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EL PASO HERALD
Saturday, March 12, 1910.
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tive measures. Our treatment acts directly upon the parts afflicted onlv. dis
lodging the stricture and leaving the canal in a perfectly normal condition.
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usea in the privacy of the home, and costs little-
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tion that is causing them.
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tc charge the body witb 200,000 volts without the least pain or discomfort.
It makes, middle-aged men as strong as the youth, revitalizes the nerves when
exhausted tron. overwork or worry, banishes pain, stimulates, tones and in
vigorates the entire system, is pleasant to take and inexpensive.
is "going to waste every .year to irfsure
good crops in Texas. Mr. Kone also be
lieves that dry farming adds annually
to the value of the land, conserving the
"Dry fanning is not new,"' said com
missioner Kone. who is at the Gunter
hotel. He Is accompanied by J. W. Neill,
who has assisted in the organization of;
the farmers institutes. Both of them
will make addresses at the meeting of tha
Eexar County Fanners institute at the
chamber of commerce this afternoon
at 2 oclock. Continuing the discussion
of dry farming, Mr. Kone said:
"It has been practiced by the German
fanners for many centuries. Campbell
emphasized it in this country by calling
attention to Its advantages and it has
continued to spread in favor.
"I am preaching -it in all parts of
Texas, especially in south and southwest
Texas. There is enough rainfall every
year to insure abundant crops if the
moisture is properly conserved.
"The fanners -should be taught to real
ize this and if they will follow directions
there will no longer be a yearly 'holler'
about lack -of rain. It is not the lack of
rain that is the matter, but it is the fact
thac dry farming is not more generally
Commissioner Kone has been organiz
ing Institutes all over west Texas dur
ing the last two weeks and says that he
finds he farmers every "where greatly
interested in scientific farming. They
have seen what can be accomplished
by it and are willing (to give it a trial.
The farmers institutes now have a
nembership of several thousand in the
I state and the membership is constantly
Science Of Dry Farming; How To Do It Successfully
Some Pointers From H. W. Campbell
Questions Answered by "Father of Dry Fanning"
Following answers to questions that
every farmer in this part of the coun
try ought to know, are reprinted from
Campbell's Scientific Farmer; the an
swers are all made by Mr. Campbell
CULTIVATION OF CORN.
To the Editor:
I should like to have some particulars
through the Scientific Farmer about the
cultivation of corn. Is level culture rec
ommended? "With wnat kind of cultiva
I have been using a disk cultivator
it can be supplied with shovels which
is very effectual with weeds and in
breaking up crusts, but its final re
sults seems to be to throw up the soil
to the corn. I cannot but believe that
this practice helps to deplete the soil
There is much said nowadays about
late cultivation of corn to destroy weeds
and maintain a mulch. How late ought
cultivation to go on? Acclimated corn is
one of our main hopes for New Mexico,
but if one leaves off cultivation when
the corn begins to tassel the weeds grow
up thick and high and must take much
moisture. I do not list my corn.
J. H. C.
Wagon Mound, N. 3L, Jan. 4, 1909.
Answer level cultivation is desirable
with any cultivator. Carrying three or
four cultivators on a side level culture
can be effected. Sometimes a crust will
form under the mulch in hot dry weath
er and lax cultivation. The disk attach
ment will be found useful but follow
soon with shovels set to level the sur
face. Cultivate corn until the crop is
cnade- You can use a one horse five
Khnvpl or 12 shovel cultivattor when
com is too high for a rider. Keep out I
she weed6, don't let the crust form un
der the mulch. Acclimatization of corn
Russian thistles and tumble weeds to
A- T li.
Answer If the soil is quite sandy
double disk in spring but don't set disk
over to full cut, possibly two-thirds to
three-fourths. Common harrow will not
keep the weeds down when the season
gets well advanced and soil warmed.
Don't let the weeds grow if you even
have to disk again. Harrowing will do
much to keep them out if you don't let
the weeds get too large.
To the Editor:
"We had a hailstorm here before I got
quite through cutting my grain. The
part that I cut I got nearly all plowed.
I pulled a corrugated roller behind the
plow and an Acme harrow behind the
roller. The soil was -moist. "What further
fitting would you suggest for this piece
The piece that got hailed out has the
straw on it yet as it grew. It will be
How much greater crop do you think
we would get here if we would disk our
ground in the spring before plowing for
spring wheat. Please answer the above
Do you think fall wheat would do
"W. "W. S.
Lansford, N. D.
Answer The piece plowed, rolled and
harrowed in the autumn should be har
rowed this spring as soon as it can be
done and have soil In best condition,
that Is. moist, not wet on top. Acme har
row preferred. Then seed with drill put
ting seed just into the firm moist soil
under the mulch.
If the straw on the hailed out piece
f Is heavy it is worth while to disk this
with sharp disk to mix the straw some
vvhat with the soil, then plow from six
to seven inches deep, follow plow with
a subsurface packer well weighted;
then the Acme harrow or two times over
with the common steel or smoothing
harrow. The subsurface is vital to a
good crop. It not only crowds out the
air spaces but packs the soil closely
about the straw stubble which will aid
its decomposition thus Increasing ni
trates and humus.
Regarding the increase of a spring
crop put In on spring plowing by disk
ing in the spring before plowing, it de
pends on the condition of the land in the
spring and the weather during the pe
riod of fitting. If plowing Is done early
while soil is moist and the soil is of ir
dinary sand loam formation there would
be very little difference. If plowing was
later and in warm dry, windy weather
1 there would be some considerable differ
ence In favor of disking.
If good rains followed close to plow
ing and harrowing followed rain as
soon as dry enough no difference of ac
count would be noticeable. These con
clusions are based on the theory that
the land is well fitted. Disking iu the
spring where plowing Is to follow close
has no such advantage as disking after
the harvester. In case of -spring disking
the soil is cold and there is no chance
of promoting nitrification and evapora
tion would be less, while disking after
the harvester if there Is any moisture
below you not only save the moisture
but by checking the evaporation, causes
the moisture to accumulate just beneath
the loose mulch and with the high de
gree of temperature In the soil nitrifi
cation or rooting soon begins.
I If plowing is to be delayed any great
J period then by all means disk early.
J we have known Instances were corn was
planted with a lister and part of the
field was double disked early, the bal
ance untouched until listed, where the
disked part made 23 bushels of corn
i more than the undisked, all after treat
j ment being the fame for the whole
Dominguez Tells Of Dry
Farming By ths Mexicans
Address by Noted Mexican Agriculturist Before Del Rio Fanners
SEEDING OX SU3IMER FALLOW'.
To the Editor:
I casne here late last fall and there
jwas a little summer fallowing done
doubled disked first, then plowed and
harrowed, and then floated by attaching
three planks together, 12 feet long and
smoothing and somewhat packing the
ground. "Would you seed it as it is or
rwould you advise plowing in the spring
and subpacking according to the Camp
bell system? Do you advise seeding
eame amount per acre on spr'ng plowing
and subpacking as you would on sum
Bier tilled land. Soil is a dark brown
heavy land, some sand in it in places.
"When It gets dry it gets very hard, but
Just right works like a garden. As to
rain we had a wet aiay iasi iVo.r iiu
part of June a shower or two in July,
and then virtually no more all fall. Wet
season is usually in June and July.
Answer We would not plow again
and subpack, woald (.seed after first go
ing over with Acme harrow or a sim
ilar tool, if you have no such tool then
harrow with cannon steel lever harrow
with teeth quite straight up and down
unless soil is very soft, then slant teeth
back a little and harrow two or three
time?. Tramping of horses will help
firm the soil. It is desirable to do
this when -soil is moist. Seed 25 to 50
percent heavier on spring plowing than
on summer tilled land.
Pumping For Irrigation In
the Sulphur Springs Valley
KEEPING DOWN WEEDS.
To the Editor:
I have farmed for two j'ears in west
ern Oklahoma, but on account of ex
treme drouth have raised nothing but
a little feed. As my crops were all feed
crops this year it was the middle of Oc
tober before I could get them off the
ground so I could start disking. I ex
pect to summer till' 40 acres for wheat
next fall. I double disked the ground in
October. Have had heavy rains since,
so there are 15 to 18 inches of moist
ure. The ground will probably need har
rowing as soon as dry enough, or would
that cause It to blow? The soil is a Ut
Can a person keep the weeds down
with the harrow or will it be best to
disk in June? There will be lots of
Douglas, Ariz., March 12. Tnorough
tests of the gas engine and the centrifu
gal pump for irrigation purposes are to
be made in the Sulphur Springs valley
adjacent to Douglas during the forth
coming season, but there is one man
who has already demonstrated the feasi
bility of irrigation by these means.
George Turvey is the man, and his
ranch home is located just above the
Calumet and Arizona smelter, to the west
of the city, and distant from it about
Turvey has drlHeJ a well which is
300 feet deep. At this lepth he struck
a flow of water which rose to a point
within 26 feet of the surface. He then
installed a three and a half inch cen
trifugal pump, which is operated by a
belt, running down to the pump, at wa
ter level, the engine one of six horse
Turvey burns gasoline in his engine,
and finds, that it costs him on a run of
24 hours $1.35. He has succeeded in ir
rigating 23 acres, and he is cultivating
the ground according to the rules laid
down by the scientific farmers of the
Pump Doesn't Reduce Flow.
The pump is able to make no impres
sion upon the flow of water in the
well, so that Turvey does not kno-w just
what size pump could be used to carry
the flow to his crops, but it is evident
that a much larger pump could be em
ployed. At the speed he runs hls en
gine, be is pumping about 350 gallons
of water per minute. The flow Is suf
ficient to irrigate one acre per day,
when the ground is especially dry, but
when well leveled off nad ridged, and
not too dry. he irrigates about three
acres per day.
While everybody was talking about
pump irrigation last season, Turvey was
quietly experimenting, and actually
growing fine crops. He planted five
acres in potatoes, raised two crops in
the season, and sold them for 3 cents
a pound, in Douglas, a ratte of ?1.S0 a
bushel. He grew 150 busnels to the acre.
He claims that his seed was not of
the best last season, and that he will
reap a harvest of 200 bushels to the acre
this year. His crop is now about ready
to come up, having been planted 11 days,
tomatoes produced a bountiful crop un
der the encouragement of irrigation,
and he now has in his cold frames
thousands of plants to set out on a
large piece of ground which he has
Irrigated this week. Sweet potatoes are
also getting ready for setting out, with
lettuce, onions, and other vegetables com
ing on nieelj-. Asparagus especially last
season was a profitable crop, and Tur
vey figures on a heavy harvest this
The Irrigation Method. i
Once a piece of ground is well soaked
by irrigation, ho closes the ditch gates,
and turns the flow of water onto another
section. "When the top soil has dried out
a bit, he harrows and works this over
lightly, to prevent baking, and to pul
verize and dry out the top soil, which
then stops evaporation.
Undersoil irrigated in the potato
field, when turned up with the spade,
shows (moisture sufficient to sustain the
young plants for at least throe weeks,
when another flood of water will be
turned over the field. When the rainy
season comes his crops will be strong
and sturdy, and irrigation will not then
be necessary. The drilling of the well
and the purchase of the engine and
pump represent an outlay of about
$1500, and from the potatoes alone this
year Turvey believes he will garner a
sum not less than $2000.
5- RECLAIMING THE WEST.
Desert Farmer. "
4"5-4 4' 44"3'
In many of the counties of Utah where
a few years ago there thrived the sage
brush and the long horned steer, thou
sands of acres are being reclaimed by
dry farming methods. Utah's dry farm
wheat can not be excelcG and an acre
of onr cheap land is equal to two or
three acres of the ?5o lands farther
Sr. Zeferino Dominguez, the dry farm
ing and corn culture expert of Mexico,
delivered an address before the "Val
Verde county farmers.
In his address the expert told of his
experiences in .getting the people of
Mexico to believe he was of sound mind
when he Tegan to advocate the princi
ples of scientific soil culture by dry
farming. He said that the Indians who
were attempting to farm in his country
should not be blamed for not producing
much grain, for they knew none but the
most rudimentary principles of agricul
ture. He told of the success he is hav
ing with indian laborers on his model
farm at Santa Maria, Coah.. south from
Del Rio, a few miles cm the Treviuo es
tate. Here he is demonstrating that
even with peon labor, good yields can
be made in various crop if the scientific
principles of soil culture and conserva
tion of the moisture are taught the
hands and practiced. His model farm
has been worked only five or six months
and yet the success of his undertaking
Is evident to those who have visited the
estate. Commissioner' of agriculture Ed
R. Kone was taken to inspecc the farm
and he came back to Del Rio amazed at
the work being carried on and the suc
cessful outcome of. the experiments.
Sr. Dominguez Is providing for a
great deal of this experimental and
demonstration workout of his own purse.
He get a great deal of pleasure out
of the work and the satisfaction that
comes to one who has helped his broth
ers and, made life more livable, for them
and work more profitable, belongs to
this teacher and expert.
His remarks about corn culture were
'economic and opened the eyes of those
who attended the institute. He told how
he came to be so interested in the pro
duction of corn; how the very life and
independence of the republic of Mexico
depended upon the production of this
grain. The majority of the people lived
on corn and when the time came that
they could not raise corn for the keep
ing of life and body the people would
"raise h ." He told that Iowa raised
more corn than the entire republic and
that one Mexican state, if the land was
properly handled and cultivated scien
tifically, should be able to raise enough
corn to provide the entire population of
Mexico. It was from an economic stand
point that he first came to interest him
self. He believed that the poor seed was
responsible fo- the light production. So
he mailed a letter to 10,000 corn raisers
of Mexico asking them to send him sam
ples of the seed they were planting.
No response came to this letter, so he
mailed another offering to pay them for
the seed and also the transportation
charges to his office. This letter
brought the seed. These seed he tested
under -various methods and after a most
exhaustive study and test he announced
the result of his work. This caused the
people of Mexico to awake and it
brought them to a realization 'Of the fact
that thousands of acres of corn land
was raising nothing through poor seed
that would not germinate. In some states
Sr. Dominguez discovered that out of
every 100 kernels planted 64 never came
up, and the percent in one state was
as little as 15 of nongerminatlng seed.
The average for the country wa in the
Poor Seed at Fault.
This address will have a decided effect
upon the dry farming development in
this section, as well as awakening some
of the corn misers about here to the
fact that possibly, and probably, they
are losing as much from .poor seed as
their brothers across the Rio Grande.
Sr. Dominguez -will be invited to ad
dress our people often for his knowledge
and practical principles are becoming
known throughout not only his own
country, but in the United States.
The first meeting of the Del Rio
Farmers' Institute will have a great ef
fect upon the acreage and the cultiva
,tion of dry .farmed land in this county.
In addition to the address of Sr. Domin
guez, J. W. Neill, director of farmers'
institutes for Texas made a lengthy ta'lk
on the conservation of moisture in the
soil and the better methods of scientific
Illu-stratlons at Home.
He took examples obtained right here
on the edge of the city to Illustrate his
remarks and his talk -was made without
any of the frills or embellishments. That
the 50 or more farmers were highly in
terested was made evident by their fre- I
quent interruptions with questions that
j brought out their misconception of the
principles, and that offered the speaker
the opportunity of emphasising his
points all the more. The good work done
at this meeting has instilled Into the lo
cal farmers the desire to met often ana
exchange ideas and knowledge, and ef
forts will be made to get outside -people,
preferably agricultural experts from
either the state department or the de
partment of agriculture at Washington,
to make addresses and demonstrations.
Wfcth a normal rainfall at Del Rio of
22 inches and with fertile soil, there is
no reason to doubt the dry farmed acre
age "will be increased and production en
larged as the seasons come and go.
KONE IS KOW A
State Agricultural Commits-
OTnvicm To o I'ATiT'o-nf 4-r i
OiVJJ.VX JLO O, JJJLL CiX b 1VJ
Says the San Antonio Express:
"Dry Farming" is the text which Ed'l
a. ivone, oommlssloner of agriculture of
Texas, is preaching to the farmers of
the state at every institute he organizes.
He is making this especially emphatic
in south and west Texas.
He is convinced that enough moisture
DEEDS GIVEN FOE
iSTew Well to Be Put Down
For Station at Pecos,
Pecos, Texas, March 12 Dr. H. H.
Harrington, director of experiment sta
tions, is in Pecos, and has received the
deeds for the lands to be used for ex
perimental purposes. J. H. Moore deed
ed 80 acres, which he had formerly do
nated to the state for this purpose,
and M. L. Swlnehart, as trustee for tha
people, deeded 120 acres.
Because of an accident to the casing;
in the artesian well, on the farm, a
new well will be sunk immediately. Tha
water from this well will be used" for
demonstrations in irrigation work, and
a pumping plant will be maintained
on the lands given by Mr. Moore.
The residence for the superintendent
wiH be erected at once, and Dr. Har
rington says that all crops will b
planted which will be permitted by the
lateness of the season.
Certain acreage will be broken dur
ing the spring and summer, and a dem
onstration made of the conservation of
moisture in the soil, by practical and
It is expected to plant 40 acres to a
variety of fruits, and bulletins will be
Issued by the state upon their growth
and production under different condi
tions. This station will prove of much valu
to the agricultural population, so rapid
ly locating ir the lower Pecos and
RENE BACKE-S BUDGET
GREAT AMERICAN DESERT VANISHING PROM
rj. CAMPBELL SYSTEM
V IN IRRIGATION.
& By H. W. Campbell.
I have been told that Mr. Campbell
claims that his system of dry farming
applies to irrigation just the same as
to the dry country -where there is no
irrigation. How can this be? For when
you have a ditch you can give your crop
all the water it wants.
J. P. A.
The gentleman from Greeley has ask
ed the same question that has frequently
been indirectly asked. In the first place
when the writer first began the query
of soil culture we were prompted to do
so from the result of a very dry year
when a part of our wheat crop failed en
tirely and a part was very good. Our
every effort was to prevent If possible
other failure and for a number of years
our efforts were persistently along the
line of preventing crop failure by drouth
or in other words growing a good crop
In a dry year. But in 1898 we by acci
dent were led to believe that the yield
of all fields any and all years could be
greatly Increased by a more scientific
principle or method of tillage. We im
mediately began a line of .careful study
and experiments. In 1900 -we began our
fjrst careful line of experiments to see
if we could accomplish the end of in
creasing the average yield. Our crop on
the Pomeroy farm at Hill City, Kans..
of 4. 1-2 bushels when failure was quite
general was proof we were right and
numerous similar crops in later years
have further substantiated the truth.
The principle we worked on was that
there must.be some certain ideal condi
tion of the soil that was necessary to
obtain the best result. This theory has
been worked up to a fact. Each year's
observation has added some further evi
dence and brought out some additional
principles to substantiate -that very much
larger yields can be obtained than are
now found to be the average under ir
rigation or any other methods of farming.
People Rushing Into the Dry Belt, Formerly Deeded
Hopeless for Agriculture What the GovernmentTg
Doing to Help Them Mapping the Great Pliaia
for the New Agriculture Men Who Are Doing the.
j.aa. .J-4---5' - 4"
" ADVANTAGES "OF DISKING.
" KaniiiM Farmer, fr
A t A .-4- 4-4-4"3'
Hundreds of farmers can this year
testify to the advantages resulting from
the disking -of the fields before listing
corn. Nearly 10 years ago this editor
farmed In Brown county, knows the
common practice of getting Into the
corn ground with a disk just as the frost
was out of the ground and disking
lengthwise and crosswise and from cor
ner to corner until time for listing.
I These farmers claimed the work paid
and no doubt it-did. The disking cut the
same time covering the moisture put it
in shape to take up the moisture and at
in th'e ground. Last winter through the
farmers institute system the plan was
reeomjmended and farmers who gave this
plan lof cultivation a trial are pleased
with the results.
Washington, D. C March 12. Prof.
Milton Whitney, backed by the machin
ery of the government bureau of soils,
is conducting the most important work
for agricultural development that has
been undertaken within recent years.
He Is furnishing information to the set
tlers who are now pouring by tens ot
thousands into the great dry west of
the 100th meridian a region hitherto
deemed hopeless for farming purposes,
but rendered highly productive through
the development of new methods.
This has reference particularly, to
what is known as "dry farming," by
which the bulk of the vast territory
formerly known as the great American
desert is destined eventually to be
brought under profitable tillage. Dur
ing the last year Prof. Whitney has
made reconnaisance surveys of soils
covering over 65,000 square miles in the
belt immediately to the west of the
aforesaid meridian, the data obtained
being shown by small scale maps, on
which important facts are given as to
the character of lands, the percentage
of these available for agriculture, and
other matters respecting which set
tlers seeking new homes are in need
A crease and Water Supply.
It appears that our 2,000.000,000 acres
of territory might easily sustain 2.000.
000,000 people in the course of- time,
so far as land is concerned; but the
limitations of population in the United
States is really set by the water sup
ply. One might say that it takes just
about so much water to maintain one
human being this amount being es
timated at 5000 tons annually. Of
course the great bulk of it is required
to grow the meat and food plants on
which the individual subsists.
The discovery of methods by which
the arid plains can be successfully
farmed adds greatly to the capacity of
the country for supporting population;
but the time will never arrive when
more than 750,000.000 people will be
able to live within the present bound
aries of the United States, and It may
be that the number will not exceed
The total annual water supply of
the country (all of It derived from
rain and snow) is reckoned at 1500
cubic miles about equal to 10 Miss
issippi rivers. But 1,000,000 square
miles of our territory ( greater area
than Phoenicia. Babylonia, Egypt.
Palestine, Italy. Spain. Portugal,
France. Germany, Denmark. Scarrdji
navia. and the United Kingdom all
the countries which have shaped the
world's history combined) are insuffi
ciently watered and can be made fully
habitable only by careful use of the
Good Lands Overflowed.
On the other hand, chiefly in the
South Atlantic and the Gulf states,
there is a great reserve of exceedingly
fertile agricultural lands, capable oi
supporting 50,000,000 people, but which
today are unoccupied and unused, sim
ply because they are liable to overflow.
In the not distant future, by drainage
and other de-Ices for controling their
water supply, they will be 'converted
into productive farming areas, yield
ing enormous crops under "intensive"
treatment- First, however, before un
dertaking drainage operations on a
large scale, it will be necessary to
study their soils, in order to estimate
the profit likely to accrue from tieir
The annual production of the soils
of the United States has trebled in tha
last 12 years, and has reached tha
enormous total of eight billion dol
lars. But Prof. Whitney thinks that it
may easily be donbled again in tha
next 15 years, through the study oi
soils. In Alabama, by such a study,
conducted on experimental farms in the
various congressional districts, it has
been shown to be possible without dif
ficulty, by procuring the right variety'
of cotton for each of the different "soil
types" of the state, to increase the
profit of the cotton grower by $10 to
?20 per acre.
The specialization of agriculture has
only just begun. It is destined with
in the next few years to undergo a
scientific and rapid -development. Even
now inquiries are constantly addressed
to the bureau of soils in regard to
soil conditions under which specific
crops may be successfully grown; and
crops formerly confined to narrow dis
tricts are spreading to other localities.
The culture of alfalfa, the production
of sugar beefs, and the Introduction of
new varieties of tobacco, a'll illustrate
In tobacco growing "wrapper soils"
and "filler soils" are already set apart
from each other.
Through the study of soils it will
be possible at a future day (ProC
Whitney believes) to increase the great
staple crops from, a scant dozen o
several score, each produced under tha
circumstances of soil and climate best
suited to Its growth- The problem in
hand is to determine the crop to which
each soil is best adapted, and to de
velop systems of farm management bj
which the different soils may be made
to yield their crops for long periods
not only without deteriorating but with
actual Increase of crop producing
Many K'nds of Soil. "
There are more than 700 different
kinds of soils in the United States, ac-v.
cording to the observations ofthe bu
reau. Some, of thetn occurjn areas
as big as he smaller states;nd thera
are others of which no single area
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