Ohio at
Cleveland, Ohio.
Telephone: Harvard 3639.
CLEVELAND, OHIO, FRIDAY, MAY 14th, 1920.
Secretary Wilson's Ruling.
The ruling of Secretary of Labor Wilson, that membership in the Com
mnnist Labor Party does not constitute in itself grounds for deportation, and
that the advocacy of mass action, proletarian dictatorship ( shop committees and
Communism are legal unless accompmied by the advocacy of force and
violence in instituting them, co'iies somewhat as a surprise to communists
generally.
Since the January raids upon radicals cf all hues the exact legal status
of the Communist Labor Party has been in doubt. Soon after the raids were
instituted, Secretary Wilson ruled that membership in the Communist Party
constituted sufficient grounds lor deportation cf alien members and some
were deported and others indicted. It was only natural considering the simi
larity of the principle of the two paities that a like fate awaited
the alien members of the Communist Labor Party. That the adherents
of Attorney General Palmer and nis methods should sharply disagree
with the conclusions of the Secretary of Labor would be expected
since it is known th:.t there have developed radical differences of policy be
tween them. Naturally enough the Palraerites are peeved at the ruling. Ap
parently Paimer and his fellows r.rc slated for the scrap heap.
What is beneath and behind the ruling of Secretary Wilson is not just
now apparent. Communists have too much sense ;ind knowledge of capitalism
and capitalist governments to assume that the decision however favorable to
them, is based either upon a sense of justice residing within the Secretary's
breast or upon a liberal conception of the fundamentals of American law and
constitutional guaraitieo. Communists and Communist Lahorites have stoutly
disclaimed any fundamental differences in principle between them tho read
ily admitting differences in tactics and internal organization. If Secretary
Wilson has discovered vital differences perhaps he is to be congratulated upon
his diligent researches. It is slid that the Almighty moves in mysterious ways
his wonders to perform. So it is with po?iticians. We must leave the future to
reveal WHY Mr. Wilson discovers what all Communists have claimed that
we are legal and within the law in the statements of our Platform and Pro
gran methods and tactics.
What Communist Labor Prtyitcs are concerned with however, is not
the why nor wherefore of Mr. Wilsor's ruling which is far reaching Indeed
placing our Party as it does in a perfectly legal position as regards political
activities. We know that "Constitutional guarantees" in so far as the work
ers are concerned under capitalism are not guarantees at all but merely
liberties loaned to them only so long as they use them in tho interests of
the capitalist class. It must be admitted that the capitalist class is in a
quandary in the crisis which they are faced with. They have played the game
of repression and have failed utterly in stamping out the reds. If the pen
dulum should swing to the apposite extreme and a measure of liberty be re
stored it should astonish nc one.
Of vital importance to the Communist Labor Party vrill be the readiness
and vigor with which they accept the definition of Secretary Wilson and
push with all the force at their cocimand the upbuilding of the organization.
It is safe to assert that, that which could not be destroyed by the repressions and
intimidations of Palmer ami his agents and inquisitors must flourish with even
a modicum of liberty of action. The January assaults were calculated to
utterly destroy Communism in tii3 country. How futile have been the efforts
of tho capitalist hangmen can bo known only to those very close to the Com
munist movement. Wo have lost libcio whiio many times tho loss has been
gained in experionce, in knowledge of revolutionary tactics and methods The
Oommuiist Movemont is so well established in this country that it fear-i
nothing from whatever forms of repression capitalism may attompt to heap
opon it. At the same time it trf prepared to take full advantage of ovcry op
portunity to function politically. If the ruling of Secretary Wilson is genuine,
and we must assume that it is, our duty lies open before us. Nothinr less
than political activity (participation in elections) should satisfy us not bo
cause we have a sublime faith in it as a weapon to ACCOMPLISH our aims
but for the opportunity political campaigns afford us to propagate our ideas
and to establish a close contact with the masses. At tho same time the up
building of our shop committees must proceed with all possible vigor.
These then are the duties which the prcsont days lay open betore us As
we fulfill them shall we bo judged by our Movomeut. Every Communist Jicn to
his task. ALL POWER TO THE WO It KERB!
EDITORIAL & PARTY NEWS PAGE
COMMUNIST UNITY
The question of unity of the Communist Labor Party and the minority
factiou of tho Communist Party which split away from the C. P. recontly, con
fronts us. While it is tme that the members of the two divisions Of the 0. P.
havo not wholly decided their affiliations and probably will not at once, in fact
some groups have decided to remain neutral for a time, oventually the mattei
of unity with the Communist Labor Party will become a pressing one with at
least the minority factiou.
Up to tho time of tho occurrence of the C. P. split unity negotiations
hAd been in progress but only a miuorityof the 0. P. officials had held out
genuinely for unity. Unity of tho 0. L. P. and tho minority faction of the 0. P.
'.s now not only a near possibility but a promising development.
A foregone conclusion resulting from such unity would be a tremendous
strengthening of the Communist Movement hero. Since the three-way split at
Chicago last September thousands of rial revolutionists have held aloof from
affiliation with any party abiding the time when they :. ..id adjust their dif
ferences and mute. Unity of these two revolutionary groups would draw these
workors at once into the ranks again aud thus place at the disposal of the
movement the energiea) ontburlnsm and support of these earneat comrades.
Another development and source of strength for a united Communist
Movement is seen in the new "left wing" which has developed again In the
Socialist Party since left wing elements were cast out of it last September.
That a near resemblance to the situation of last summer again exists within
tho S. P. li apparent to even the cauiual observer. The reactionary and com
promising tactics of the S. P. officials at Albany in seeking to retain their
Proletarian Science History
An economic interpretation of history especially arranged for use as a
text-book for study classes, or for home study.
By W. E. REYNOLDS.
Copyright 1920. By W. E R.
OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER EIGHT.
, MIDDLE BARBARISM.
Beginning Among the Aryan Race with the domestication
of Animals. Amonc the Red races of the West
em Hemisphere with agriculture.
Tools and Weapons .. Bow and arrow, bronze spears and swords, hig'ti
ly polished stone tools. Tools of SMELTED
copper.
Transportation Natural locomotion, crude sledjjes, drawn by.
animals. On water, canoes, dugouts and early
sail boats.
Subsistence Cooked foods, flesh, farinaceous and vegetable
Milk.
Shelter Hewn plank, stone and adobe houses.
Clothing Tanned skins, wool and other woven fabrics.
Environment Temperate mid cold climates, Prairie and
grassy country. Herding of domestic animals
i.nd agriculture.
Organization federated tribes containing the germ of primi
tive kingdoms. Organization of armies. Patri
archal family and the development of men
agitlttoua family, with inheritance of property.
Competition of medicine men led to union of
priests and prophets and establishment of
religious institutions within and not separated
from tribal organisation.
Arts and Institutions. .Beginning cf systematic agriculture. Smelting
of native soft metals, institution of chattel
slavery and private property. Genesis of the
class' struggle in society.
Duration Much less than lower barbarism,
The middle Age of barbarism began amongst the
Aryan races of the Eastern hemisphere with the domes
tication of animals. The Red races of the Western hemi
sphere developed systematic agriculture at the beginning
of middle barbarism.
Our domestic animals are but the descendants oE
wild animals adapted to the uses of man. The dog is but
a domesticated wolf, and the "cow a domesticated aurach.
The aurach was the native buffalo of the Tndo-Iraiue
plains, whore the Aryan race fir -t evolved out of lower
barbarism.
The acquisition by man of any tool marks a forward
step on tho road to progress. Animals have been called
the anima!ed tools of man. The need of man for sleep
caused him to utilize the dog as a sentinel. The storage
(;f grain brought vast numbers of predatory rodents.
Oats w-..fl-e domesticated to catch the thieves of grain.
They proved themselves so useful for this purpose that
their bodies were deolard sacred and they were worship
ped as gods.
The specific circumstances surrounding tho first do
mestication of animals are of course unknown, but much
can be learned of the process by an observation of pres
ent day' tribes who are passing through this period of
social evolution.
While the Aryan racer were domesticating animals
the Itod races were busily developing systematic agricul
ture. The most notable examples of Red races so en
gaged, were the Pueblos of New Mexico, the Aztecs and
Toltecs of Mexico r.nd the Incas of the high plains of
Pom.
The architecture of both races at this age was very
similar, bcth using stone and adobe as building material,
stone predominating in the Eeastem and adobe (a kind
of dried mud) in the Western hemisphere. The differ
rence in building material chosen was due to difference
in geological formation and climatic conditions. When
stone was abundant and the climate wet, stone was used.
Where clay was abundant, stones scarce and the climate
dry, adobe w.is used. ITewn planks were used only in the
localities where timber was abundant.
Smelting and the making of bronze first made ifcj
noporanco in this ago the smelting however being con
fined to the soft native metals such as copper, tin and
lead.
The domestication of animals brought a change in
the methods of land transportation, crude sledges drawn
by animals now made their appearance. TTo t : 1 1 cutting
tools, mostly of bronze, made possible larger boats of
hewn timbers, and the weaving of fabrics made possible
sails for boats Sail boats made their first appearance
during this age.
The agrtonlturnl village life bn light a greater var
iety and abundance of food material, which made fain
ine-s and pestilence less frequent The improved me
thods of transportation stimulated industrial develop
ment tad increased the fecundity of tho race.
The domestication of animals led to the making of
fabrics of a wool nature, altho there are no wild wool
bearing sheep. Wild sheep have only a long coarse hair,
which by man's selection has been improved into the
wool as we knew it today. Tin; same is true of the mohair
of the angora, goat.
Man lH'came a herdsman with the domestication ,
animals, lie located. in 'such localities is furnished past-
seats in the Legislature constitute but ono of the rocks upon which the So
cialist Party ship has struck and the shock from which has shaken the mem
bership bringing to the surface a rebellion against what a large portion of the
membership realize is compromise and reactionary tactics which have their
baso in fundamentaUy reactionary principles. These rebellious elements whoss
eyes havo been opened to the uon-revolutlonary character of the S. P. aro
roady when unity Is accomplished within the Communist ranks to Join them in
purpose and tactics.
While the Communist Labor Party makos no appeal for membership
except its principles be endorsed and its adherents prove their qualifications
as Communists in educational, propaganda and organization work along tho
tactical men laid down by the Party, wt shall welcome to onr ranks all workers
who stand roady to endorse our principles and are willing to prove thorn by
their activities.
The split In tae Communist Party is a welcome sign for future develop
ment of the American Communist Movement.
urage for his herds and flocks. The extent of the range
was limited by the necessity of the herdsman to get his
flock back to the village fold at night. "Wild animals
were not the only marauders. Along with the develop
ment of agriculture and herding developed also a group
which found it easier to steal a herd or a crop than to
raise one. Here is the genesis of the military system.
Conflict over herds and pasture land was the beginning
of territorial wars.
The thirteenth chapter of Genesis ojves a complete
account of these early conflicts over pastures, and thus
contains internal evidence that the lmok deals with a
period of social development corresponding to the mid
dle age of barbarism.
Domestication of herd animals, with the consequent
necessity for definite pastures, further developed village
life, out of which developed the Patriarchal Family and
monagamous marriage. The Patriachal Family was a
group family,) based upon blood relationship subser
vient to the authority of the oldest man the pater
familias or father of the family. He was also called the
senex, from which we got our word senator, meaning
eld man. The world smile, which means childish, is also
derived from the same source. The advent of the Patri
archal Family marked the passing of female supremacy
and descent.)
Herding, agriculture and village life was the found
ation out of which evolved the institution of private
property in land, substance and slaves, and the Patri
archal Family, with its consequent laws of inheritance
based upon the right of primogeniture; this in turn made
monogamy an economic necessity.
Tho right of primogeniture means the right of the
firstborn son of the Patriarch to inherit all the property
of the family, including his father's younger children.
This made him the owner of the group ami its substance.
He ruled by the right of possession, and then as now,
"his subjects were taught to be "law abiding' to con
stituded authority. Here in middle barbarism was laid
the genesis of the clas-struggle between the sons of the
ruler and. the sons of the ruled.
Tahe Patriarch was a warrior, maintaining his author
ity by his physical courage. He surrounded himself
with a primitive army of professional warrior; whose
duty it was to repel invasions and keep slaves in sub
mission. There were no wars for democracy in those
days !
Modicme men, priests and prophets in this Age or
ganized themselves into primitive groups for offense
and defense. They maintained themselves in power by
preaching subservience to the slaves aud lauding the
virtues of the Patriarchs. Primitive religious systems
developed as a tribal or state function, the Patriarch
ever at the head of the political, industrial and religious
institutions.
Tho institutions of middle barbarism were, private
property, chattel slavery, laws of inheritance, monaga
mous marriage and federated tribal organizations ;;f a
religio- political nature.
It may be stated as a general law that each Age
of social evolution will be shorter than the one which
proceeded it Tin duration of historical epochs is in in
verse ratio to tho rate of increase in tho rate of popu
lation. The ratt of increase of population is dependent
upon the ;)ase with which food an life's necessities may
be acquired. Thus as the tools of production improve
the ages of historic evolution shorten.
) The first book of .lob contains a complete SCCQnnt of thn
ravishing of the herds by mnuradcrs.
)In its primary meaning the word family had no relation to the
married pair or their children, but to the body of slaves and servants
who labored for its. mnintniunnco and were under the power of the
paterfamilias.
'"') In Iwo forms of the family, the consanguine and the punaluSO,
paternal power was Impossible. When the gens appeared in the midst
(.I' the pvnnluan group it aniled tha several sisters with their children
ind defendants in the female line, in perpetuity, in a gens, which
became the unit of organization in the social system it created. Out of
this state of things the syndyasmian family was gradually evolved and
fluctuating, then commenced, and it steadilv increased ns the new
upward progress of society. When PROPERTY BEGAN TO BE
family more and more assumed nionopatnian characteristics with tho
CREATED IN MASSES and the desire for its transmission to children
htd changed descent from the femalel inc to the male, n real founda
tion for paternal power was for the first time established." Lewi If.
MorgU ' ''Ancient Socictv" (Kerr oil il ion) p I7S.
QUESTIONS TOR CHAPTER EIGHT.
Middle Rarhari.sm.
1. What industry marked the beginning of middle barbarism anions
tho Aryans?
2. Why diil not the same industry begin in the Western hemi
sphere i
8, Nr.mo all the domesticated animals, birds .and insects you can.
4. Explain the difference between natural and artifieinl selection !
5. Are 'here tribes today living in the middle age of barbarism?
Name them.
6. Explain the reason why different tribes chose different building
material.
7. What is adobe f
8. What is meant by the term 9melting T
, 0. Why was a sled the first form of land transportation!
10. Vere sails practical upon I canoe?
lit Explain wl y village life and agriculture would tend to in
crease food supply.
12. What limitul the extent of the herdsman'." rnngci
18, What is the genesis of militarism ind the cause of tribal wars!
14. Willi what period of human histnn docs th- hook of (i-nesis
dealt
15. Explain the Patriarchal family.
111. W'.'M was tin- right of I rcmogi nitnret
IT. What was tnO'gentaU of the elaai'ttruMial
IX. Nnme .he Institutions of midd'o barbarism!
IB. Ppo'i what does the' rate of increase in population depend!
iQ, Explain why the periods of historic evolution shorten!
(Continued next week)
THE BULLITT MISSION TO RUSSIA.
William ( '. Itullitt's testimony In'forc the Semite
Committee oij Foreign Relations. Contain! much
valuable and interest in if information about tho al
titude of President Wilson and the Peace Conference
and why peace with Russia was denied.
50c a copy
Addross The Toiler.
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