Newspaper Page Text
J CLEVELAND. OHIO, SATURDAY, AUGUST 27, 1921. I
I WORKERS I
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
JURY OF PUBLIC OPINION FAVORS CONDEMNED
By JOHN NICH OLAS BEFFEL.
. Help Starving Russia.
Boston, Mass., August 24 There
is a nausea which comes with the
sight of some person being torn to
pieces by grinding machinery into
which he has fallen. That kind of
nausea has seized many people in
thTs section as they contemplate the
verdict in the case of Sacco and Van
zetti, the two Italian labor organizers
lately convicted of payroll murders
Wherever the twelve jurors in that
case walk they are met with question
ing eyes. They know that a great hue
and cry has gone up against that
verdict; that even the conservative
newspapermen who covered the trial
for the Boston, dailies declare that the
conviction was never justified by the
They remember, too, the piercing
accusation shot at them by Nicola
Sacco from the defendants' cage as
they condemned the two: "We are in
nocent! You kill two innocent men!"
Some of the jurors try to explain
the verdict, and do it lamely. Others
maintain a stony silence, which is the
safer policy. Foreman Walter H. Rip
ley has said that the verdict was
based on a tiny mark found on the
bullet which killed Alexander Berar
delli, payroll guard. Prosecutor Fred
erick Katzmann had argued that this
mark was caused by rust or fouling
in the revolver carried by Sacco three
weeks after the murders. But Captain
Charles Van Amburgh, commonwealth
expert, admitt' I that such rust or
'fouling was a common occurence, and
that the mark might have been made
by any one of many guns.
Jury was Prejudiced.
One juror admitted that "the re3t
of the jurors" were prejudiced against
the Italian w' esses fat the defense,
.figwad.thal.'ltb. tHRan w.i&
stick together no matter what hap
pened." But this does not explain why
they rejected the testimony of all the
American witnesses who swore that
they talked with Sacco in Boston and
with Vanzetti in Plymouth on the
afternoon when the payroll guards
were killed miles away.
Curious and illuminating detail of
that last hysterical night in the Ded
ham courtroom is published in a re
view of the case by the Brockton Dai
"Ten minutes after the ierdict,"
says the Enterprise, "Assistant Prose
cutor Harold Williams walked through
the courtroom, his head bent. Another
attorney extended a hand and said,
'Congratulations on a brilliant vic
tory.' "With ters streaming down his
face Williams replied: 'For God's sake
don't rub it in! This is the saddest
thing that ever happened to me in my
Prosecutor Katzman broke down,
the Enterprise says, and refused to
leave' his room. These reactions of the
two prosecutors are interpreted by
friends of the defendants as meaninc
only one thing consciousness of
guilt, consciousness that they had
started two innocent men on the dark
road to the electric chair on evidence
that would not justify the killing of
Resentment against Patrolman
Michael Connolly of Brockton, who
arrested Sacco and Vanzetti and who
asserted that they tried "to pull a
gun" on him, is freely expressed by
members of that police force. On the
eve of the verdict, bets were made
by Brockton policemen that the def
endants would never be convicted, be
cause they were not the bandits.
In the offices of Slater and Mor
rill, the shoe manufacturing firm rob
bed of its payroll, many employes hold
bitter feeling against Mary Evo
Splaine and Frances Devlin, book
keepers who testified at the preli
minary hearing of Sacco that they
were not certain he was one of the
bandits and then, a year later at the
trial, swore positively that he wns
the bandit they saw in a fleeing auto
mobile 80 feet from the upper window
in which they stood. Miss Splaine saw
the bandit while the automobile
moved 35 feet at 18 miles an hour
one and one third second yel she
described him down to fine details,
such as his "greenish-white com
plexion." Counsel for the defense is prepar
ing a motion for a new trial, to be
argue in September before ludge
Webster Thayer, who presided at the
Dedham trial. If he rejects that mo
tion, it will be taken (o the Supreme
Court November 1, supported by a
bill of exceptions showing innumer
able errors in the trial procedure.
Many disinterested persons have
expressed the opinion that Judge
Thayer's instructions to the jury were
unfair, in view of the evidence of the
radical activities of the defendants
and t"heir anti-war histories. He
pleaded for "loyalty to government,"
talked about "consciousness of guilt
as murderers or as slackers and radi
cals", and admonished the jury to
"seek courage in your deliberations
as did the American soldier as he
fought and gave up his life on the
battlefields of France." These words
were uttered to a Puritan New Eng
land jury. I
The Judge's Death Sentence.
Charles F. Dole, prominent author,
ir a letter published in the Boston
Herald, declares that a certain pas
sage in the judge's instructions might
have sounded to. the jury like a death
sentence. Thi3 was the passage:
"If a person is willing to use a
deadly weapon such as a revolver upon
an arresting officer to gain his liber
ty, what would you naturally expect
would be the gravity of the crime of
which such a person must be con
Alexander Howat writes from Kan
sas to the defense committee sending
money and reaffirming his belief in
the innocence of Sacco and Vanzetti.
The Sons of Italy, 'at their Massa
chusetts state convention, pledged un
qualified support to the defense.
Money has come from locals of the
United Mine Workers in many parts
of the country. Aggressive co-operation
is nvomised by the Young Peo
ple s International League of Law
Many other expressions of sym
pathy have been received. Appeals for
money have gone out widely, but the
returns come slowly and in small
amounts because of the big percentage
More than two pages of the New
Republic are devoted to the Sacco
Vanzetti verdict. That 'periodical sees
little hope of any action by the np
peals court. "Sacco and Vanzetti," it
declares, "will go before the court of
public opinion, the decision of which
can be registered by executive clemen
FOOD THEFTS GROW.
Chicago, Aug. 13. Thefts of food
from doorsteps and small shops in
the poorer districts .of Chicago are on
the increase, Police Chief Fitzmorris
declared today. He added that indica
tions are the city will be confronted
with one of the worst "crime waves"
in its history unless the unemploy
ment situation in the middle west is
improved this fall.
Arests of persons charged with eat
ing meals in the cheaper restaurants
and then: admitting they have no
money to pay, are more numerous
the chief said and in some districts
police captains report families are
dispensing with cooked meals to
economize on fuel. The chief estimate
the number of unemployment In the
city at 100,000.
POLICE FLY TO RESCUE
A quarter of an hour battle with
bricks, shovels and other tools of the
builders' trade, took place in Cleve
land, on August 17th between striking
carpenters, sympathizers and scabs.
Eighty scabs working on the B. !'.
Keith theatre building at Euclid Ave.
nnd East 17th street were being load
ed at quitting time into trucks which
were furnished to take them home
when a half hundred strike pickets
and sympathizers stormed the trucks
and threatened to overturn them.
A nenr-by cop waded into the meelc
with his revolver threatening to shoot,
but the bluff was called and he re
treated weilding his club instead. A
riot call brought out five flying
squadrons wi:ich quelled the riot. Ths
casualties from, each side were about
a doscn broken heads and blackened
eyes. The police carried off the worst
appearing offenders and the trucks
took the rest of the scabs to 4 heir
Send all funds for relief
THE FRIENDS Of
201 W. 13th STREET
This organization is in direct con
winiiiiiiLv. ii nuin s liii i. 1 mill cm
relief committee's hands, but will he a
)f hunger in Russia to
NEW YORK CITY
ct with the Official Soviet Relief
o it will not pass thru any capitalistic
ministered directly by the Soviets'
tion for Soviet Russia.
Relief Call Stirs Workers to Generous Giving.
NEAR 6 MILLION
SENATE GETS FIGURls ON UNEMPLOYED.
IN PROTEST OF
Washington, Aug. 16. Unemploy
ment figures for the United States
were given today by the department
of labor as 5,735,000.
Of this number there are '204,000
factory workers out of employment
in industries of Ohio, so the same
The statement, described by Secre
tary of Labor James J. Davis as "a
rough estimate ', was submitted to the
senate today in response to a reso
lution passed by that body several
The head of the labor department
said it was impossible for him to
comply with the request of the senate
for information as to the number of
px-service men or the' nunber of
women out of jobs.
The figures submitted today were
compiled by Ethelbert Stewart, chief
statistician of ;the department, who.
classified the number of unemployed
in the various industries as follows:
Manufacturing and mechanical in
Trade and clerical workers 450,-000.
Domestic and personal service
Data was also furnished to show
the increase of unemployment in the
first half of 1921. In the manufactur
ing and mechanical industries, it was
estimated 3,473,000 fewer persons,
were employed in January, 1921, than
in January, 1920. By July, 1921, the
decrease in the manufacturing me
chanical industries had reached 3,
C06.405 according to the report.
The department estimated about
100,000 coal miners are out of work,
while many others are working part
time. It added that there was much
"slack" in the mining of iron, copper
and other minerals so that the total
of 250,000 men out of work in mining
was "a conservative estimate." The
unemployed railrond workers were
estimated at 700,000.
All the department's estimates were
relative to the peak of employment
in January, 1920, it was explained,
so that the actual number of regular
workers out of employment would be
somewhat less than the 5,735,000
figure. In other words, many wives,
daughters, nnd boys emptoyed when
the demand for labor was at its height
havo since returned to "non-gainful"
home work or to school, nnd these
are included in the estimated 5,735,.
In Illinois, the number of factory
workers unemployed in June, 1921,
as compared with March, 1920, was
203,000 in Ohio, the number wns '204,
000; in Pennsylvania, 371,000; in
Michigan 108,000; in Wisconsin, 78,
000; in Indiana, 79,000; in Minnesota,
37,000; in Iowa, 25,000.
CALLS OF NEEf)Y N-.
CITY BUREAU WITHOUT FUNDS
Funds for relief of needy Cleveland
families is nearly exhausted despite
that $45,000 recently was added to
the original"32,000 appropriation. W.
A. Kenney, superintendent of the
City Outdoor Relief Bureau states.
The bureau now i carrying for
S000 families, compared with 800 a
ye:ir ngo, said Kcnnej.
"Applications are coming in 500 n
day," said Kenney. "Present appro
priations will be exhausted Aug. 30.
The appeals for help probably will
increase reatly as winter approaches."
Nine hundred a
ths Cabin and
region were enc
West Va., on Au
Mingo County inj
The miners arft
what they term
class rights by t
martial law in
Altho the cont
wholly in the
and law abiding
miners are arnMfl
this section. They
in a pinch, resort.
guns if conditions
union in this Vir;
is getting on the
has created an
By M. H. ROGERS, Local Organizer
Irish-American Labor League.
;1 coal miners of
it Creek mining
ed at Charleston,
t 21, enroute into
otest against the
irtial ,Law there,
fatly incensed at
violation of their
lauguration of an
of the civil law.
!;ited march is
re of a peaceful
utest, nearly all j
I is customary in
the use of their i
-tified. The long
of the miners;
!a mining section
iners' nerves and i
A DEFENSE BOOST
I am sending y.u' a sum of money !
I collected for defense. It was hard
work because in Hnrtshorne the peo
ple do not know
what defense of
is. Lewis Bruske
and myself did the collecting, Please
publish the names in The Toiler.
' George Davis.
The names of the comrades who
donate this fund to the defense of
American political prisoners arer
George Davis ' $3.00
P. Deveikis fit. 1.00
A. Staponovice 1.00,
Joe Kailis . 1.00
G. S. L. B. B. R
Felice G. Rents 25
Glovan Polite ... ji 25
Albert Fronini 50
Angello Vorgei 1.00
Tifigi Angeli K 50
B. Pofinon L00
Tom Yankes 40
Geo. Plunker 1.25
A. Basses L00
G. M. Ancetin 2.00
T. Lguiggi 25
Hy Rostun Quillan.
A significant development in the
unemployment situation here in Chi
cago is the increasing number of one-!
time workers who are taking advan-!
tage of the only free things left in I
"free and brave" America open ai
and free water.
Thev are leaving their 15 cent
abodes on West Madison street and
cluttering up the public parks. One
lias but to visit one'of these breathing
places to become aware of the vast
ness of the unemployed army. They
are perched upon every statue, they
ruin the scencrv for the pleasure
motorists and otherwise create them
selves a common background against j
which the beauties of our public play
grounds are visioned.
Another sign that they are obeying
the doctor's prescription to take the
fresh air nnd water is evidenced in
the recent large number of suicMca
of members of this unemployed army.
Formerly they used musty gas in a
lousy hall bclroom1, now they jump
Into the lake or Chicago river. The
pnpers have remrdod as high as fou
such "water cures'' In one week. Four j
bums stiffs- who will fail to an
swer the roll call at the soup line.'
Four men, once ustfttl to society, de-j
prived of their useful- . whose,
deaths cause no tarrow, killed by ,
The Irish workers of Cleveland do
not lag behind their fellow-workers of
other cities. A branch of the Irish
American Labor League was organ
ized in thill city last week.
Though in its incipient stage, the
organization has developed a prodi
gious capacity for work. Plans were
made for the holding of large mass
meetings and social affairs. An in
tensive'membership campaign will be
The Irish-American Labor League
is the only Irish organization in the
United States which advocates the
abolition o the present capitalist sys
tem and the establishment of a work
ers' republic. It therefore behooves
every worker of Irish birth or extrac
tion to join the League. Theirs is pre
cisely the program which James Con
nelly stood for and died for in Easter
week, 1916. This is the program for
which the gallant fighter, Jim Larkin
stands for and because of his views
is serving a prison term of five years
in tin American prison.
The following officers of the Cleve
land League were elected.
Edward O'Nill. President.
Martin Bone, Vice-President.
Patrick Doyles, Treasurer.
John M. Gallae-her, Secretary.
M. H. Rogers, Organizer.
These officers constitue the Exe
Initiation fees are 50 cents and
monthly dues are 50 cents. The branch
meets each Tuesday evening at the
I. B. W. A. Hall, 226 Champlain Ave.
American workers generally, and
Irish workers in particular are in
vited to acquaint themselves with the
work of this League and become mem
NATIONAL FIGURES ON
(By The Federated Press.)
New York. Man' men through
out the United States scan the wantj
ad columns of the Sunday newspapers
for jobs, answer the ads only to find
the places filled, and then go out and
kill themselves usually on Tuesdays.
This is the startling information re
vealed by an analys of statistic!.
just announced here. Tuesday has be-
come the chief "suicide day", at least
in New York City.
The increase in self destruction has
come as the aftermath of the world
war and fully 76 per cent of those
who kill themselves are victims of
misfortune due to lives broken by the
war or unemployment.
The fcMowing figures show the in
crease in suicides in a single year:
Suicides in the whole country:
First six' First six
mos. 1920 mos. 1921
Men 1810 452?
Women 961 1982
Boys' i. 88 214
Girls 137 293
Totals 2996 7016
In New York City:
Men 277 319
Women 1C8 124
MAY GO TO RUSSIA.
Washington, Aug. 19. A bill
directing the president to turn over
$6,000,000 worth of surplus medical
supplies of the War Department for
use in Russian relief work was in
troduced in the Senate today by
Senator King of Utah.
King said that thousands of Rus
sians were dying tor want of medical
New York, Aug. 14. A splendid
demonstration was held at the Lex
ington Theatre here today by the
American Labor Alliance, which is
cooperating with the Friends of So
viet Russia in relief work for the
workers of Russia.
Fully 3,000 people were present
and responded to an appea'l for funds
by donations amounting to more than
$4,000 in cash, checks and-pledges and
about $1,000 in jewelry. The entire
sum was turned over to the Friends
of Soviet Russia.
The meeting was a continuous de
monstration from beginning to end.
In opening the meeting, Caleb liar
rison stated that it was the begin
ning of a campaign all over the coun
try to help the suffering workers
of Soviet Russia. He called on all
progressive and radical workers to
respond to the call of the famine
stricken people of Russia. He showed
that Hoover nde his relief offer to
aid and create counter revolutionary
movements in Russia.
"If Russia is not helped, she will
be helpless and at the mercy of the
atrocious White Terror. But if we can
provide the food that is so. necessary,
Russia, self-sufficient, independent,
can lay down the terms of her relief
and need not fear the counter-revolutionary
intentions of capitalist na
tions." Hoover Called Russian Workers
Dr. J. W. Hartmann, editor of So
viet Russia, remarked that it was very
strange that Hoover, the man who
now wants to help the Russian work
ers, was the man who always called
them "rabid Bolshevists." Has he
changed his mind, or has his opin
ions been changed by "higher inspira
tion?" Reading from an article in a
recent issue of the World's Work he
showed how one of Hoover's agents
used his power as head of the relief
work in Hungary to iireak tti hjrwf
munist regime in Hungary.
FamiKci Have Occured in Russia
Ludwig Lore, editor of the Volks
zeitung, refuted the accusation that
the famine was caused by the incom
petency or treachery of the Soviet
government. He pointed out that
there was a terrible famine in Rus
sia in 1891, which caused deaths of
hundreds of thousands of men, women
and children. The present famine is
due to the after-effects of the war,
the blockade nd the low stage of
Russian agriculture. The transporta
tion facilities completely broke down
during the war, and there was a fear
ful scarcity of farming machinery
and implements, which other countries
managed to get, but which were
denied to Soviet Russia because it
was a Workers' Republic.
"Why does not Mr. Hoover think
of providing relief for the 5,000,000
unemployed in this country?" a3ked
Rose Pastor Stokes.
Achievements of Revolution Not Sur
rendered. The. Relief Commissioners of Rus
sia have refused to accept the harsh
conditions imposed by Hoover. They
are intent upon not giving up the
achievements of the Revolution nnd
will hold high the principles of Com
munism, even though, at the moment,
they are compelled to make temporary
"If the government of the prole
tariat had not been established, she
would have been supplied with rail
road equipment and locomotives and
every capitalist government would
have rushed to her relief long ngo,"
Mrs. Stokes declared.
"You may imagine what would hap.
pen if Hoover had his way," she con
tinued. "He would have armored cars,
gatling guns and White Guards. The
Russian workers will hold the power
and never relinquish a jot of it. They
will hurl them back with the great
slogan of the last imperialist war:
'They shall not pass!' "
Resolution Unanimously Adopted.
Mrs. Stokes proposed the following
resolution, which was adopted wHh
stormy applause: s I
"Whereas, millions of Russian
workers and peasants are starving
through atmospheric causes beyond
humai control and through the block-.
counter-revolutionary element into
Russia to destroy the power of the
workers' and peasantry government,
"Whereas, here in capitalist Amer
ica, which boasts the most highly per
fected technical equipment in the
world, 5,000,000 workers are unem
ployed and many millions more suf
fer hunger and want in the midst of
the abundance they have created, be
"Resolved, that we, the workers, in
mass meeting assembled in the Lex
ington Opera House, pledge our loyal
and continued aid to the Russian work
ers and peasants who are victims of
the blockade and the drought, and
urge the workers who suffer under
capitalism everywhere to share gen
erously their little with the stricken
workers and peasants of Russia, the
shock troops of the world's Social Re
volution, and be it further
"Resolved, that we favor the stand
taken by Soviet Russia in accepting
relief from capitalist sources to be
administered solely by the Russian
Workers' and Peasants' Federated
By H. W. GARNER.
ade deliberately inflicted upon them
by the bourgeois enemy governments
of the world, and
"Whereas, these enemy governments,
and their private relief organizations
are preparing to use the famine situa
tion as a means of bringing the
world's most active and sinister'
Are we going to permit the free
dom of our Russian brothers and Com
rades to be bought with crumbs of
bread? I believe this question to be
of paramount interest to the Amer
ican workers at this titoe.
'i'he capitalist nations of the world,
having been defeated in their efforts
to crush the workers' government of
Russia by aiding countr-revolution-ists
will no doubt, try every con
ceivable scheme to take advantage of
Editions ciHtoajfirj Jy, gjti? , .
whatever foothold will tend to weaken
the power of the Soviets. We ask work
ors having a common struggle againut
the world's capitalists must not permit
this to happen.
One step has already been taken
by the American Relief Committee in
demanding the release of American
prisoners, (capitalist spies) held in
Russia before any relief will be given.
This in itself may not be of very
great importance, but it may be only
the beginning of a campaign to take
advantage of and render helpless the
workers' government of Russia.
If there is suffering in Russia we
must remember that Russia has pas
sed through seven years of war and
revolution; that for the past four
years the workers of Russia have held
out against the whole capitalistic
Ah! and now the capitalist press
has the audacity to point to the Bol
shevik government as having been a
failure in Russia. "See, the people are
starving and dying of disease", they
I want to ask wTiat capitalistic na
tion can with-stand such attacks as
have been made upon Russia and
depend entirely upon her own re
sources? Can America do it? Ask
some of the five millions of unem
ployed, whose families are facing
starvation in a time of peace. No a
capitalistic nation cannot support its
people in decency in times of peace
but those who control the press try
to keep this fact covered up.
We must remember that Russia's
fight and sacrifices have not been
made alone for Russia, but for the
workers of the entire world. They have
suffered and died for tus. It is up to
us now to see that they receive aid
in time of need.
Take the matter up at your union
halls, pass resolutions demanding re
lief be given Russia. And also let it
be known that we will not stand for
nny relief committee to dictate the
policies of Soviet Russia. Let relief
committees keep hands off the poli
tical situation and carry on their work
in co-operation with those appointed
by the Soviet Government. It is our
duty as workers to see to this. Let us
U. S. STEEL CUTS PAY
FOR THIRD TIME.
New York, Aug. 19. Reductions
in wages by the United States Steel
Corporation from 37 cents to SO centa
an hour for day labor, effective Aug.
29, was announced today. This is the
third cut this year by the corporation.
Overtime pay was also eliminated.