Newspaper Page Text
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iCilmi;jamalrijig.w it . i U'
: NEW SERIES-VOL. 1 . NO. '36.
LANCASTER, OHIO, THURSDAY MORNING, JANUARY ' 12, IS54
WHOLE NO 117G
' - . . , , - - . , T f -... . , .
" - - - .... . - .... . ... -
CITY OF XANCASTEBr
T nSMsHBD SVBBT TKUBSDAT MotBWO, '
it. slKushteh, editor' andproprietor
Oi'flCE Ql(i PubUc Building South-eaat Corn.
. "' , . or tba Public 6o,ur- .." .
Tbbms $1,75 per nnum in, advance.
Thmrsdajr Evening. Jan. ft. 1834
. " OOVEttXOU'9 MESSAGE.
Ctntlevien of the Scnalt '
' and House of ReprttenUlivti:
Ob the thirteenth day of July lost, IUcsati
Wood having accepted an appointment in the
ervice of the United Statea.resigned the office
of Oovetriot of Ohio, which thereupon, devolv
ed on me as Lieutenant Governor of the Slate.
Having thus assumed the powers conferred
by the constitution, on the Qhiof magistrate, of
the SUte.it is made my duty, upon your as
sembling aHtawoepitn hepeentatives
. ef the people, to communicate te you the eon
ditiqn 'pf the several departments of the State
Govetnment, so far as the same has come to
By knowledge and to , recommend to your
auiideration such .measures as, in my judg
ment, should claim the attentien of the law
aking power of the State. ' "
Before proceeding to the discharge of thw
'itty, permit me to eongratul&te you on the au-
ipicious circumstances, under which you are
onvened- The year thathas Just heej num.
:bered with the past, has been one of unusual
proiperity, the earth has given forth its fruits
in greatabundsnce; industry and enterprise
have been appropriately rewarded; and the
.comforts and enjoyments of life have been
...more generally and equally diffused among the
-great body of the people, than at any former
- period of our history. - '
These evidences of trie goodness and contin
ued favor of that Supreme and All-Wise Being,
who watches over and controls the destiny of
. all human institutions, should have their due
"and proper influence on. our minds, and com
mand the homage of our grsteful acknowledg
ments. The present is an interesting and progressive
age. The discoveries and inventions of the
. few last years, have stimulated a bolder inqui
ry into thescienoeofjhuman government, and
wakened a teal for improvement in almost
fvery department of life. ' i - .
Under these Influences.the oTganic laws un-
4er which the State Government was first es-
t iblished, have been superceded by a new
.: Constitution, in which private and individual
i rights are believed to be better f defined and
more securely guarded. ....
i The people' liave retained in -their own
hands the aelection of thcr officers, as well in
"' lie Judicial is in the Executive departments of
the Government; privato . property has been
: rendered truly inviolate, and all increase in Uie
public liabilities, except to a very limited ex
tent, and for extraordinary purposes, lias been
' effectually prohibited. ' - ,.
The General Assembly has been restrained
' Oroea passiag any law, cither of a generator
' private nature, except by the recorded totes of
-1 majority of the members, elected to each
' .. House, and from fronting any privileges or
iatmunilles that may not be revoked, amended
' or repealed, by any snbseqnent Legislature.
-" Corporate powers can only be conferred un-
, .der general laws; and no bill can be lnlrouuc
. d or considered, for any purpose, which shall
auiaia mora Uiiibone subject, to. bg clearly
expressed in its title.- . - ' .
' Nq money tan be bmwn from the Treasury,
except in pursuance of epecific appropriations,
i made by law; and all property not used for
public, charitable of religious purposes, is re
'qu;red to bear an equal proportion of the bur-
deos of the State.
- The duty ffpreparlnK laws, in accordance
; with these changes,' and of carrying into effct
, the various provisions of the new Constitution,
V devolved on your immediate predecessors, who,
, during a longanl laborious, session, passed
manv salutary and impottant statutes. To ren-
ler these more perfect, and to mature and
. pass such additional measures as may be found
necessary to promote the publio welfare, and
',. oiplete the organization of the new Govern-
anent, are among the principal duties that will
. : claim the attention or the present Legislature.
The people, in this Government. ; ore the
iourca of all power. They have the right to
' k, and it i the duty of their agents to fur
".' nish fall ad correct information respecting the
.' condition and management of the affairs of tlie
. State, - Complaints of -high laxts and con
n stantly increasing burdens are becoming gen'
' erali and nothing contributes more successful-
ly to allay unnecessary apprehensions ou this
'object, than a full exposition of our financial
J operations, .whil it enables the Legislature to.
'i ..PPly Ihe appropriate remedy. '
, .. t The reports of the; various .officers of the
.. Government, which are herewith communicat.
ed, will place before you Uje detailed accounts
of their respective flepartments. -'
It hppeari from the Auditor' Report, that
A the.receipta into the State Treasury for the
; ; fiscal year ending November 15, 1833, have,
.loftaaa as follows: . .
General revenue for StalejiurpQ- , i
- . aes collected upon the dtfpM- -'
v. - cateof 1853 .... 1,687,193 W
.' Canal tolls and water rents - C05.165 62
l XHvideads on tnmpike.canal and
. ,i Sales of canal lands
tt . Bale of lands by Board of Publio
Works ' -: -v.,. ,,;
Surplas revenue, principal and
vv Tolls on National Road ( ,
Tolls on Mauinee Road : ' . ;
. Repayu.ent of railroad loans .
Bale -of aobool and ministerial
: land i i-'- .
' Rents on Virginia Military School
-v 73.835 90
' 7,897 44
. 35,354 40
' .Lands ' . -3,105 09
t. . For use of Commercial Hospital 464 00
Miscellaneous . . .' . 3,268 67
Total amount ! 82,866,139 61
i R,l.iir In'tlia Treniurv.NoV. 16. .' ' "
- -1852 .-i-v' - " ,693.041 7T
'Total amount annlicabla to dis- :'
. . bursement of 185S 3,459,l8l 38
; The disbursments during the same period
. tave been ' r "
Po exoerures on the State Qot- - - .
eminent , . v. .$533,995 86
,' For repair upon-puUIio works ' ; 419,871 28
for interest . on foreign public - . . ..
' debt , - $896,457 53
Domestic debt " 19.019 21 '
r . For school and trust funds,' be- ; ' ,
, ing irreduoible debt and rents ..: t
Virginia Military School'
Lands '. 109,77098
.., ,,.v : , ,-1,025,247 71
fat' tedtmption of domestio
1 ' 104,679 00 .
. frredempUp of fojeigndeW 219,791 47
. . . ' . 324,470 47
" For investments by Fraud Com- ....
missioner in" United State? .' :
Stocks - - ..... - 123.4.0853
For common sohool fund paid to
. " bounties ,.'.' 900.002 00
for repairs of National Roa 36,520.48
V for Ohio canal tolls,- paid Sandy
,-' r aifd Dever ' ' , -- 3.602 51
'.'- ''" -
. . Total :aisbursinent during
the vear . $2,696,118 83
.' balance in the Treasury, Nov.
.'',' 16,-1853, ..,( i. ., 8763,062 6$
. ' . ;.'.Tho varioV) amounts assessed on the dupli.
cate of 1853, wera as follows . -" ' ; .
- For SUte purposes, 5 1-10 mills $3,022,586.72
. ' for coanty, township.poor bridg-: ' .
- ' . " ' es and building : 2,001,263 49
.-Tor roads. lZ : ;.. 209,788 89
For schools, and school houses, - i :
special i-,-. , . . . . , , 682,811 80
For other special tunas ,.. - , ll,0a3 10
Poroitles, towna, and boroughs 934,14907
For delinquencies of the preced- " ' " '
.in year, with forfeiture 'and "
' penalty ' . ' - .... 226,378 02
Railroad Tre 24fl,t04 4
.- Total amount . ; , 7,80T,196 34
The revenues accruing from these assess
ments are now in Die hands- of the county
Treasurers, and will be accounted for aid
settled between these ofners and the Auditor
of State in March next. The Auditor's esti
mates approach, no doubt, very nearly to the
amount which they will produce to the State.
The following tubular statement places be
fore yon the several amounts that were assess
ed upon the grand duplicate for the last ten
years, and the purposes for which they were
levied: " .
"ft ? S'-S' J- "J
k M s f " !
4. (n to (. OD oc
8p 4) 4 V U f9 OS
M (N 00 (O 3 Op
w -acnV to mo oc .
S -a' .
to tO A 91 O
00 W CD tO 4i w 7 O
y o & -1 J o .
O .t tS tO 3 J
o w o io "f 2 i; V
1 -lOtO O
0M-O-i 4i -1 -1 -1 CI
"the State, taxts for 18.13 embracing the
school tax, which acoounts for . so great ap
parent increase. - ' -
This statement exhibits the fact, that State
taxes have not increased as rapidly as local
taxes, the county, city, township and other
municipal corporation' taxes, constitute the
greater amount of our assessments. These
corporate authorties have heretofore enjoyed
an almost unlimited power of taxation. This
arose from the want of that general attention,
which the subject has more recently attracted;
and from a disinclination on the part of the
Oeneral Assembly to interfere with these au
thorities, eleoted as they are by, and responsi
ble as their are to, then respective tonstitucn
cies. . . .
Since the new constitution, however, makes
it the duty of the General Assembly 'to restrict
their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing
money, contracting debts, and loaning, their
credit, so as to prevent the abuse of such pow
er,' 1 have not deemed it improper to call your
attention to the subject. The rapid increase
and enlargement of these corporations in all
parts of the State, render it one orgteat impor
tance. The lows under which they are organ
ced should be cajefully revised, and such
guards snd restriction - imposed on the exer
cise 01 the power reierrco 10 as. may noi uc
nconsistent with tlie-elhcteney ol their au-
ministraiions. " w :' v '
The county taxes, as exthbea w the precea-
ng statement, will also, no doi bt, attract your
attention; especially when U is reconeeieu
that a very large portion of. the expenses inci
dent to their administration iapaid by fees, of
which no record, accessible to the puulio, is
kept. The. entire expenses or the several
counties cannot, therefore, be ascertained, nor
can it be known without detailed examinations
of great labor, in which of them the .adminis-
iration is me wvi.caijciio... -""-p ,iu ...... 7
where else, the utmost publicity should be
given to all transactions of a public natuie.
It promotes economy ana mummcs icwm,
while the addition of offices, without such
publicity, only complicates, tho system. As
in mechanics, no power is gained by adding
unnecessary machnery; ao in government, it
is seldom that either purity or efficiency is in
creased by multiplying officers.
In referring to there municipal corporations,
it was not my purpose to divert your attention
flora tho less flagrant, but still rapidly increas
ing expenses of tho Mate. - .
The followine tabular statement has been
collated from the annual reports of the State
Auditor.. It exhibits, at a single view, me
expenditures of the scV?rttl branches of the
State Government for the last ten- years, and
affords the means of an easy comparison
between them. -
ai 5i S as c S tf?-(5 S
to Hrt w at c ci;
a5H Ct"W s-w
C I -
r O co f? a
(O 5 O
. h m w n i- i
oe S !S 4 r- to el
Cj lO S. OO ! ".1
- r- ? oo 06 o co
2 o i- ej id u f- g o 2'
S -J ef o" 2 e tc co
c i- oo oo e a Z.o.
V o V "
"S a. j 3o ft -4 iJ ao - e- 5
An examination of this statement will tend
to give direot efficiency to any reformatory and
economising effort, since it places the respon
sibility fur whatever increase there has been
in State expenditure, upon the department of
uuvciiiuiciib w wnion lfc properly uciongs.
Tempo rarary causes-, nowever, have produced
rjiuchof this increase. , , . i
Tha expenses of the last General Assembly
hare been made the Bubrect of public animad
version; but, When' iris borne in mind, that
noon that body devolved the responsible and
arduous duty of carrying into effect the new
Constitution, embraciogAhe re-orgoniration of
tl entire Government, mocb of this animad
version, fulls to the ground as unmcriied.
The act' providing 'for the organization of
the.Oenctal Assembly,' will, if strictly obser
ved, obviate all future cause of complaint.
The unnecessary abseose of members has been
checked: sinecures have been tbulisHied, til
waste of poblic time ad,meui-lias been
guarded . against, .and thus a most salutary
spirit will be imparted to the whole Govern
nient. - '- ' -' i ' . :' ... . . .
.The new Constitution very property-relieves
tbe General Assembly from many powers and
duties that were formerly supposed 'to disturb
its deliberations, and unnecessarily to eonmma
ita time. 'The people henceforth expect a
steady devotion to the duties now imposed bytbe
Constitution, within as brief a space of time as
is consistent with well matured and well con
sidered legislation. , ' ;'
The supre.i.e law of the State Imposes, in
positive terms, upon the General Assembly the
duty of Inquiring into, and determining upon,
the receipts and cxpenditarev of every branch
of the Government. Specific appropriations
mntt precede every publi.expemliture, and on
monev can lie coucciea, except in pursurance
of law. . ."''
For a series -of years lh publio works and
puulio debts of the SUte. have been managed
by executive boards. The Board of Publio
Works determined upon the amounts of tolls,
and tbe. accruing revenues were expended
partly by the same Board, and partly by the
Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, without
due legislative authority. Their proceedings,
subsequeutly reported, as they were, to the
General Assembly, were seldom very closely
scrutinized, since their examination, after the
transaction, conld be of little public benefit.
As might have been expected, the' public
mind was frequently disturbed by charges of a
very serious character, which wereon several
occasions, inquired into by special commis
sions. . The Boards and their incumbejita were
frequently changed, but the impression was
never removed from the -people, that these
Boards possessed, or at least exercised, powers
that were liable to be abused, and that, there
fore, like all other executive offices,' they
shoul&be brought under the proper control of
the representatives of the people-
A want of certainty prevaded our financial
system j the nett revenues of the public works
fluctuated from year to year; expenditures
were concealed by after dating, and through
mere tr msfers upon the account of trust and
similar funds, the pecuniary transactions of the
whole .Government were mystified, defying
alike legislative and popular scrutiny.
AH' tins forced .upon the people the convic-,
tion that there was some inherent difficulty in
a system which made the members of tbe"
boards legislators and executive officers at tho
same time. Their executive duties-were, and
are, in themselves onerous -enough, to re
quire their undivided attention, and it was cer
tainly wrong to impose upon them' the deter
mination of- -questions of policy, which had a
bearing far beyond the appropriate sphere of
their duties, and which none but the General
Assembly,' composed of representatives from
all parts of tbe State, ahould determine. '
" This public desire found its realization in the
most stringent provisions of ihe new Constiru
tion, which weie, in part, carticd into effect
by subjecting, for the first lime, during the past
fiscal year, the expenditures upon the publio
works and their tiett revenues to legislative
annromintion. ' This policy must, however, be
followed up by requiring, at an early period of
the session, apfeiic.and detailed estimates for
the various Public Works of the State, and
their sub-divisions, and by appropriating there
fore such amounts as, upon legislative exam
ination, will be found proper. .
In surmountable difficulties' are sometimes
said to be in the way; buvl have no doubt,,
they will, on close examination, be found with
out any tangible existence. General and mere
wholesale estimates, may fail to appronch ex
actness, and. conscQuently, lead to embarrass
ment; but estimates made in detailby the
present able Hoard, acquainted as they are, oy
personal inspection with every partof the pub
lic works, and assisted as they will be, by ex
perienced engineers, superintendents sod col
lectors, must prove very nearly correct. Such
estimates and correspending appropriations
would affect in each case, only a very small
part of the publio works, and specific contin
gent appropriations would, sa is done in Con
gress, proviue ngainsi exiraoruinary luuurca m
revenue or other unforsecn events.
The folio wine tabular statement exhibits the
receipts and expenditures on the public works
since their completion; inai estimates mnue
for them the year previous; and the deficits
in the interest fund that had to be made up
by taxation, as near as the latter oan be ascer
tained: - ' ' '
' Simeei- Smoo- interest
Years. Gross timated Expen- limited made, up
. receipts tbe year ici and the year by taxa-
' - ' previ'us rcpiin previ'us tion.
1846. . 4Mjm ..... . . 807.B40 ....... 1,0(I1,74S
184B..'' 595,479 600.000 23 ,239 300,000 - t,OI3
1847..' 790.793 700.000 315.178 275,000 6H7,3
1S4S.. 765.041 659,tHH) aR!l,37i 810 (W0 784 2'io
1819.. 720,275 750 . 440.089 350,000 867,069
1Rri0. . 78,085 800,000 3J9,fi95 4S0.000 . 726,045
1851.. 809,929 775,000 3K7.560 400,000 679,468
18-"i2.. 656 9i"8 ROOIKIO 429.7IW 4.'5.l)00 798,435
1853.. 605, '63 600.000 449,871 400,000 866,545
" It will be seen tbat, general as these esti
mates we.e, they differed but little from the
actual results.. Had they been detailed and
specific, ond aided by contingent appropria
tions, as suggested, the results .would have'
been within , the limits prescribed. Much
might thus have been saved, without impair
ing the condition or in any wny diminishing
the revenues nrrising from these works.
Financial fluctuations would thereby have
been avoided, and a grealer degree of regular
ity imparted to all-out peucniarj'. transac
tions. . . '..;-.- - -. . - i
Nor should I omit to press upon -your con
sideration the necessity of providing for a more
strict accountability of the various officers who
are charged with the expenditure of the publie '
money.- The Auditor ol state ana tne county
Auditors ere tbe proper accounting officers of
the Government. JXo one should be permit
ted to be his own nccounting officer, and all
avenues to the treasury should be required to
pass through the proper accounting bureau.'
A practice formerly prevailed upon tbe pub
lic works, in the Penitentiary, and perhaps in
some of tbe other institutions of the State, by
which "the money of the people was expended
without the required and necessary control of
the'Auditor of State. If this practice has been
followed by no frauds or serious loss, tbe fact
should be attributed to the integrity of the of
ficers, and not to the salutary restraints impos
ed by law, All direct drafts upon the Treas
ury should be strictly avoided, and in every
pecuniary transaction of the Government, there,
should be in practice, as well as tbe thoory.au
accounting and paying oflicer.acting os checks
npon each other. But little is gained by $pe-
etfo appropriations, u there oe no check upon
the improper application of the money.
And in connection wun mis suujecr, u is
proper to remember, that it will not be long
beJore all our expenditures will have to be
met by assessments on the grand duplicate of
the State. All special taxes, except auction
duties, peddlers' licenses and a few others
have been suffered lo go out of existence; and
labor, aa suob,' is no longer required to con
tribnte to the burdens imposed by the State;
a policy so salutary that it .commends tbe ap;
probation of every one.. ,
Our school, ministerial' and canal lands, will
soon pass into the bands of actual settlers, the.
surplus revenue -will be re-paid; and thus
nearly all sources of revenue will 'bo closed
except the publio works, the dividends front
canal, turnpike ond railroad stocks,, and di
rect taxation... That these exltaneous reve
nues should run out, is hardly to be regretted.
They never were very large, while they mys
tified our publio accounts. Their final dissp
pcarance, with the causes' thar called them
forth, will not increase thd publio burdens; it.
will but ehanfie their chataoter - -
These facts should have tr.eir due, wrtgbt in
determining all finiaelal ijttrsiioa. Tl.e tax
ing anl apprnpriatinr powers ara the most im
portant functions of Uovernment.' High taxes
do not always indicate vonveetsary extrava
gance, and for many of our exactions, at tins
time, we may plead lh fwrc , o circowsUu-
We are a young id rapidly -growing peo
ple; we have every thin; to create, all aat
publio buildings to erect, and Urge and oner
ous debts to discharge.- It , is .nevertheless,
true, that our financial aystinD ia without those
salutary checks which experience has shown
to be necessary in all publio transaction; nor
will it be denied, I apprehend, that a greater
degreeof economy may b attained. The
recommendations already made, will, if adopt
ed, do much to secure this end. - -,
Our taxes are now levied .upon a . uniform
and equitable basis; tliey should be expend
ed under tbe strictest aocounUibilUy. Sotiify
the people that the fuels drawa frem thero,
are properly and economically applied, and
the taxes now complained of will be cbfcer-
luiiy borne. . . '
The very lane amouut winch has been
drawn from the people as this State during the
past year, for tbe suppor&af th .various gov
ernments unl.cr whk-h they live, will certain
ly excuse ine etrncsinesiitu whicn l have
pressed .the subject of ou; expenditures upon
your consideration. , - v . '.
Estimating the revenue of U,e General Gov
ernment at $58,000,000, . it will produce for
each member of congress about (250,000.
There pre twenty-one members
from this Stale, making about . 15.000.000
State, County, Township and
Cily taxes 7,801,106
Fees of County officers estimated
at $10,000 per county 800,000
Special taxes, as Auction Duties, .' 200,000
r ess oi justices oi uie retce.
Constables, 4 e., , . .' 800,000
Making a total of $14,101,166
This is an annual burden, eqal to one-balf
the value of tbe whole State fifty years ago.and
requires a tax of '26 on every . voter and of
nearly six dollars on every individual in the
State t When burdens become so onerous, it is
proper that every outlay should be examined
with the strictest scrutiny.
My predecessors have had frequent occasion
to remark upon the safely and dispatch with
which the taxes are levied, collected anddis
bursed.by the County and Slate officers. " De
falcations have been of rare incurrence. Our
treasury system las, therefore, served as a
moddle for other States, and in many respects
for the General Government
A practice is said to have grown up in many
of the large towns, however, of bankers and
brokers paying interest p'n depohits. The
State surely has no objection to tbis when con
fined to the transaction of private individuals.
But it is also charged that these establish
ments sometimes become the depositories of
public officers, and that large sums are thus
realized by speculating upon the money of the
people. These representations may have
their origin in mere suspicion, bat they have
called forth a feeling of dissatisfaction and
alarm, that can only be allayed by the adop
tion of such measures as will prevent the pos
sibility of so dangerous a practice. The pres-
fent statutes are defective in this particular.and
require revision. Ihe pulilio money should
be guarded with the utmost care, and all ap
plication of it, except to the purposes for
which it was raised, should be s'.rictljr pro
hibited by law. .".- ' "
Aft objection has sometimes been made to
this policy, thnt it locks up the treasure of the
people. 'This objection, when examined, will
be found to be without any real fbundatio'n. In
tins State, as already abservedi .tbe.. leveuucs
are chiefly raised from direct taxation, for eer
tain well known purposes, and payable at pe
riods entirely within the control of the Legis
lature. At no period is it necessary to keep
any considerable amount on hand, while our
treasuries might moat of the time, convenient
ly, be empty'.1 Under these circumstances,
there surely can oe no uinicuny m so mouuy
ing the laws that all danger of defalcation or
improper use of the public ftinifs will be avoid
ed, and the money of the people, at the same
time, be left in their own pockets, until re
quired for the public service.
You will preceive the necessities of these
remarks, intimately connected as they are,
with the public debt and its final payment.
The entire-debt of the State outstanding
Nov. 15th 1853, was as follows: t
:.- -FOREIGN, (
Five per cent, stock payable Jan. 1st,
1857 9 150,000 00
Five per cent, stock pavableJan, 1st, -
FJ866 ..M 1,025,000 00
Total five per cent stock,-
Six per cent, stock payable Jan. 1st, -
1857, -.-. 83,812,183 24
Six per cent, stock payable Jan. 1st, -
1BC1 ,,,...-.........6,606,335 53
Six per wnt. stock payable Jan. 1st,
4 1871,-- - 8,183,531 03
Six per rent, stock payable Jan. 1st,
' lOVU '" 4,OW,VW W
Total aixper cent stock-Total--
i..-. 14,917,000 70
Ohio canal atock,-faith and credit bonds,
loan ol ItMi. : , wuw
Miami extensiou loan bonds, loan of
1842 , 0-26 00
Canal, school nnj ministerial bonds - !"
Ioanol 1846..... " io"w
National road stock ..? - 578 6a
ToUl over due t . 62,443 70
Miami extension canal atock, faith Ax
credit bonds payable after 1832. -$224,500 00
Miami extension land bonds, payable
niter 1863 .rt.ioa w
Amount of Irreducible debt, arming , . .
from school and trual funds held by ,, -
. tho Slate, upon wljicb aix per ct. ' . "-'
inleres is-payable annually' for- -J " '
oyer-- ..$1 ,988,323 29 8
-;:;.-;,- .-;.i--,- -... -
" ' RECAPITULATION.' ''
Foreign debt,. '14.917,000 70
Domestic debt -. 301,128 70 "
Irreducible debt,-- J, 988.323 29 S
$17,206,452' 9 2
The constitution fixes the minimum am
ount by which the principal of the debt must
be annually reduced. That amount is $100,
000 increased yearly by compounding at the
rate of six per cent, par annum. Under this
policy tho State debt would not be extin-'
iruished Under forty years. Il would involve
the creation of now loans and no entire re
organization of existing liabilities with our
public creditors. " ' J-
It ia liardly necossary for ins to recom
mend an curlier payment ef ibe Stato . debt,
after the action on that subject, by the last
Legislature, which is believed to have met
with vary general approbation. The ques
tion for you to determine is, whether it shall
be met, and regularly paid as it matures.
On the first of (January, 1857, 3,44'2,I33
24 becomes due. To meet this . amount will
require an additional levy of nearly one mill,
which levy I have no hesitation in recom
mending. A large amount of interest will
thereby be sved,,.wbich, with the continu
ance of small rales of tsxalion, will effectu
ally secure tha extinguishment of the entire
debt as it falls duo. If thin course is to be
pursued; it is essential that it be so deter
mined nt thie time.. t - ; : , ..
The oolicy heretofore pursued on this sub
inrt. has accumulated in the Stale Treasury
a surplus of $08,255 80, which willhe aug-
rhebted, by .toe additional cvy. juei.rscom
a Ihi large aa:n I applieah a tn'redure. which kM Voiie tola WoaratuiH a !
tbe psyment of lh Bute debt doa in 1107, it
is certainly wit to apply it lu J.at purpose
st oner, it any taring to lha biata ta there-
vj us jccieo. a large accnmuiauon oi i
Puble money is always to be deprecated. :
uii u-i-r uoiim! loerciora ee conrrrrru
on tha "Sinking Fund Commissioners," to,
purchase oar bo ads before maturity. . Tbe , to any d'ineuon bslwn. Uw and rqoiijr.4 A paraonal examiastionaf that iuniliitios.
pof9t9 us possessed ara limited, and Ibore j Technicalities and fiefifis is plasdini; ara ) has satisfivst ma, I bat lha lisoa baa atrivsd
limits, instead of producing advantipeou : no limwe rqnir-4." Tha parlrre to atstiof : lor Ihs areelina of a new Ouildmg. wiib ad
porcbssea, have operated as fjsii'P politicly 'their claim and dt-fHoea, fimut lull the truth, irqte room and sujtabbt s simmxwtsiioin,
tiia rata at which tha Slato would buy, and 'and in ordinary and eohcisa Unuajre. j- Tba sua of a new eJifica hs been a sub. ,
consequent! produce lost instead of a as--j To Aiti-emi unjn- claims sod lla de- ;jert of freqoeot .dnwiusiou. It baa bans)
vine. - i fenecs, (o diSM-nne wiii unaecesarr proof suggetled by many that the Hftitulioa sho'd
Durmjr tne lest yar, the real rolsta was
ra-valued, This valoslion, with that of the :
personal property neat f prior, will eoali-
lute Ihe grand duplicate of lt!."Vl. tbe ajgre-
gatspf wbicb will ba aboul eight kuuJred
The following atateraent exliibits'tbe value
of lbs eotira properly of lha jtals, at the
several period' indiralad, end. sflorda grati-
Tying evidence of the rapid growth of our
people, in all fn elements or ptosrwrity and
wealth, . -
Yssrs. Vslas ofiat-AV. drpSrvj-Ttft'Ar os
elate. suiial pro- . fraud do-
1M1..8100.8SW Vnjii0- V&jiW1ttMiMaUr'0i KM
1S47-- 2 M.ai'ftxm 7,15l"iii 4o3,it7,4'",3 1 most, if aat all of tham. ara real and impor- ,
1654- NJ5,C00,0O0 3MJ0(,X bOJMi.tvO
Tba amount for 14 is partly eslimated,
but will not vary much from the actual re-
g0H. . ,
Thii v.lnnflnn 1i hmX hr'ma mneh oron-
erty which bad heretofore escaped, upon tlie
tax list. It also approaches, as near as is
iwiaiMa l.nrto, ia, oim i iha t-l v!u I
nf lha nrnnrrt. With varv-fnw ezffeo'inns.
. r r" J . ' .. . . ' . :
therefore, tbe .rule of equality or burdens
n.. b ilnmil nern.aaentlv eili!in!icd
' r i
in Uhio. .
Tha bsokt acting under charters from
the Oeneral Assembly, form tbe only formi
dable exception to tbe general acquiescence
in tbia j upland equitable rule. They have
appealed from the State au'.boritiea to tho
Court of the United Slates id consequence
- ..... . i , e
ol winch 1 nave oeen nneer ine neeossiiy oi
emra?inr rouoeel to represent Ibe interefls 1
ol the State Deiore tnai iriuuaai.
An srrairmmeot of Slate Bovcrciffntv. nn-
der our peculiar form of government, before !
the Federal Jodiciar, ia always a matter ol
. - . ...... . - . .
doubtful expediency. It ' should certainly
never be resorted lo by institutions of our
own creation, upon which the State has con
ferred Jtargd and valuable privileges, and
which shU now exacts nothing bat their fair
and equal proportion of the burdens of gov
ernment. ,- .
A similar course was. formerly pursued
by ait institution established in)our midst by
Federal authority, and which, therefore, in
stinctively looked to Federal protection and
support. 'The Pink of the United States, it
is true, was partially succcsftil at Wah-
.vr-nv l.ni -Mitmre id it rnic 1 Thn nenrtla
have advanced wun unprcccucnico rapiuuy
in all the eleruenta of prospcVity and great
ness, while not one trace or vebtige of that
proud institution w to be found within nnr
borders. On the part of the Siato Dunk;,
this conrse i the more reprehensible, as the
appeal is made by foreign stockholders, up
on whom the State has bestowed rights Of an
inclusive and highly lucrative character.
They, tooA complain of high taxes. I hare
already remarked.! witV eotriq. freedom on
dv remarked, with eotno freedom on
tliiaaiibisct. and it ia gratifying lo find that
these institutions, impelled probably by their
- . V ... . I a M.t.1,
Z great body of the taxpayers of the
State, in laboring to promote a greater
ntZ:: Xo '
.ii u4: A .4
policy of taxing banks on their profits only,
was adopted with any view of -taxing- them
less Ihaq individuals'. On tho contrary, it
was claimed lo be a higher grade of S:ate
taxation; and the hacks often boasted that
prior to 1S-1G they paid more than individu
als. ; . ' -
The growing mgoitudo. of State especi;
allv of local taxation, however, led the peo
ple to demand lliat these institutions ahoold
.. .... .. i t. u.
equally with themselves, be brought within
its range, lience arises mo piusem tou
flict. . .
Tbo higiier grade of Slate taxation, plac
ed, in the charters, became in the course of
timo, a lower one even for State purposes, lo
say nothing about the local and many other
' . P .. . l :
burdens which are necessarily borne by in -
j.-j.-i. ;n ijfl .i
a time when Ihe whole basis of Ihe revenue jude. who has beard the testimony and sr
laws was changed, aod when the inequality ! guments on both sides, is geoerally raquired
- j .- i . in aioY. i to concur.
.. ... . u... . .1..
and esoecta V rale or taxation, oui io ma
same that was pi escribed, for, and impofed
on individuals, una euon, eu-iair ant,
equitable at tbe time', waa aucceesftilly re
aisted. . It continued however to be insisted
upon, and the provision opon that subject ia
Ilia New Constitution, has been the result.
This provision relieves the Banks from the
payment of the rales contained in their
charters, and which the alleged were so
much greater than thoso paid under the gen
eral revenue laws of Ihe State, snd only re
quires, that "all property employed in bank
ing, shall always bear a burden of taxation,
equal lo that imposed on the property of
Individuals.1 This burden ia now heavy, but
..... , m. r... J
a constantly increasing duplicate will, in a
very few years, greatly reduced it. The
amount required to meet Ihe interest on
the public debt, is annually diminishing,
and ihe temporary causes that now teod lo
keep up the taxis, will soon disappear. Tbo
Banks can therefore gain but little by a
perseverance iii Iheir present course, while
injury and final ruin may be the conse
quence. ' '
The duty of the General: Assembly is
plain and unquestionable. The require
ments of the Constitution must be tarried
out. In Ihia determination the people, and
every branch of the Stato Government, are
united, and will sustain each other, by the
moat cheerful' co-opirition. tne uanxa
hould look beyond the legal issue. No one
should desks to live among an industrious
and heavily taxed people, without bearing a
fair and equal proportion-oi toe necessary
burdens of the State.1 ' l
. The New Constitution made three impor
tant changes in the Judicial departmont, re
ferring to the manner of electing Judges,
lha orsanization'of the Courts, and the mode
of proceeding in the administration of jus
tice. " . .
The fourteenth article reqrlirM' that the
Gen'l Assembly shall provide for ihe appoint
ment of three Commissioners to revise, sym-
plify, reform and abridge the practice, plea-
dings, rorms apd proceeuings or me uoun oi
Record of this State, and dsfaras practicable
and expedient, to provide for the abolitoo of
tho distinct lortns ol action at taw, then in
use, and for the administration of justice hy
an uniform mode of proceeding, with refer
ence to any distinction between law aud e-
H nr-Il " W.tr;-.'; 'i'nfi,a
J. IICOO uxiiiiniinaiuuciii v i u H-..i-- ,
andon the 10th of January, 13, made their
report to the ffc 1 -f-sioa.
They repotted a Codoof uvm iro- ti r . - w t .. ; '
jalai Jle of the Slate ,,- H
f The r h.njrn nwd Vy (his Coda ar rsdi-1
jctl and Ihoruuh, sod -eu lu fully aoeeillis
u-qmrcinents ol tha lonfclilotion
J'h aefi at Uw benHnfur in. etc, are ,
joinfieo. no iuti if it Da adminwterad
by a mdar of preasM wtthual reference
and to prevent s vei!tirrw lo formality and jbs
fiction, every plesdintr of fact must be tvri
'ficd, - - r '':-'-'
j To gt at the w tola tnitb in every case,
( the pariiea to the-selioa, and all persona,
wih few exceplionv, ara allowed to leslify.
i Tbcoo chsness wit an end totha aid sa-
.Um of preetien, anl aim to rtitwiiule for it
-hat (na people hnv lung demoi.-d. a sun-
pie, jnteliigib;t sbd scononv.es I orxle o!
proceed ire for tbe adioihisHalioo of Jastiee. ' 1 woold submit tn yoar enosiuoralion tba , t ,,
The new Coe aht ibu ofcration on tba j propriety aud jostice af gisiag to tba board -sacond
dsy aJnly 1satend snflieactims L tntaes a subts sotnosiiasUnD. for their ,
baa DM vat lscd," io (el iti Wisdom and '.servipes. Tha labor which ibsy ara reqnir- '
! last rarorffls, 1 nave no doobu It i to be
iexpecled, that io too- beginning. "thy will
j five rise to sums embsrrasinent, but il msy
! be chiefly tbeainbarrassetsat of change. .
lu view of the imnof.snca of this subject.
jand of tbe untried cond.iion ef this Uw ( 1
consider improper to recownsnd great cau-
tion in anv further immediate leirmlalMio tiu-:
ion it. It seems to me it will be wiser.lo wait !
- .. . , f
iior uie mooint-ations auggesiea ,oy
ence. than hxstelr to adopt those of piere
.. - : .
: to civil procedure : and the term of offi-e of
the Commissioners heretofore appointed.
L.JJ l... t:n.:. ...... I J a!
-""iu, im"1"""" mn ui uraioa; b,
i ..-..'.. ihsi. vu i i.si ' '. - , i..----n.- '-
I the propriety of ereating a further commir- r
aiarcu last. 1 oo will, tneterore, coiiMiier
smn lo prepare a Criinnal Coda
The Reports of the Directors snd Warden
mi voe i ecueousry, win puce oeiore you a
1 . r .ti r . l -.. A
very fall account of the niaaazemcnt and
condition of tbat Irwititutiou.' "-'
Tbe hws have been rxccn'ed with mild-
theory. I proper distinctions are now observed, aad
llwiilbe observed Ibsf, the requirement 'each class U found amenable Indifferent
of tbe Conftituiioo referred tn, applies a modes of treatment.
well to tbe Criminal as to the Ciil Code. j , IJmcy is Hodcrstood to consist in an im
Tlio Code reported snd enacted relates only ! paired Condition of be powers of Ihe mind.
ncta and Jmmiuity,. and eH .proper efforts ful influence lo every family, should alwsya
made la reform the nufortunale coovieta ! be regarded aa the very fuel abjecla of Leg
it ho are confined within its walla, lislative care. They have not inaptly, at
Wany of those wb we nfTncea resulted 'timea, been styled "Ibe poopla'e eollegse."
from iuU-nipcraDcc, uuroBiriine! paiwion or 1 and are certainly the palladium and most cf-
evil associations, it te confidently believed,
willebandou Ihs crro of their p4t course,
ertdoa bavin j.t!;: Institution, become ose-
ful members of society.
Tim rnr,.M of iIim nardoninff nower is
one of the moat delicate aud perplexing du- j
tics juipoaod on the Executive. Applica-1
tions tr pardons, during the pt year, have i
been almost as numerous as ibe convictions,
and there are very few who are so friendless '
or abandoned that ihev cannot excite some I
intcaest, and procure, if nercssary, a very !
rcapectable list of names to their petition.
Formerly, the' power was unaccompanied
by any restraint oi qnnlification whatever;
; snd. it is not improbable;
(improperly exeilv The
improperly rjna- .iamo,nn tn mno-
cent and afflicted lamilieaaro nol easily re-
t. I . ml
Undr Hie pp C'optitotion', the C?overn-
'or i rcq-.ired o eommuo.c.te to iha,en.-.fd.
t"' -"'viiiu ) t.c.T vno ...
1 mtifiiT ifin i0 ? rlnn rpnOfpn
stntinj - the
d cVime of ,h. convicr.' the Tence. I
its data, and the dale of the commutation, ition of those who ara noon toaauiue tbe du
pardon, or reprieve, with bis reaums there- i'ics and responsibilities of government in
This provlaion'rrinst necersaritv operate aa
a very severe .restriction upon the exercise
of the power referred to. Tbo appeal must
hereafter be made to the judgment, rather
inuQ to the-sympathies of ou; nature. Ben
son once .assigned wiU be regarded aa
precedents ia favor of other applications,
and tbe penalties of tne law wo a uiua grao
ually be divested of e" moral and practical
force. . ' ' .
drlainly, rather than sctcrify of punish
j ment, is believed to aifbrd the bestseconty
"gainst tha commission of crime.- Our Is ws
I are adn.inistcrtdw.tr. great humanity. Two
i..m'..a nrftn.l .1 I r vprsft have earn to
, juries-grand af,d traverse-have each t
lascertaio the Bnill of tho accused, while tli
..n i nm imnnwiib a that, bv the univer-
------r- ,- .-
j sa.i'.y of the Ia
aid the strict application of
ffcneral rules, tbe innocent may sometime
be improperly involved.". It waa in view of
these circumstances that the pardoning pow
er was conferred upon the Governor, aod I
have not hesitated to interferein every case
where, by the disclosure of facts, unknown
at the time of trial, a reasonable doubt has
been created in relation to the justice of the
Tbo Courts are restrained in many cases,
from fixing the term of confinement ia the
Penitentiary under three years, and thie is
not unfreqnently made the ground ef aa ap
plication to the Executive at the eud of one
! .r two years, i i
I "on cf the laws ii
authorize the judg
or two years. I would suggest a moainca-
in inis pi iitmn r
ca to eeoteuce lor a sbort-
Permit mo in connection wiib this subject
to' call your attention to the very large num
ber of juveniles now confined in this institu
tion..- Coosideration of souud policy, as,
well as of humanity, create strong doubts in
my mind as to tbo propriety of the present
system of punishing this class of delinquents.
Offenses committed by boys are-usually the
result of idleness, improper associations, and
tbe absenco of proper parental.car...- w '
They are very different in ..degree and
moral turpiludo, from those of the deliberate
and confirmed criminal. " ' 1 .
Punishment, besides securing 1 'peace
and aafotv of society, ia designed lo repress
crime anil reform the offender.-' .The last of
these subjects is particularly applicable lo
ibe inexperienced and unfortunate youth ;
while many -of the old are entirely beyond
the reach of hope, -there is scarcely a youth
tbat may not be reclaimed.
To briiiff "nboua Ihia result, however, a
qlasaificajion of olfsnsea founded upon the
age of those hy whom they are committed,
1 win 1,1 ha mcotrnized bv Uw I Snd an insli-
..tion r.nW.d with faculties for leaching
.k. : ;i irn..e lha various poiauits
and dutie of life, together wiib ihe element-1
etllotion of tin character have een estab
lished in several of our eialcr States, and in
every instance have produced the most sal
utary results. '. "' " ;"'
Tho reports of the lrtecs and of the sev
eral superiiiteiu!oiit!. furnish full iiiforma.
(ion of the condition and wants of tbo ba-
I neroleut institution
TUo reuaira and iiiinrovoinotilsol tho I,u-
. ...i I.:..!. ...iihnvW.M ir til- !
an! A...inHlr , iinarl rumnUi..!. mnd
uroiniM to add f roatly ta rh rn,nfn f Ik
patieol. and in iha aiui, duoiak Ihe ea
paae of tha los iiuiion.
Tha great inrreaaa of ptipiU in lha ioti-
tution for the deaf and dumb, require thai
and dumb, raquiraa thai
bould b prodded lot
removed inio tha country, and tha prsa-
aut building and arounds. whicb ara sow
almost in tha brt of Ilia eily, evsntoally
be sold. .- , '.
To tli is proposition, tbe prtsenl and Isle,
superinteudenls, ksvs besq slronely oppos- '
sd. Their sximrirnre lu tha sducation of
desf and dumb, gives grrsl weight to their
jopinimis, aspects Uy as sons ul litem rest on
Pvform, and ra-poo..b.,ty impowd
upon tneoii ra loo great to ba performed
jgratwtouly.'V , , -
i . 'fhsfe is a cUssf parsons, with'aqnalty
jslrong claims opoe mr aympaibias, who do "
Jatseomlo bo onibran4 within the range
Mr bnficirl operalinos of fkes inslitntiotis. .
1 allude lo the imbecile and idwni-.of wbona
there is said to be Urge nuuiWr ia tbii
Idiocy and inaaoity, ootil lately, ware eon-
I-J . f. -. t iT-.-
rxperi-.i"",,"'cu " "
!mad fortheir amelioration and relief. The
and an entire anl of reasoning faculties.
Persons afflicted sre not responsibls for Ihsir
lili AnI miitft nii-M,, it v . IherAfare. tin.
... .... . -... ...
come ptmiic or "nvms dingo.
Possessing muscular force, eome traces of
memory, and the powera of imitation, thcr
are sapable of being trained to perform ma
ny of the duties of life.
Our Common Schools, from Iheir eoiver
al diffusion, located as tbsy are in every
neighborhood, and distributing their heath-
factual defense of our free institutions.
The new constitution mukes it imperative
oo the General Assembly, "to uiske such
provisions by taxition, or otherwise, s with
the income arising from ihe School Trust
Fund, will secure a thorough and efficient
system of Common Schools througheul Ihe
Slato." . . . ' .
In seeordance with this requirement of
the constitution, the last General Aaaemhly,
with almost entire unanimity, passed a law
I re.eonlrnr.tins nur edoeational avstem. ele-
eaiing its standard, extending its usefulness,
and ioipartiog to it a greater degree of effi
ciency. - - -
It is claimed fcy rhe friends of tha system
thus created, that the new featorea engrafted
upon it, are decided improvomenls, ia per- '
t'ect accordance with the educational pro-
jgress of tlie age, and the edacaliooal do-
of our japidl, '
jon the virtue and intelligence of the people
- - r -r - , ... - . . .
Urge, .be llroogh and effect-., .due..
all its departments, is essential loth heath
fol existence of government itself, and can
not be neglected without danger te the vital (
interests of out free institutions. x
Tbe new provisions ef the present School
Law, involving changes radical in their
character, most necessarily produce, for a
time, much embarrassment and iocooven
ienee, and iu some instances il may be, ac
tual oppression. But most of these being of
temporary naturo and incident to almost ev
ery innovation upon long established usage,
they should not impel tbe General Assembly
to hasty and inconsiderate legislation, lest
tbe present law may be, in a short time, in
volved in the same perplexity and confusion
which, nnder the former laws, produced so
Tbe annual aseeaement and levy of two
mills upon the grand duplicate of tbe Stale
for school purposes, is regarded by many of
the tax-payers as oppressive snd unnecessa
ry. This levy, howsver. ia only half a mill .
greater than tbat authorized by the former
law. - '
Prior lo the passage of the present law, ,
tba Slate levied half a mill, and Couoty Com
missioners were required lo levy a mill, fr
school purposes; making a total school tax
ef one mill and a half. Under the new law,
both levies have been nniled in one, and sty
led a State levy. .
Another lax which has born very heavi
ly upon tbe tax payera the past year, is the .
one authorized to be aiweaaed by Township
Boards of Education for the purchase of
school house sites, and the erection of school
housas. The amount that baa bean raised
' for these objects ia ver,y nejrly as large aa
that levied by the State, it ia a uxinai win
not be required te be repealed, huarsMr, ia
the naxt fifteen or twenty yeera.
In. the establishment of all school systems, ;
three object should be constantly sept ia
view : brevity, simplicity, and tbe utmost
degroe of economy tbat ia eonsistefcl with ,
tbe proper education oi me yuum u
State. To attain these sxcelleocies, howev
er, much time snd experience, and a careful r
observation of the working oC tbe system,
are necessarily required. y -
The grand duplicate has been greatly jn-
creased by the re-valuation of the realeatate. t
A lovy of two mills for Ihe ensuing year,
would produce one-fourth more revenue than
was raised during Ihe past year, under thr
earn levy. No system can operate benefi-,
einlly that bears loo heavily on. the people.
I therefore recommend that the law be o
modified in tbi particular as pot to require
any increase at leaat, of the amount now
asnesed blhe Slate. .-
Tbe work an the new State House ha
been carried on during the past year with
commendable iodoalry end diapalch, Tbe
inconvenience and expense oi procuring
,.;,. ba hall for the accommodation of tha
Caneral Assemblv. loeelher with the pre-
, jnsocurily of the public record of the
Kt.ie. raiidnr tha earlv COIDDletloO Ot I II IS
building a matter of much interest.. '
Arrangement were made to have il cov
ered in laal fall, so that Ibe work inside. '
could be progressing during the winter, but
ted in nro-
llie ruii.iitiui. w. v i v it i
c-itiing the necossarv materials. They bare
since been procured, however, snd 4ie roof
will be put oncsrly in thespring. '
li i, expected lhat lh rfofs jntended for
the Supremo Court, the Library, and the Va-
Concluded on fourth page, .;.-.'