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Third International Discovered !
Mr. Elihu Root, eminent corporation lawyer, one time Secretary
of State, former Senator, and paid lackey of the financial pirates
in America, has "discovered" the Third Internationale. On April
24th, 1921, (note the date), speaking before the so-called Amer
ican Society of International Law, at Washington, Mr. Root had
the following to say :
"The rapid development of Internationalism is one of the
most threatening obstacles to International Law." (He means
the international solidarity of the working class is becoming
so alarmingly dangerous to the international robberies of the
bosses, that some steps must be taken to prevent this calamity,
-'auch as stopping wars, etc.)
"This (international law) is prevented by the avowed pur
poses of the Third Internationale aiming at the destruction of
national (read Capitalist) Governments and universal empire
j iic) of the proletariat; by the fact that the brutal and cruel
despotism of Lenin and his associated group has been able to
maintain its ascendency over the vast territory and population
of Russia, calling itself a Dictatorship of the Proletariat as
well as all other classes, and ruling in the name of a world re
volution for the accomplishment of the purposes of the Third
"There is no common ground upon which one can discuss
the obligations of international law with the Third Interna
tionale. And just so far as the ideas of Lenin and Trotzky
influence the people of a civilized country, just so far the gov
ernment of that country is weakened in the performance of
its international obligation."
It is a pleasure to see Mr. Root theame Mr. Root who went
taTRussia after the fall of the Czar to tell Kerensky how he would
-t. A IL n.ii... lt! i. ' Jl!l 1 -1 1L
-1 ThK. a Tncjsoisnevnu i(j a lce iinng squan eany m trie morning
sober up and see the spectre of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat,
the main teaching of the Third Internationale, hovering over din
' ner parties that Mr. Root attends.
We can assure Mr. Root that the adherents of the Third Inter
nationale are growing in numbers in many "civilized" and un:
civilized countries including Japan and the United States ; and we
trust that the difficulty of carrying out his "international law"
will be much greater by the time he is called upon to make an
other speech to that same society of flunkeys to Gary, Schwab
and Mqrgan. So much so, that we hope the society's next meeting
will be held in Leavenworth, over the rock pile to which the rebel
workers are now treated by Mr. Root's masters.
So far as Lenin's cruel and brutal despotism is concerned, we
are sure it is much more acceptable to the Russian workers and
peasants than the gunman and lynching democracy Root wanted
to establish in Russia with the ten million dollars Wall Street
gave him for his trip to Russia in 1917. Has he forgotten that on
his return from Russia he made a speech before the feasting
Despots of America and their host of legitimate and illegitimate
wives, in which he said that the conscientious objectors and re
volutionary workers should be lined up before a firing squad ?
That is no brutal despotism; that is International Law and
American Democracy! We.have seen much of it in Ludlow, Bayon
ne, West Virginia and Everett, not to mention the murders com
mitted by the Cossaks in Pennsylvania during the Steel Strike in
1919. Yes, Mr. Root, it is a good thing you have noticed that the
Third International is becoming what it is intended to be: Leader
and Inspirer of the World Revolution.
EDITORIAL PAGE OF THE TOILER
AS TO DICTATORSHIP.
By GEO. N. FALCONER.
"I will have never a noble,
No lineage counted great;
Fishers and choppers and plough
Shall constitute a State.
And lo and behold! how these poor
Shall govern the land and sea
And make just laws beneath the sun
As planets faithful be."
Ralph Waldo Emerson.
these many years
"bull" or more correctly, misinfor
mation, and have
been handing out
thus destroyed or
"It is hard to free fools from the
chains they revere." Voltaire.
"The dictatorship of the Proletariat
is the organization of the advance
guard of the oppressed as the
ruling class, for the purpose of
CRUSHING the oppressors."
"The question of the dictatorship of
the proletariat is one of the many
issues dividing the REVOLUTION
ARY AND SOCIALIST LEFT
WING from the EVOLUTIONARY
and PARLAMENTARIAN right."
BOOKS for TOILERS
Priced Low for Propagandists
NICOLAI LENIN. HIS LIFE and WORK, Zinoricff
15c. 8 for $1.
COMMUNISM and CHRISTIAN ISM, Bishop Wm. M.. Brown
25c, 6 for $1.
COMMUNISM and the FAMILY, Kollontay
10c. 12 for 11.
INDUSTRIAL AUTOCRACY. Marr Marcy
10c. 20 for $1.
DREAM OF DEBS, Jack London
10c, 12 for $1.
INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL of TRADE and INDUSTRIAL
10c. 12 for 1.
DICTATORSHIP of the PROLETARIAT, Kamcnev
I0c. 12 for l.
CONSTITUTION of SOVIET RUSSIA
10c, 12 for II.
SOCIALISM and RELIGION, By B. S. P. of England
40c, 12 for 11.
OPEN fHB FACTORIES. Mary Marcy
10c, 12 for II.
One of each of the tan copies will b Mailed postpaid to one
address for 1. Combinations in anv amounts of the various title
may be selected at tht above stated rates.
These low prices enable vou to help in their distribution. Order
a dollar's worth or more and circulate them among the workera.
1907 CLARK AVE.
It is a question the workers of
America had better, consider, pro
and con., not merely taking the
word of a Professional Proletarian,
a "Friend of Labor," or even a so
cialist scribe or an old time revo
lutionary expounder of the faith.
In the field, factory, office, mine
and workshop, the toilers, hand and
brain, should discuss this all im
portant, altogether indispensable,
vital workingclass question The
Dictatorship of the Proletariat.
A SOCIALIST "DAVID"
Some working men and women
read the New York Call and are
taught scientific ?) Socialism in the
Rand School. Thousands of dollars
have been contributed toward sus
taining these two institutions. Both
claim to be working for the best
interests of the working-class for
the emancipation of labor. Let us
see! A professor of social science in
the Rand School (David P. Beren
berg) recently aired his views on
the "Dictatprship". .question in the
"Call.' It is ''quite' evident David
loves not "Dictatorship," be it Cap
italist or Proletarian. Both are bad;
both are to be shunned, in favor
of true Democracy!
"Whoever consoles a slave," said
Feuerbach, "instead of inciting him
to revolt against slavery offers help
to the slave holder." This the socialist-democratic
O'Neals, Bergers and Berenbergs are
doing, and they are all honorable
gentlemen! All of them sincere! Says
our Socialist David:
"Through centuries of anguish the
world has gone forward to that
measure of democracy which now
prevails. Oceans- of blood have been
shed that the people might learn
to think and to act independently!
Will the people of their own accord
surrender to the despotism of blind
stupidity in the persons of tne
Lusks and Sweets; or to the humor
less paranoia of THE "ADVANCE
"The humorless paranoia of the
'advance guard'," this is how our
democratic David stigmatizes the
Proletariat Dictatorship, which, ac
cording to Lenin "it:, the organiza
tion of the advance guard of the op
pressed," and whose purpose it is
"as the ruling class" to crush and
break the resistence of the oppres
sors nnd exploiters of labor! And
this has been done in Russia. The
class conscious, battling Russian pro
Ictaire, in the person of their trusted
comrade, Lenin, said nt the 3rd Con
gress of Soviets, early in 1918 "you
accuse us of using force? We admit
it. All government is legalized force,
controlled by one class and used
against another. For the first time
in history, we in this hall are creat
ing a legalized force controlled by
the working class; the vast majority
of the people, and directed against
thos who have exploited and en
slaved us." Later, he said: "The
political statu is an institution for
compulsion. This compulsion was
formerly used hy a bunch of money
bags, a gang of rich idlers. Now we
wish to turn the state into an in
stitution for compulsion in the in
terest of the people. We wish to
have organised force for the sake of
the laboring masses." And our social
science professors can see nothing
more in this Proletarian Dictator
ship than "humorless paranoia!" Am
afraid there arc a fow panaroiacs
still left in our socialist party ami
school of social scioncc.
"HAVE WE IAUGHT A LIE?"
Queries David Befeiberg. Really,
Dave, you have and are still nt it;
that is, you nnd the Rand school, the
"Call" and the Socialist Party, have
led astray the feir American work
ers who have come under your in
fluence. Says our professor:
"The 'advance f Uard' tells us that
we must choose b tween the two dic
tatorships. Why bo? Why not re
pudiate them .both 1 We have taught
Socialism for yeais. We have taught
that Socialism me int an extension of
democracy. When ! bourgeois society
j had left off we would begin. To the
' political democracy that bourgeois
revolutions had iven us we would
add industrial d fonocracy. We did
not mean that ii dustrial democracy
spelled political c espotism.
Have we taught a lie? I think not.
I think that wc have taught the
great truth. Thos' , who in the name
of Socialism are teaching the dic
tatorship are te .clung a lie. So
cialism and diet itorship are ever
lastingly alien to one another. Only
humorless paranoi acs can think other
wise." Let me repeat professor; the So
cialist Party, through its official
spokesmen, its press and its school,
has not been telling the truth; it
has lied, again and again to the
American workers relative to their
true position in society and the
principles and tactics to be used
in emancipating themselves from in
dustrial slavery. I speak from a 12
years experience as a member of
the Socialist Party and a reader of
its press. Even today it dare not
tell the truth to the rank and file
of its membership. Its leaders, con
sisting largely of bourgeois idealists,
petty shop-keepers and antique poli
tical have-beens, have neither the in
telligence nor courage to declare it
self the "advance guard" of the
American working class. T'is little
wonder the Third International wash
ed clean fits hands of the American
Socialist Party. And right here, let
me express whaf hundreds, if not
thousands of former! members of the
Socialist Party wejthinking but fail
to thing aloud f "we want neither
your crumbs nor your condescension,
your guidance nor your glamour,
your tuition nor your tradition."
Now go sit down you Socialist pro
fessors and learn the A. B. C. of
WHAT DICTATORSHIP MEANS.
We da not expect to teach the
Berenbergs, the flail editors or the
Rand School teachers; they already
know it all all about Socialism. But
we dare hope and expect to help
some American workers by way of
suggestion, to grasp. the real mean
ing and profound significance of
this very much misunderstood phraza,
the "Dictatorship of the Prole
tariat." Listen please to one of the
sanest statements yet made, and
not by a professed socialist or re
volutionary, but a keen, intelligent
observer of pacing events H. N.
Bnilsford in his recent book "The
Russian Workers' Republic"
'The world "dictatorship" which
Russian Communists use to describe
their own monopoly of power in the
socialist state, implies that it will
be temporal y. 1 should Inst accord
ing to the tactical theories of the
revolution, until the capitalist sys
tem has wholly lisappeared in Rus
sia, until the former privileged rul
ing class, has hum absorbed in the
general body of citizens, nnd until
the civil war and the external war
have ceased. Opponents arc scep
tical, and doubt whether the moment
will ever come when the Communists
will voluntarily renounce the power
which they haw seized. Tower in
taxicates, and history shows few in
stances of voluntary abdication, snve
n the hour of evident failure nnd
There is one lest to which one may
submit a dictatorship which profes
ses to be temporary. Does it educate?
It is difficult i believe in the per
manence of any despotism over a
well-educated population. Tsardom
survived by reason of the abysmal
illiteracy of the old Russia, and
within certain limits one may make
a case for sonic form of revolution
ary dictatorship, by pointing to the
hopeless Ignorance of the peasant
masses. The Jeijjtta, who set . up
thoir idyllic communist state in
Paraguay in the seventeenth century
taught music, religion, reading and
writing to the gentle Indian popu
lation, but they never admitted them
to their own order, or shared with
tliein their own -cientific and literary
culture. A despotism, he it brutal
or human, nni rest on some ob
vious inequality between the rulers
and the ruled, la the modem cla is
statu the forms of democracy ire
"THE RAILROADERS NEXT STEP"
A review by Thurber Lewis.
Pub. by the Trade Union Educational League. Chicago.
Wm. Z. Foster, Author.
"Amalgamation or annihilation,"
this is the keynote of Foster's ex
hortation to the Railroadrs. The rail
way interests of America, after years
of bitter competition, draw ever
closer together; they promise, even,
so rapidly is their integration pro
gressing, to face the workers with
one huge combine in the not too
distant future. Already they have
abrogated their national agree
ments; they seek to pit one section
of the railroaders against the other,
taking advantage of their present
economic insecurity. Railroaders!
your loosely federated sixteen crafts
can never see you to victory. The
struggle is upon you, amalgamate.
Thus Foster sounds the tocsin to the
And he proves the need of it. He
does not merely say that the rail
way interests are combining: by a
review of the corporational develop
ment of the different systems; by
authentic accounts of the grafting,
lobbying, stockwatcring and outright
brigandage of the railroad octopi
he leaves no room for doubt. When
the workers match cudgels with one
road they fight all of them. When
the employers challenge the work
ers, the whole weight of their com
bine falls on an unaided division.
Yes their is need of amalgamation.
By the author's own experience in
the great steel strike of which he
was the leader he is able to give
unquestioned assurance that seperate
crafts, even though federated, arc
a poor match for well organized em
ployers. The autonomy of the crafts
leads to lack of confidence in the
federation. Prejudices, cliques, and
ungovernable self interest cause end
less dificulty. Federation, though it
is far better than the anviquated iso
lation of crafts, will not fill the bill.
Too, he has a word for "dual
unions." Those who have pulled out
of the old unions and have sought
to build new, all-dnclusive unions on
industrial lines, have worked ines
timable" harm to the labor movement.
Most of these exodi have been move
ments of radicals the best blood
and brains of the unions. Not only
have these withdrawals weakened the
old unions by depriving them of
their most militant and best mater
ial, but the new organizations have
amounted to practically nothing.
The Knights of Labor, the Amer
ican ''Railway Union, the Socialist
Trades and Labor Alliance, besides
many smaller lual unions have gone
down to defeat. The I. W. W. and
the O. B. U., all dual unions, cut
but small figures in the American
Labor movement No, the industrial
organization of the workers can not
hope to come through these abor
tive, spontaneous attempts.
Close upon Foster's healthy argu
ments conies the Moscow declara
tion, "Stay in the old unions." The
advice from abroad comes from those
who have had experience with every
trade union movement in Europe.
It comes from those who have wit
nessed the development of the move
ments of many European countries
from the simple craft form to
powerful Industrial amalgamations.
They know also the value of having
the radicals within these unions.
They have seen too their dualist at
tempts overwhelmed by the steady
growth and improvement of the old
forms adapting themselves to the
The author does not overlook the
European movement. He effectively
cites the growth of the Triple Al
liance of England in support of his
contention. His plan of amalgamating
the railroaders is modeled directly
after the organization methods of
the National Union of Railwaymen
of Great Britain.
By showing how the movements of
Europe followed the general course
of, (1) Isolation, (2) Federation, (3)
j Amalgamation, and how the first
two stages have already been tra
versed by the Railway unions of
America, he has ample justification
for saying that the time is ripe for
the third step Amalgamation. Best
of all, he submits a definite plan of
action for the consumation of this
As pointed out, the plan is model
led after the English method. The
N. U. R. is headed by an executive
committee of twenty four. The com
mittee is departmentalized into four
general divisions, each caring for a
particular set of crafts that fall
naturally together. Thus all of the
different categories of workers are
cared for with the greatest amount
of efficiency. Their is to be but one
National convention, wheih will mean
a great saving of money and will
make for further integration. Atten
tion is drawn to the fact that those
crafts which belong to totally dif
ferent Internationals, such as the
machinists and electricians will be
rather hard of handling. The of
ficers of these internationals will be
very much averse to letting such
large bodies of members slip from
their jurisdiction. For the time being
a working agreement must be es
tablished to let such crafts hold
membership in both their own trade
internationals and the Industrial
amalgamation. It is pointed out,
however that in time these bodies
will be wholly assimilated.
It is evident that the coming to
gether of sixteen different organisa
tions will mean the elimination of n
great many officers, or if not that,
it will cause most of them to "play
second fiddle." Very naturally then
the proposal will meet its greatest
opposition amongst the officialdom.
But Foster anticipates this and
shows where although such was the
case also in Europe, the movement
was carried out by the rank and
file in spite of the leaders.
Amalgamation means, in the last
analysis, that the membership of the
different organizations will have to
throw off the grip of their respec
tive bureaucracies, that they will
have to find new leaders. Since the
movement will be sponsored in great
part by the radicals, it is only fair
to r resume that the new leaders will
be radical. This is just what Foster
warns and it is just what the move
Foster ends by saying, in effect,
that the real mission of the new
amalgamation is not so much to get
i few cents more a day or a few
less minutes working hours, but to
overthrow the railroad autocracy and
with it "private property in social
necessities root and branch."
frustrated not merely by the power
of wealth, but also by tho gnp in
culture between the propertied and
the working class.
This must be said emphatically for
the Russian Communist party, that
it is preparing its own eventual dis
appearance. It is ripening the whole
Russian people for responsibility and
power, by its great work for educa
tion. It has striven, amid inconceiv
able difficulties, for the prompt en
lightenment of the whole nation. It
has. moreover, based its entire sys
tem of education not on any prin
ciple of passivity, receptivity and
discipline, but rather on "selfinitia
tive" and activity. The new genera
tion, which will emerge in a few
years from these modem Russian
schools, will have crossed tho spirit
ual frontier between East and West,
and will resemble the passive, ln
ih.lt nt, apathetic Russian of the pait,
as little as he resembles the average
llnf.shman or Aineric&nj Ap I
watched the elder children debating.
questioning and governing them-
aelvc, 1 realized that by its educa
tional .policy alone, the dictatorship
has .set a time limit to its on per
All hail the Worlds' Proletarian
THE IRISH PEOPLE
For Workers of Irish Birth
1 year 12.50.
262 West 23 Street
New York City
"Kindly continue the bundle of ten
Toilers, money order for 8.50 en
closed. The Toiler is doing groat work
here. Workers who a year ago or so
were antagonistic to our propaganda
are now absorbing It with a relish.
Just want to relate an amusing
incident. At the Central Trades and
Labor Council, where we have been
distributing The Toiler, some one vio
lently attacked The Toiler as being
a capitalist paper in disguise and
tried to. clinch his argument by Hay
ing it did not have the union label
on it. He advised the workers to
subscribe to the 'Observer' which
was the official Voice of Labor in
Michigan. Well, one of our comrades
proved that the Toiler did not only
huvo the label on it but was the
only real workers' paper in Michi
gan, also that the aupposcd union
labor paper, the Observer did not
have the label on it. The Toller is
gaining adherents. Keep your eyes
on western Michigan."
Yours for ret ion
J. T Muskegon, Mich.
May Day in Europe.
"Europe's May Day passes quiet
ly," says a dispatch to the Kept
Press. All true. But deep in the
hearts of the workers one could al
most feel the throb of a new hope,
of one step closer to the revolution.
Hundreds of thousands took part in
the demonstration in London and
other big cities in England. In
Spain and Italy millions celebrated
this workers' only holiday, in great
tension, armed and ready to take
In France it was as if the Com
munists and Left Syndicalists had
agreed not to give any more chances
to the militarist caste and the
traitor leaders of the General Con
federation of Labor, to disrupt their
ranks. Last year May Day was the
signal for the ill-fated General
Strike of the Railroad Workers. Now,
according to the able correspondent
of the New York Nation, Lewis Gan
nett, the Communist and Left Syn
dicalists, have decided to wait for
the militarists and imperialists to
bring about the crisis with their
insane invasion of Germany.
France is bankrupt. The small
farmers refuse to pay taxes, the
workers can't pay as hundreds of
thousands are without jobs; Ger
many cannot and will not pay, so
it remains for the jingoes to reveal
their cynical lies and promises to
the people that "victory will bring
plenty for all." Then when the tem
per rises to the boiling point, the
Communists and Left Syndicalists
will just take the lead of the mas
ses without waiting for any May
Days, when the bosses are ready and
waiting for them to make the at
tempt. We can count on our com
rades in France for prudence and
courage. More power to them.
May Day in Japan.
Last year the big surprise for a
May Day demonstration came from
China, where students and workers
distributed leaflets and proclamations
explaining to the Chinese workers
that May Day is the day of battle
and symbolizes the International
Solidarity and Brotherhood of the
workers. In Peking and Hoflgkong
demonstrations occured for the first
time in the history of that benighted
This year Japan gave the hopeful
sign and inspiration. Demonstrations
in which hundreds of thousands of
workers and students took part oc
cured at Kobe, Yokohama, Osaka and
Tokio. In Tokrio the marchers car
ried red flags and banners inscribed:
"From Slavery to Emancipation!" At
Osaka the parndcrs carried a flag
with the inscription: "Revolution
near at hand," and the Times cor
respondent added, "revolutionary
songs were chanted."
The significant thing about the de
monstrations, beaides being the first
yet witnessed in the country, was the
active participation of women. And,
as happened in Steel Trust owned
Gary, Indiana, the Mikado police ar
rested 15 speakers, among them the
valiant daughter of the great revo
lutionary socialist, Sakai. Thousands
of police were on duty as well as
some army detachments. The ipolice
brutally assaulted the labor leaders
Bunji nnd Suzykri, when they defend
ed the red flag against the police.
Here is courage to shame the
American working class.
May Day in United
Again the days of the "White
Terror" and man hunting were re
vived. This time the crafty Repub
lican Administration issued a solemn
promise not to make raids, declaring
that there was no Red Danger. This
was only a smoke sreon, however,
for on the eve of May Day many
workers were arrested in their
homes and on the streets, and threats
of violence issued from the mouths
of every police spy and government
thug. In New York a number of
comrades were arrested, among them
several women, accused of having
conspired to overthrow Gary's ser
vile Government. Philadelphia wit
nessed the arrests of thirty-eight
men and women.
In most of the big cities demon
strations consisted only of meetings
Chicago being the only exception,
where more than 20,000 workers took
part In a parade.
ZN ANJ E
South Slavic Weekly
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