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IN THIS ISSUE
Knocked Sensible by a PoKcemaa's Club
By Don Kennery.
Two Months Activity of the International Council
of Trade and International Unions
By J. T. Murphy.
The Amalgamated Commissary Stores
By Mary Heaton Vorse.
Program of the American Arm of the Com
Last Days of John Reed
A Letter from Louise Bryant.
American Democracy Too
Late to "Save" Armenia
BY THE FEDERATED PRESS.
I upon tbO
Washington (AVn. Bur.)
dismany ;ii the White House
department over the ridicule
elasscs in Europe have heapo
Wilson-Dims stiiteiiicnt eoneeriiin
aia, Armenia and Tutkey.
Beginning with the Colby note of
August 10, Kuropc has either ignored
completely every Wilson utterance re
meeting Russia, or has replied so con
temptuously that the Btate department
tiarcfi not liuike public -iiny of the res
However, the DavisiWllaojl proposal
I that all the powers give a public pledge
to guarantee Ruia from attack, in or
der that Henry Morgeirthau may sail to
Constantinople and "mediate" in le-
hult .'))' Armenia umh j.rovokcd a now
It'?- uuiuki STof l:mj:1ite.r in Europe.
"Are we reading 'The Arabian
Ni",ritsf " ask the London Chronicle.
The circumstances are that there are
neither wars nor massacres in Armenia,
whose people, for the first time in many
centuries, have a government of their
own, and a territory much more gen i
una than the Allies ever offered them.
Their government, however, is a Soviet
government, under which all religions
sects enjoy eipial rights.
Tnlnat Pasha, one of the Turkish
lenders whose rebel government, in al
liance with Soviet Russia, has made
p.M'-e with Afnieuia and driven the
Allies out of nearly tTte whole of Tur
key, says of the WilsonDavis-Morgeu'
".There is no longOT any conflict De
tween Turkey and Armenia. And If
there was M orient hau WOttld be the last
man in the world to settle it. The Tur
kish people have little confidence in iiis
good faith or impartiality. How 1'resi
dent Wilson, after all of M orgenthau 'a
statements about the Turks; could name
hiiu ns mediator, even if mediation
WeM necessary, is beyond the compre
hension of every Turk. ' '
President Wilson was informed sev
eral weka ago thai Morgentbau was
lersona Don yrata 'l inks, yet he
proceeded with his fantastic paper
diplomacy as if his own preference
would sweep away all opposition. For
belnia all dressed tit) with no place to
go, Morjsentliiiii lias only the president
CLEVELAND, OHIO, SATURDAY, FE;tUARY 12th, 1921.
rRICE FIVE CENT.
J 0-OST STRIKES ( :jf
The Amalgamated Commis
By Mary Heaton Vorse.
MT5. ft; Falco Otfers Saoco-
Vanzetti Freedom For Gash
By John Nicholas Beffel.
reviewed at length the new arres; am
ti yents leading up to it.
Bach miner pointed out the interna
tional significance of the pros mi'. on
against t hose two labor orglttU.Ui,
Which has impelled the Italian gov "n
ment to order an exhaustive inycitlifn
lion of the tints behind it. Both the.
Herald ami Post ran stories under two
column heads, and next day the l'ost
carried another extended account , of
4,1YKi'n ThJti n Wo-u-a i?ua:
ed with a detailed history of the SaCCO
Yanzetti case, citing its Connection with
the torture and death of Andrea Sa',
sed0 in New York; that history being
published in two installments.
"Many well known local people have
always doubted the guilt of Yanzetti
Huston, Mass. With the arrest of mid Sacco," declares the Post, "while
Mrs. Angelina DeFalcO, charged with labor unions here and in the mill cities
offering to guarantee an acquittal in! of Lawrence. Lowell and Fall River
the Sacco-Van.etti case for a large :.'ii'i have declared that the two men are
of money, that case has hit the front being 'railroaded' by the Department
pages of the Itoston newspapers villi slot Justice."
When arraigned in police court here,
Mrs. DoFalco was accompanied and re-
IN YOUR CRASP IF YOU WILL HUT REACH.
ill I, Bal
Down on Attorney Street is a grocery
tore that is like a slit iu the wall.
I'here is nothing to distinguish it from
ither stores around there, except thai
tin re is a sigu above it which reads:
AMALGAMATED STORKS ASSOCIA
TION. Store So. I.
And that means that there is all the
difference between this grocery store
and the others around it that there U
between a society which is run for
people and a society which is run for
Every penny which bought these
trttAtt woe pivfn vnlnnfaHlv hv wnrlr.
ers to help other workers, whom tney
ilid not know, whom they would never
see. This made all the difference of a
civilization between that run-for-sol-idarity
commissary store and the run-for-profit
grocery stores up anil down
That little slit in the wall of a gro
cery store was the vanguard of n new
civilization. It has a wonderful signif
icance to anyone who wishes to look .it
it with insight. This store has been
built with sacrifice. These rows of
bundles and canned goods represent the
little margin of comfort, leisure, pleas
ure' of other WQrkera, They are not
groceries; they arc the small enjoy
ments of the workers, the coveled ex
tra bit of fnrniture, books, the very
clothes of hundreds of people, These
goods represent, the swift response of
thousands of anonymous people to meet
the need of other thousands of un
known brothers and sisters.
dollar fund which comes in steadily
week by week. In Baltimore we learn
that beside tin tax of twenty percent
on every worker's wages the girls have
voted to give extra money for the milk
fund for the babies. AH through the in
dustry in every city the workers, are
rallying to the defense of the Xew
York workers. The actual result of
these sacrifices are the five stores, two
in New York, two in Brooklyn and one
I went dowii tovtlie Attorney Street
store on one of the first days. The
crowd surged up over it; the crowd ex
tended down the street, men and wo
men. The store was so full, that the door
I to be closed. Inside the clerks
worked with frantic haste. Whenever
anyone came out wilh his bundle otheiM
were eager to take his place. Yon could
realize that even this waiting was an
other lesson in solidarity.
presented by Atotorney Samuel I,. I'.ai Deralcu sought to have the present do
lien, who obtained a continual.- net, I ''oiise lawyer- pushed into the back
l.lanunrv L'Tth. The charge that; Mi's, he- ground, and the whole case put into the
If you have vision you can sec stand
ing on the shelves not only things
i at. bnl the hopes anil desires of men
hail uiilayfully solicited ja-v pra
tiee for two prominent' ntJW'ni.vs at Yanzetti are being defended
Dodhain. and tried to havnfhi- work neys William J. Callahan am
ot defending Yanzetti and Nic S.-i.-,- Moore.
.... AvU. .......1.1.1
transierreii 10 niein, caoseu u no, hum. Speculation as to whether th
stir in court and law circles n itoston
and surrounding twons. Dedham is the
hands of the two others. Sacco audi and women willingly surrendered for a
larger cause. The people who made
y At tor
Speculation as to whether the alleged
proposal of Mrs. DeFalco to sway the
these Amalgamated stores possible
eared about other things than their
own comfort and leisure. It is an in
spiring thing to conceive of a whole in-
sent of Norfolk count
bang. All four Sunday papers the
Herald, Post, (ilobe and Advertiser
dnslrv Vobint.'trilv f;ivi,nr ilm.lf of till
coming trial in favor of the two Italian ., ' . . ' , ,
tin. ....n. i, .11
u 1 ! n' workers with u boiia-tuk' oitVr or a trim . e
':.Vfp- i v. ;,i-vsrw -tbe-defrnse -rommHtre-ig-y-'"''ni"w"r mvei.uv is gnig n-
March for a payroll v two COMtnillod in 0ne of the stories publish
rders committed last .pnl'in South , . ., lt
Brain tr ee.
Mrs. DeFalco 's chief accuser is Al
dino Folicani, treasurer of the Sacco
Y'anzetti committee, who filed the com
plaint. Chief Justice Wilfred Holster of
the Boaoton municipal coiut ordered the
warrant for her issued after he had read
lengthy statements by FclicaOJ and
other persons who declare that they
heard her make the alleged proposal 10
throw the trial to the Bide of the de
fense. It is charged by Felicani that Mrs.
road to achievement when the work
ed in the Boston Post. The latter theory 111 'iitlcrent Mttes prove mat they lia :,
includes the idea that possibly it was
intended that the defense committee
members were to pay a bribe, and then
be themselves Subjected to serious
VANZOTTl DEFENSE MEETING.
A meeting for the defense of Sacco
and Yanzetti will be adressed by F. '.
Biedenkapp of the Workers Defense
Union at the North rongregation.il
Church, 72nd and St. Clair Ave., Cleve
land. Feb. 15th at s I. M .
learned that victory for some is a vic
tory for all. Very soon we will have
Surmounted the wall that divides in
dustry from industry. A few years ago
I his wall loomed formidable. Now il
lias shrunk in size as the workers'
power litis increased, and they arc real
izing the meaning of solidarity.
The latest development in the forging
Of this precious spirit of Solidarity, this
spirit of mutual understanding and mu
tual help, is the opening of the com
missary, the railing up of the million
The natural way for a person to feel
if they go to a store and cannot be
waited on at once is to gel mad, and
then when they get mad the next thing
i- to want to blame someoU" for yo n
inconvenience t hat was what plenty
Of good, sturdy housewive- cere doing.
In the midst of the crowd was a stout,
vociferous woman. She was telling the
world what she thought of a union
which kept people waiting. Ij'he raih-V
She had no thought beyn-' l herself.
thought only ot ner inconvenienc,
only oi ner own annoyance, "or her
solidarity had no meaning. She had not
yet learned her lesson. This Store I"
lliis woman was a store like all oth.-r
Stores onty not so well run. She be
longed to the old order. A Union to lo r
had no other object than getting th"
workers' wages raised, and the moment
il Stopped doing that she gol angry and
wanted to blame somebody. She didn't
even know that to start a chain of
stores, to register the people of a great
industry, to go through the delicate
task of . iding who shall I ; ve rel el
and who shall not, is a remeidou , h
ilertaking, one pretty nearly i.op.,- .
it' every Ttff T!7etff Ihelp. if T. . i ""
basn t good will. This w an crying
aloud "I've been here two hours and
1 can't get my groceries yet. Do tHoy
think I fan wait all day.'" was fight
ing for Mr. Handler, though she didn't
But there was another spirit abroad
beside that of criticism, for one woman
like that, there were scores who under
stood the meaning of the stores. A
woman put il this way:
" Whnt 's the matter." she s;ij, t,4-,.
noisi woman. u ny no you coiiim.
Aren t we all waillii" the smile I
(Continued on page
Two Months of Activity of the International Council of Trade and Industrial Unions
Hv .1. T. Murphy.
The era of social revolution has brought
its challenge to the labor unions of the world
.. ,i . . in.: i ..
y no less prolouiKlly man 10 rue ponucai pai
f ties. Expressing- as they do the fundamental
V movement of the masses they are immediate
ly responsiYe to and reflect every intensifica
tion of the economic struggle of the workers.
I Hence we are witnessing not only millions of
1 ntarbpra floekinff into the unions as their wily
refuge, but also the union launching forth in
to great struggle and more intensive fighting
than has aver characterized their experience.
Their immediate economic issues are bringing
them face to face with great political realities
and foicing the unions to take upon them
selves new activities, change their objectives
and become weapms of revolutionary strug
gle. Sectional strikes merge into gener;l
strikes and wiMi increasing frequency are
compelled to openly challenge the power of
Conversely, political issues .irising out of
the conflicts of the imperialistic struggle
surge through tin- unions and make of them
a battle ground and rallying force for the
warring poi&ftjia. Thus are the mascs with
in the unions impelled toward making the
choice between the reformists and revolution
ists and thus has liogun the vital conflict for
a new alignment of the labor unions.
This is as much an international probh m
as a national one for we find the Amsterdam
Bureau of Trade Unions now the railin.",
ground of reformists tin- most important
weapon in the hands of the internal ;onal Cap
italists. Its leaders M raved lalor during the
war and since the signing of the Imperialist
peace they have pursued a policy equally
treachemus. The war shattered the Second
International and gave birth to the Third or
Communist International. What the Second
lr :-ual was in relation to the political
movement of the working class, the Amster
dam Internationa) is in relation to the union
movement of the workers. Unable to resurrect
the Second International and make of it an ef
fective power against labor, all attention is
now directed to the unions as a means for the
conduct of the policy of amelioration pursued
by the capitalists to defeat the workers as
they press forward to revolutionary ends.
Thus the Labor Union International ex
pressed in the Amsterdam Bureau becomes
utterly useless as a means of combat and a
powerful bulwark against the revolutionary
Hence, just a the revolutionary Socialist
parties in the Second International had to
lace the issue of shaking thftmselvos free from
the reformists and ultimately decided on the
formation of a Communist International, so
also have the revolutionary workers' organ
izations to face a similar issue. Some bad al
ready faced the issue and were outside the
Amsterdam International before we had ar
rived at the Critical stage of current history.
Tliese unions were mostly revolutionary
unions from their inception and the intensi
fication of the struggle simply strengthens
then determination to stay outside and. at the
same time, gives them an impulse toward the
formation of a new International of Lalwr
Unions. With this strong tendency already
manifest and the obvious need of all thCSfl
unions InHng brought together prcssinp, upon
the movement, the choice between the polity
of "boring from within" the Amsterdam In
ternational and that of leaving it, beconn
imtnediatVly sharpened. To persuade the re
volutionary unions to go into it woulc. be an
imposihility. even if it were prepared to ac
cept them, and the fact that the labor union
movement is largely dominated by i reaction
ary Inn eaucraev, both nationally and interna
" tionally. thus making a double intrcnehinent
of reformism, would make for interminable
delay in the rallying of the revolutionary
forces for action in any policy of capturing
the international bureaucracy. The rapidity
with which the economic struggle of the
workers is becoming a revolutionary struggle
impells us to make for the rapid mobilization
of the workers under revolutionary leader
ship. The unions of the workers are mass
organizations. The conquest of the, national
organizations therefore and their severance
from the Amsterdam Bureau, and its direc tion
to a new centre of leadership is an im
mediate source of weakness to reformism
and a gathering of strength for revolution.
The path pursued by the revolutionary part
ies in the formation of the Communist In
ternational is seen to be the path which
must he pursued by the revolutionary organ
The problem therefore becomes clearly the
problem of rallying the revolutionary union
forces outside the Amsterdam Bureau along
with the forces which can be drawn away
from that organization as they become re
volutionary in purjiose and outlook. The
unity of the "left" union forces against the
"right" becomes the slogan of the hour.
Forms of organization are realized as of less
significance than purpose and objectives, and
conservative prejudices of less immediate
value than revolutionary action.
This was anticipated by the First Congress
of the Communist International, but it was
not until the Second Congress of 1920 that
time became ripe for action.
By June, 1 112. delegates! began to arrive
for the Congress and the Executive Com
mittee of the Communist Inf.einational 'nt
mediately took advantage of tl presence oi
union delegations in Russia an! convened n
conference of representatives If Great Bri
tain, Italy, and Russia to rnnsidjr what step
should be taken to give effect to their views
with regard to the union movement of the
world. At this conference there were present
Zinoviev (chairman of the Executive Com
mittee of the Communist International). A.
Losovsky, H. Tonisky, C. Thyperovitck, V.
Schmidt (member of the Presidium of the
All-Russian Central Council of Labor Unions i,
G. Melnichansky (of the Moscow Provisional
Council of Labor Unions), D'Aregona and
Giuseppe Bianke (of the Italian General Con
federation of Labor), Enrico Dugoni (of the
National Federation Landworkers of Italy),
Emilo Columbino (of the Federation of Metal
Workers Of Italy). Robert Williams (Trans
port Workers' Federation of Great Britain),
A. A. Pureeli (of the British Trade Union
Comrade Zinoviev explained the point of
view of the Executive Committee of the Com
munist International, lie pointed out the
geribus danger threatening the revolutionary
movement of the proletariat in all countries,
thanks to destructive work of the Amster
dam International, around which millions of
workers are still rallying, lie declared that
the "yellow" Amsterdam International Lab
or Union is by no means only a technical or
ionization of the international labor union
movement. It is closely bound through Un
social conciliators- Jouhaux. Legien. Apple
ton & Co. to the League of Nations through
the "Washington Bureau of Labor. The Am
sterdam International is now a politic;.!
weapon in the hands of the Entente, in f.ici
'.he strongest weapon that still remains in
its hands. It is thus the task oT the revolu
ternary proletariat to knock this weapon out
of its hands and smash it. He observed the
need for the creation of the Bed Labor Union
International and conduct a united struggle
under the banner of Communism, and for ;
uited effort against the Amsterdam Intel
national! He said the time was ripe for sue'.
an organization and for such a light and he
was of the opinion that it was extremely im
portant and feasible to immediately organize
without delay a section of the Labor Union
movement in connection with the Communist
International so that at the time of the S. i
ond Congress of the International it would
be an accomplished fact. There were many'
unions outside of the Amsterdam Bureau i
Trade Unions. The Third All-Kussian C(
gross of Labor Unions have already join
the Third International and a number oi
other unions outside of Russia h'ad declared
for affiliation. The organization of this -position
secii :i to the "yellow" Intern.it id l I
of Labor Unions would not only bring clear
ness into the relationship of the labor unions,
syndicates, etc.. towards the question of t .
dictatorship of the proletariat, but would
also stimulate the already started prnet iai
the detaching of the labor masses of the whole
world from the "yellow" International, t k
whole strength of which is given to the si
port of the counter-revolutionary Entente.
The Conference agreed that such an i i
ganizatiou was necessary and proceeded to
take necessary measures for publicity, I
the organization of the Provisional Gomui I
tee, and for the convening of a World Con
gresi of Labor Unions. Several further 0 -ferences
were convened at which were pn s
ent the representatives from Spain. .Iujm'
Slavia. Bulgaria, France, Georgia. It It
those already mentioned as present at t it
first conference. All of these with the
Caption of Williams and Purccll (who white
iii agreement had no mandate to act on u
half of their organizations so far as i
mitting them to become part of a new iit( -national
is concerned) were ngrrod to In.- ii k
part of a Provisional Council f the Red I .
or Union International. In the di wwioii
wiiich took place a -harp cleavage of otiii
fN Minnr 1 m o-,. 4).