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EVERY CLASS OPPRESSOR REQUIRES
TWO SOCIAL FUNCTIONS TO DEFEND
ITS DOM1NATION--THAT OF THE HANG
MAN AND THE PRIEST. Lenin.
CLEVELAND, OHIO, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1921.
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
The Railroad Workers and
the Pennsylvania Railroad.
WHAT THE RAILROAD WORKERS ARE UP
AGAINST AND THE WAY OUT.
By TOM CLARK.
The Pennsylvania Railroad is a billion-dollar
concern, owning more than
21,000 miles of trackage, 72 subsidiary
railroad companies and large interests
in 254 related industries. In normal
times, it has a working force of about
This is a small kingdom and re
presents control over at least 1,000,
000 people. The importance of every
agreement made between the workers
on the railroad and the executives of
the railroad hence is quite obvious.
The railroad executives were order
ed by the Railway Labor Board to
make a new contract with the work
ers. They intend to reduce wages,
eliminate overtime, and particularly
are determined to introduce the open
Seperate Agreements with workers.
One of the specific methods that
the railroads have of reaching this
end is to obtain regional agreements
with the workers, thereby nullifying
the value of organization. But they
do not stop there: they effect separate
agreements with the crafts, thus mul
tiplying the number of agreements
and making it impossible for the men
to enter into joint action for any
Another feature of the railroad si
tuation must constantly be borne in
mind. In 191G, according to the World
Almanac, there were 11 financial
groups controlling the railway sys
tem of interlocking directorates, four
groups have got into control of all
the railroads of the country with
stocks of more than 6 billion dollars,
and bonds of an equal amount. These
groups are Morgan & Co., the Nation
al City Bank (Rockefeller group), the
First National Bank of New York
(Baker group) and Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
Although the Pennsyb infa system
represents a vast system of roads, the
subsidiary roads effect seperate and
distinct agreements with their men,
thus confusing the situation to the
utmost. This is all part of the scheme
that the financiers have projected, in
order to bring about chaos in the
ranks of the railroad workers.
Whereas the railroads are among
the most consolidated organizations
in the country, disposing of hundreds
of millions of capital, having the ser.
vices of the best experts in the line,
they are obstructing the workers in
their efforts to protect themselves in
the tremendous struggle for a living
that is now going on.
Road Has Own Union.
The Pennsylvania Railroad resolved
that t would not recognize any labor
organization and hence proceeded to
organize its own union, which has en
rolled less than 10 per cent of the
workers in the shop drifts. As a mat
ter of course, 3uch bodies as the Na
tional Association of Manufacturers,
the National Founders' Association,
the National Erectors' Association
(this latter concern Is tne one that
refused to supply any iron structural
material to firms employing union
labor), and the Employers' Associa
tion of Chicago, have endorsed the
open shop move of the Pennsylvania.
Pretending to speak in the name of
the "public"(!), they declare that they
stand for "freedom of contract ami
the right to select the kind of shop
each industry desires and to hnve the
protection of the law in its opera
tion." This is the slogan of the open
The Pennsylvania Railroad was
ordered by the Railway Labor Board
to meet representatives of its work
ers to formulate new working con
ditions. Elections were to take place
in order that the workers might de
signate representatives to confer with
the railway executives. The Pennsyl
vania, however, refused to recognize
:nv ihcr union but its own, ignoring
33,000 men, or more than 89 per cent
of its shop employes, who are mem
bers of the unions of machinists,
boilermakcrs blacksmiths, electri
cians, trackmen, clerks, telegraphers
and other employees.
In addition, the railway executives
protested against the decision of the
Railway Labor Board, which was to
the effect that the worker? might
elect any organization or person to
represent them in their dealings with
the railroads. The executives insisted
on dealing with the workers direct,
knowing that in this manner they
would be able to outwit them.
Thus we have a gigantic corpora
tion, supported by the billions of Wall
Street, pitted against the 33,000 work
ers, who are determined to accept no
other representatives than those of
their own choice, while the railroad
is equally determined to pay no at
tention either to the ruling of the
Labor Board or to the will of the men.
Were the situation reversed, the
government would already have made
preparations to coerce the men. But
capital can do no wrong. Hence the
inertia of the part of the government
while the Pennsylvania is laying in
a store of cots and food, and, it is
reported, GUNS to meet eventuali
There is only one hope for these
railway workers: in case they go on
strike, all the railway employees will
declare a strike in support of the shop
crafts of the Pennsylvania. Should all
the men fail to go out, the workers
organized in the shop crafts unions
will be defeated, despite all decisions
of the Labor Board. And THAT WILL
BE THE SIGNAL FOR A GENERAL
ONSLAUGHT ON THE RAILWAY
Workers Already Betrayed.
The union leaders are doing noth
ing, m spite of the huge possibilities
of the situation and the general
seriousness of the matter. Their de
termination is a mere paper affair,
while the government is beginning to
back down by granting the railroad
executives an extension of timeand
the Pennsylvania is laying in guns for
The reactionary leaders of the
union are afraid to enter the strug
gle. They are retreating this year,
just as they completely backed down
Instead, of having built up their
unions and strengthened their morale,
instead of having provided for the
emergency that they are now faced
with, they have let matters drift, in
th f"li. v,)nri.'Fji'SS JthuJ Jiuy -Afr'AnW ,
refuse to fight.
H. S. Jeffrey, chairman of the ad
visory boad the Shop Crafts Union
of the Philadelphia-Camden District, !
has announced that the union will not!
threaten the railroad or strike, but I
will depend on "patriotism and public
sentiment to force the road to obey
What piffle! What a betrayal!
Need Shop Delegate System.
This situation will continue as long
as the unions are led by men who
seek "industrial peace" rather than
the welfare of the organized workers.
It will continue as long as the unions j
are divided into crafts, each nego
tiating regional contracts with the
The railroad workers will remain
the victims of the big controlling
groups in Wall Street, until they re
cognize that the rank and file must
get and retain control. This they can
do only through shop organizations,
through the SHOP DELEGATE SYS
TEM. In this system, the workers
elect representatives from every shop,
IRRESPECTIVE OF THE CRAFT.
These shop representatives, or dele
gates, from the Shop Committee,
which takes up all shop matters with
the local railway superintendents. The
Committee elects a chairman, who, to
gether with the chairmen of the Shop
Committees of other shops, form the
Local Executive Committee.
These local Executive Committees
elect all local officials. Delegates
from the Local Committees form a
District Council. All delegates to na
tional conventions are elected in the
shops. All officials are recallable. All
delegates must report back to the
shops, which have the power to re
move anybody at any time.
This ensures rank and file control.
This eliminates cowardly, treacherous
leaders. This makes it positive that
the WILL OF THE RANK AND
FILE WILL PREVAIL.
When the workers perceive these
facts, and when they organize in such
form thnt joint action of the 2,000,
000 railway workers will be possible,
then and then only will the Pennsyl
vania, and with it, all the other lines,
not dare to defy either the workers or
the Labor Board.
LABOR DAY 1921
This year, Labor celebrates Labor Day the Day of the Toilers, under the most in
auspicious conditions. '
Six millions of fellow-workers are out of work. Millions trudge daily to the factory
door to be told there is no work. Millions are working part time.
Men have been laid off and women Jut in their places because woman's labor is
cheaper. Child labor is on the increase despite State laws. The morale of .he workers
has been smashed by the unemployment and wage cuts.
The bosses insist on lengthening the hours, in order to extract more labor and more
profit from the bodies of the already ovir-exploited workers. It was the proud boast of
workers during the war that labor at last i ras coming into its own and was gaining the re
cognition and respect of the employing chis. Capital henceforth would have to consult
But disregarding the workers and their demands, the capitalists have forced longer
hours, thrown millions into the streets and put into their places, children even of four
and five years who become the bread-ewners of the family.
Wages have been reduced far below the subsistence standard. Competing with the
ke men still at the machines are forced to ac-
rvation. Reduction in pay once, twice and
hungry armies outside the factory doors,
cept terms that condemn them to semi-s
three times within a year that is Labor's I
Conditions OS The Workers.
Undernourishment is the scourge of tpe hour. Pale, anaemic children attend the
public schools, two-thirds of them suffering! from physical defects as a direct result of mal
nutrition. Tuberculosis is rapidly increasing,) the workers being stricken from overwork and
poor food. 1
Soup kitchens, bread lines, charity societies are the institutions most active to-day.
THE WORKERS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO WORK, BUT MUST DEPEND ON
CHARITY FOR FOOD! j
In the southern States, a veritable plagie stalks abroad, child of famine and hunger.
One hundred thousand human beings are jtricken with disease because they cannot obtain
sufficient food. And yet this year is but a Repetition of last year and of all years, only in
an intensified degree. y
The tenant farmers 38 per cent of te population are living on a standard far
below that of the worker. They are the producers of food, yet they dare not eat! In the
South, they are dying because the food thai THEY produce belongs first to the landlord,
and only what remains to them!
Crime is on the increase. Bread is dea; and work is not to be obtained. Men, women
and children, suffering the pangs of hunger, jae learning to disregard the distinction be-
tween "thine" and "mine". The thief so etjily becomes the murderer when his theft is
Ex-soldiers, who gave up everything h the war, have returned to find that starvation
is their lot. ONE OF EVERY FOUR FIRST OFFENDERS IS A WAR VETERAN!
Crazed by the unemployment and economic stress 6509 men and women ended
their lives in the past six months 36 every twenty-four hours!
THE POWER ff THE TOSSES.
7i0 employers, on fneottfer fianiWeifWgli
of commerce, manufacturers' associations (etc. Behind them in the fight against the work
ers are the billions of Wall Street. They bae declared the open shop. The labor organiza
tions must go. They have determined that tl e few safeguards that the workers have built
for their protection must be smashed. No means to this end are too foul. Lockouts, closed
factories, injunction legislation declaring strikes a penal offence, thugs, spies, gunmen1,
militia, federal troops the government anc all its organs are at the behest of the capital
ists in their greed to crush labor.
Schools are but places for distorting he minds of the children with wild patriotism.
The press is a cesspool of lie and calumny. The Jiurch damns everything that the work
ers undertake to free themselves from increasing degradation. The platform resounds with
vile stories against the emancipation of th! workers.
The Ku Klux Klan, the American Legion, vigilantes, and other superpatriotic bodies
stretch out their blody hands to throttle the upward movement of the workers.
And the capitalist government looks ort benignly, glad, indeed, that the forces of re
action have created these lawless bodies to jdo the bloody work it would otherwise have
to do if capitalism is to survive, if the capitalist system is to survive.
THIS IS CAPITALISM IN AMERICjA TO-DAY.
The capitalists and the capitalist governments are not blind. Since the war, the British
government has had to face contests with Organized labor forces and has defeated them
only through the treachery of union leaders The working masses of Japan do not hesitate
to demonstrate their rebellious spirit. The six million unemployed in the United States are
a power for revolt that the United States tovernment is well aware of. Hence, the crea
tion of a MILITIA ON A NATIONAL SCA.LE to cope with internal troubles; hence the
equipment of police forces with riot guns md poison and tear gas.
THE FORCES OF REACTION ARE UNITED IN POWERFUL ORGANIZATIONS,
WHILE THE WORKERS ARE DIVIDED INTO MANY ORGANIZATIONS WORKING
AT CROSS PURPOSES WITH ONE ANOTHER!
False, treacherous labor leaders are leiiding themselves to the bosses in the movement
single organization that will be able to fight
the workers apart, fighting against and scabbing
to destroy the unions. Instead of creating a
the bosses class against class they keep
on one another.
Hence it is time for the workers to renlize that there must be UNITY, or there will
be annihilation. The working masses must realize that every dav they remain apart, they
strengthen the forces of their enemies. A united front, a MILITANT front in the interests
of labor that must be labor's slogan.
Now is the time for the organized workers to make the unions instruments for waging
a militant fight against the bosses. The reactionary leaders have failed. The rank and file
must take up the activity of the unions, to hiake of them powerful weapons of defense
and offense awinst the capitalist class.
ATTEND YOUR UNION MEETINGS! LINE UP THE MILITANTS AND PRO
GRESSIVES FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST
THE BUREAUCRACY! MAKE THE UNIONS
A FIGHTING FORCE NOT ONLY FOR BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS, BUT FOR
THE BIGGER STRUGGLE FOR THE dOMPLETE EMANCIPATION OF THE WORK
ING CLASS FROM THE CHAINS OF SLAVERY!
That must be the sloran of Labor Dak'.
Due to the necessity of substituting
more important matter, the first in
stallment of "MY TWELVE DAYS
IN GERMANY" will not appear un
til next issue.
Relief Conference Affiliates
Organizations With Friends
Of Soviet Russia.
Boston, August 14.
At conference which met here
last night, to devise ways and means
of helping the famine stricken mas
ses of Russia, it was decided to af
filiate in the relief work with the
Friends of Soviet Russia.
The call for the conference was is
sued in answer to an appeal recently
sent out to the
by Lenin. The M
To Aid Russia
WORKERS ORGANIZE FOR
An Open Letter to
My Dear Pres. Harding:
I was very glad to read in the
New York Times of the 19th of Aug.
your kind letter to Sec. Hoover who
is directing the American Relief Com
mittee. It is splendid to note that you
are ready to cooperate fully in the
distribution of food to the starving
Russian people. This I may call the
first act of sanity of our government
officials since the memorable yet dis
astrous Murmansk Campaign.
Still there are several passages in
your letter that are rot fully com
prehensible and I am therefore writ
ing you for a clearer explanation, f
May I call your attention to the
'My particular purpose in addres
sing this letter to you is to emphasize
my wish that the distribution in Rus
sia of ALL charity arising in the U.
S. should be carried on through ONE
Also to this passage:
'It is also of importance that the
American people should be protected
so far as we can do so from those
persons who may wish to thrive on
great disasters by creating unneces
sary organizations to collect charity.'
My dear President ihese are un
usual conditions and added to these
comes the announcement from Sec
retary Hoover, no doubt with your
sanction, that there will be no nublic
appeal for funds.
In behalf of my fellow workers I
must ask you "WHY?"
WHY should all relief be carried on
thru one organization?
WHY should there be no appeal to
the American Working Class for
WHY do the American workers
need to be protected(?) from those
who are ready to give their time,
their energies and their money to
wards getting the much needed re
lief? WHY should the ONE organization
be one not controlled by or in any
way responsible to the masses of this
WHY should your good fvtimitteo
be "afraid to call "tip'ofl the'people' To"
give money to send food to Soviet
WHY should we stand in the way
of those who are ready to sacrifice
their all for the Russian workers and
who have sent help and encourage
ment to Russia while your good com
mittee was feeding the Russian work
ing class on Lead and Steel thru1 o -
gattling guns? ;
Can it be that vour eood and kind 1 STATISTICS THAT TELL
Hoover Committee want to be in ab
solute control of the only relief that
can be sent Russia so that they can
use the much needed food as a whip
over the backs of the Russian people?
Can it be that this Committee is plan
ning at some time near at hand to
demand as the price of Food the over
throw of the Communist Government
Is the tragic spectacle of Hungary
to be repeated ?
Can it be that your Committee
hesitates to call for funds from the
American workers lest the response be
so overwhelming as to express the
complete solidarity of our Working
Class with their Comrades and Broth
ers in Russia?
If there is to be no public appeal
for funds where are the funds to
come from? Is it to be from some
Slush Fund, from some wealthy and
sinister source and that will demand
its toll in blood ?
WHY, my dear President do you
even consider offering the starving
Russians material help when at the
same time you would deny them the
Spiritual and Mornl Aid that the
Workers of this country would send
them as an appreciation of the splen
did and heroic struggle that the Rus
sian Revolutionists have been waging
against the combined Capitalists and
Imperialists of the world?
My dear President, I wonder WHY?
M. Parnell Jr.
New York City.
An organization of "The Friends of
Soviet Russia" was effected in Cleve
land Aug. 25th. Delegates from twenty-one
labor unions and other working-class
bodies met under an invita
tion of the American Labor Alliance
and agreed to form a branch of the
new workers' relief agency, The
Friends of Soviet Russia with head
quarters at 201 West 13th St., New
Enthusiasm in the proposed relief
work marked each successive step in
i the amalgamation of the organiza
tions forming the "Friends". A letter
from secretary Allan S. Broms of the
: American Labor Alliance authorizing
the organization of The Friends Of
Soviet Russia was read by E. T. Al
lison of the Ohio branch of the Al
liance. Executive Committee Elected.
An executive committee of five was
elected consisting of: E. T. Allison,
Editor The Toiler, Chairman. John
Fromholz, Secretary. Joseph Jodlbauer
of the International Workers Amal
gamated Food Industries, Treasurer;
and Tom Clifford and J. N. Simanov
sky. Extensive plans for relief work
were suggested. Mass and community
meetings will be a large part of the
work outlined. It is the intention of
the organization to obtain the co-
j operation of the entire organized labor
I union movement in a drive for relief
of the stricken Russian people.
A second organization meeting was
to be held on the following week
which was expected to secure many
new affiliations. Weekly delegate
meetings will be held. All organiza
tions affiliated will form sub-committees
for work within their organiza
tions ond in the various languages.
First Mass Meeting.
The first mass meeting under the
Friends' auspices will be held at
Remeney's Hall, East5Gth and Wood
land Ave., Sunday, Sept. 4 at 8 P. M.
Caleb Harrison of New Y'ork City wilt
be the speaker. It is planned to make
J,i. fi.vW u a itina
start in the work. Admission is free
and all workers and sympathizers are
It is suggested that organizations
and individuals interested may get in
touch with the organization thru the
headquarters located at 3207 Clark
Ave. Bell Phone: Lincoln 3G39.
OPIUM AND DEATH.
workers of the world
Organization Cojmmittee of the Ar
beiter Ring initjiated the movement,
by the Amalgamated
Clothing Worked of America, the In
ternational Ladtes' Garment Work
ers' Union, the lloston joint Board of
Cloak Makers, the Labor League, the
Independent ArbViter Ring.
About 100 oriranisatinns responded
to the call, heink rv cnted by 150
delegates. The Conference was en
thusiastic from bginning to end, and
demonstrated that the workers of
America are a unit in their deter
mination to help their fellow workers
An Executive Committee of 15 was
elected. Every member present pled
ged earnest, energetic work.
Th headquarters of the Friends of
Soviet Russia are at 201 West 13th
St., New York City, to which all
funds and contributions should be
Dear Editor and Comrade:
I am working at odd jobs and some
times see some things which look
funny to one of a revolutionary mind.
Here is one thing I saw.
I was working in a bedroom of a
Roman. Catholic and on the wall was
a crucifix. Having never examined
one closely I proceeded to do so.
Above the image were the letters, I
N R I and below were a skull and
crossbones. I said to myself, "Well,
I knew religion was opium for the
people, but I'll be damned If I knew
it meant doath too."
The following figures give much
food for thought to all workers. Read
them. Study them and you'll see your
finish unless you join the effort to
finish the capitalist system.
Ford Motor Company:
1920: GO ,000 men produced 4,000
Fords per day.
1921: 45,000 men produced 4,500
Fords per day.
Production was increased 12 per
cent by throwing 15,000 men on the
Overland, Company, Toledo:
1920: 14,000 men produced 500 autos
1921: 7,000 men produced 550 autos
By throwing on the scrap heap
7,000 wage workers, production was
increased 10 per cent.
Ruber Factories, Akron:
1920: 95,000 workers produced 100,
000 tires per day.
1921: 35,000 workers produced 80,
000 tires per day.
This means that the rubber industry
of Akron will never again have em
ployment for 50,000 former workers.
Now note how the workers assist
in their own demise. A cut of 17 per
cent was made in the piece work
wages of the Akron rubber workers.
The workers speeded up in order to
keep up with their former earnings.
Still another and then another cut
was made on piece work jobs. Each
time the workers speeded up in order
to make former wages, until now they
are going so fast that in some de
partments they are doing the work of
three men. It is food for thought, is
it not? So our suggestion is THINK!
New York. The weekly earning!
of workers in New York state decreas
ed 15 cents per week in June from
the May figures, according to figures
complied by the state department of
labor. The average weekly wage of
factory employes in June was $25,71.
About 460,000 workers, employed in
1C48 factories, furnished the basis of