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BUGGIES and WAGONS
And we have a complete line at reasonable prices and terms.
Be sure to call and see us before buying. ,
Valley Implement & Vehicle Co.
504 SAN FRANCISCO ST.
EL PASO, TEXAS.
RENE BACHE'S BUDGET
TO EXPLORE TITICi
UTEUI FOB treasure:
DR.- HIRAM BINGHAM STARTS FOR THE "THI
BET OF AMERICA." '
Financed by Yale College and the National Georgraph
ical Society, He Expects toDiscover Many Things of
Utmost Archaeological Interest in What Is De
scribed as the Most Wonderful Unexplored
Regions in America Enormous Treas
ures in Gold as Yet Unfound.
WASHINGTON. D. C, Hov. 8. Dr.
Sraa Bingham, bached y
$15.M from Tale college and
i 10,000 from the National Geographical
society, is now starting on his return to
what has been called the "Thibet of
America" i. a, the plateau of Titicaca,
the most wonderful unexplored region
in the new world, where was developed
the ancient civilisation of the Incas.
Dr. Bmgnam's recent discovery, at
Cuzco, of a human skeleton of great
antiquity apposed to be anywhere from
40,000 to 60,000 years old, judging fiom
the geological formation in which it
nai found has stimulated interest in
the exploration of that little known
part of the world, where, at the time of
the conquest of Peru by the Spaniards,
ganized, most widely administered, and
most extensive empire Of aboriginal
To lend an additionally picturesque
interest to the study of the remains of
that vanished civilisation, there are
enormous buried treasures of gold and
silver, which the Incas concealed to
prevent them from falling into the
hands of the Spaniards. Some of the
tales of these treasures are doubtless
mvths but certainly not all. One Is at
libert to deem either true or false the
storv which attaches to the lake of
t'reou. 60 miles southeast of Zuzco.
Small but deep, its bed like the crater.
of a volcano, it nas no outlet, out re
peated unsuccessful attempts have
been made to drain it, in order to re
cover the golden chain of Huayna Ca
pac This hain, according to tradi
tion, nas of the thickness of a man's
arm, and long enough to extend twice
around the great square of Cuzco.
The enormous accumulations of prec
ious metals possessed by the Incas are
a matter of undouted history. When
fuzco, the ancient capital, was looted
b the invaders, the great statue of the
sun god, taken from its temple, fell to
the lot of the Conquistador Leguixano.
is Clogged up
Tfcaft Way Yeu're Tie K
Sac Hare No ApprtiH,
is a tew (fey.
. W. 9kUl BOS. SMU.WJC8
' Gefiiae sbe Signature
JPif Ipilis. i
who gambled it away before morning
From, the celebrated shrine of Pacna
camac (the mecca of the ancient Peru
vian religion) the Spaniards took away,
according to their own account, about
1700 pounds weight of gold, togethef
with an immense quantity of silver,
without discovering the hiding place of
25,000 pounds of tne two metals, some
where between Pachacaroac and Lima,
20 miles to the north.
Peru's Ortetaal Boundaries.
Peru, at the beginning of the 16th
century, embraced not only the country
now called by that name, but also
Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile. It extend
ed from the fourth degree of latitude
above the equator to the 34th parallel
of south latitude a distance of ap
proximately 3000 miles. With an aver
age width of 400 miles (west to the
Pacific ocean and east into the Ama
zonian valleys), its area was- over
1,000,000 square miles, or equal to that
of the whole United States east of the
Close along the Pacific shore of
South America there runs for thousands
of miles a mighty range of mountains,
upon the feet of which the ocean waves
may actually be said to break. Further
inland are the yet loftier Andes, and
between the latter and the coast range
above described is a long and relatively
narrow plateau, three miles above the
level of the sea. Upon this plateau was
developed the most ancient American
civilization a civilisation the origin of
which is today wholly a mystery,
though the presumption is that It was
derived from somewhere in Asia.
At such an elevation the climate is
necessarily very cold. But scattered
over the plateau are numerous cup
shaped valleys, which enjoy rela
tively mild temperatures. Thus Cuz
co has a delightful climate (being in
the tropics), and within 20 miles are
other and deeper valleys wherein semi
tropical fruits are grown.
Cuxee the Center of Peru.
The word Cuzco means "naval" the
city being the very center -of the an
cient Peruvian empire. When the rcon
archs of old made it their place of
! residence, the city was strongly forti
fied, and was connected with the four
divisions of the empire by four great
roads, constructed for military pur
poses, to enable large bodies of troops
to be moved expeditiously.
Cusco occupies the central one of a
group of cup-shaped valleys (originally
lake beds, doubtless), and the most
easily defensible from a military sti. d
polnt the valleys in question bding
separated from each other by relative
ly low passes between the mountains.
Here were the palaces of the monarchs,
also immense structures in which fes
tivals were held; and. most important
I of all. the religious edifices the con- I
vent of the Virgins of the Sun, and the I
J gorgeous iciuiiw i. ; wu, , -,.-
ehapels saered to the moon, stars, etc.
Imposing Aempic ui juu.
The Temple of the Sun at Cusco was
in its day the most Imposing structure
in all America. The Spaniards wrote
that there was nothing finer to be seen
in all Europe. Rectangular in shape.
it enclosed a court, into which opened
a number of chapels dedicated to the
sacred objects of Peruvian worship, and
from It fell off a series of terraces down
to the river below, for ing the famous
Gardens of the Sup. The inner waUs
worn nlated with gold, and at one end
I oi the temple proper (which occupied
one side of the court), was a nuge plate
of gold, representing the sun. On the
otner sides were the chapels of the
Moon, Venus, the Pleiades, the Thun
der, the Lightning, and the Rainbow.
There were also apartments for the
priests, and a large room for the su
A journey of about 200 miles south
ward from Ctizco brings the traveler to
the northern shore of one of the largest
bodies of fresh water in the world
the celebrated Lake Titicaca, which, of
a very irregular oval shape, is 120 miles
in length. It has eight islands, the
largest of which is tne sacred island
of ancient Peru. To it the Incas traced
their origin. For here it was that Man
co Capac and Mama Ocllo, children of
the Sun, were commissioned by that
luminary to go forth and instruct in
arts, religion and government the sav
age tribes which at that time occupied
On this island are still to be seen the
remains of a temple of the Sun, as well
as the ruins of a royal palace and other
once magnificent buildings. At the
north end is a rock the most sacred
spot in all Peru. Upon it (according to
the ancient belief) no bird would alight
or animal venture, nor human being
dare to place his foot. 'Tradition said
that its hollows gave to the children of
the Sun their first shelter after their
arrival on the earth. Today it bears the
aspect of nothing more than a weather
worn mass of red sandstone, but in
early days it was plated all over with
gold and silver, and was covered, ex
cept on occasions of most solemn fes
tival, with a veil of cloth of richest
color and material.
Six miles distant is the island of
Coati. sacred to the Moon (the wife of
the Sun), on which is the palace of
the Virgins' of the Sun one of the best
preserved and most remarkable rem
nants of aboriginal architecture on this
continent. Within it are two chambers,
whicfeu contained, respectively, the gold
en statue of the Sun and the silver
statue of the Moon, whih were unveiled
on occasions when the people came to
worship. There still remain the walls
of an interior court wherein the ves
tals -wove garments of vicuna wool for
Peruvian royalty, for the high priests,
and for themselves, as well as hangings
for the holy templet.
Coati was second only to the Island
of the Sun (already described) as a re
sort for pious pilgrims, who came from
all parts of the empire, bringing offer
ings of vicuna and alpaca wool, as well
as the feathers of beautiful birds, to
be worked up b the busy virgins Also,
for the priests, who attended to the
business of praj ing for the crops, they
fetched much "chicha" the national
drink of Peru since time immemorial,
which was made then, as it is todav.
frAtn Indian Mirn Tt ifi wonderful
Dlace. this Island of the Moon. In front I
of the palace of the Virgins extends a
magnificent esplanade from which a se
ries of terraces (planted anciently with
flowers) descends to the water's edge
Thence one may behold one of the most
superb Tiews In all the world, Illampu,
the "crown of the Andes," uplifting in
the background its summits covered
with everlasting snow.
South of Lake Titicaca is a vast plain,
scattered over which axe found the re
mains of what appears-u be a civiliza
tion antpflatintr even that of the Incas.
Prom some of the ruins has been ob- j
tained the bulk of the material tor tne
building of the city of La Paz, the cap
ital of Bolivia, which is situated in a
deep valley 60 miles away.
So ancient was this civilisation that
i ufnu actually to have disappeared
before that of the Incas began. The j
Peruvian natives, inaeea, 101a p
Spanish invaders that, it had existed
"before the sun shone Jn the heavens."
Strangest of, all. It was apparently su
jierior. if anything, to the Inca culture
Beautifully Cut Stones. j
Nowhere else in the world are stones
to.be found cut with such mathematical
precision. Some of them are 26 feet
long and 15 feet wUe, and are fastened
together with pins and T-cJamps of
bronze How they were cut, or by
what means transported and put in
place, is a mystery. One of the most
important buildings is known today as
the fortress. The stones composing the
floor of its principal room, known as
the Hall of Justice (whatever its real
use may have been), were so massive
that modern engineers were unable to
remove them bodily, and so blew tnem
El Pasb Dairy Co,
423 North Oregon Street.
Giving your baby, or invalid aaiy kind
of milk and
into the matter of certified milk thoroughly.
See where your milk comes from and how
to the advice of your Doctor who
will tell you that CERTIFIED
MILK is the only kind for babies
CERTIFIED MILK is ONLY produced by us.
Ml I ' Tf m Mi. i
mmmESMMM HI illoill
y . j . i
Houston and Return $29.85
j 44 ooguiiwij 1 fll J
SELLING NOV. 10-15. LIMIT NOV. 15.
We sell Scrip Books good on all roads in Texas Face value $30.00.
Sale price $25.00
CITY TICKET OFFICE, 206 NORTH OREGON.
w". c. Mccormick, g. a. j. e. monroe, c. p. & t. a.
up with gunpowaer, carrying on many
of the elaborately cut fragments to
pave the cathedral of La Paz.
Tradition states that beneath the
building are great vaults filled with
treasure, and that here begins a sub
terranean passage which leads all the
way to Cuzco, more than 400 miles dis
tant. Near by there was a temple, as
well as other huge edifices, comprising
architectural remains as stupendous and
admirable as those or Assyria, Egypt,
Greece, or Rome.
It is historically related that one of
Pizarro's pilots asked him for the nails
and tacks which supported the plates of
silver bearing the saored name on the
walls of the Temple of the Sun at Pach
acamao the holy city 28 miles" from
Lima. So trifling a request was granted
as a matter of course, but the silver
thus obtained by the shrewd pilot
amount to no less than 32.000 ounces.
All of that neignborhood is one vast
cemetery, the dead being buried in
stratum on stratum to save space, most
ly in little vaults roofed with stk-Ks
and rushes, and of a size to contain i ur
np ftv hnrffAs alwavs in K slttinET oos-
ture, enveloped in wrappings. Some- j
times ornaments or goia ana silver are
found burled wl,th the bodies.
Temple Is Storehouse of Gold.
A short distance to the south of Lima
are the ruins of a temple which is said
to have been hardly less rich in gold
and silver than the shrine of Pachaca
mac Here there was an oracular idol
called Rimac. meaning ,"He who
speaks." It was hollow, so as to afford
room for occupancy by a priest, who
responded to questions asked by be
lievers coming for advice and offering
suitable gifts From this divinity,
through a corruption of spelling-, the
city of Lima takes its name.
There is good reason to believe that
the earliest Inca rulers, occupying to
start with the cup-shaped valley of Cv--eo.
gradually extended their sway from
valley to valley by a proeess of pro
gressive conquest. At length they came
to the land of the Chimus. the center
of whose power was near Trusfllo, and
found themselves opposed by a pepple
quite as warlike as themselves, and
even more advanced In some respects.
History records that YupanquI, son of
the ninth Jnca, demanded that the Chi
mu king should become a vassal of the
Inca, and abandon the worship of fishes
and other animals.
A defiance being returned, a great
battle followed. In which Yupanqui was
victorious. To confirm toe story, the
sandy soil of the anclentTjattlefleld is
found today literally "stuffed" tith
Skeletons all of adult men, and mostly
bearing marks of violence, such ajs
cloven or battered skulls. This is - ear
a ruined fortress, inside of which I- a
cemetery containing none but the skele
tons of young girls, carefully wrapped
in fine cotton cloth.
Population of Ancient Peru.
It Is believed that estimates of' the
population of ancient Peru have been
greatly exaggerated. In all likelihood
It did not exceed 12,000,000. The people
were under the average height, of a
light copper colov, Industrious and war
like. The Inca, so called, was the head
of the government, and an absolute des
pot. But the system seems to have teen
a benevolent despotism on the whole,
one of its essential features being the
requirement toat each individual should
own a portion of land. The entire
country was divided into three parts
jne for the Sun. another for the Inca,
and the third for the people. This,
being translated, meant that one-third
of the income of the state was ex
pended in supporting the established
religion; ane-tWrd maintained the gov
ernment, and the remaining third was
for the uses and benefit of the com
Scattered up and down the country
were granaries, into which -were gath
ered all sorts- of agricultural products,
to be dealt out to the people as they
The potato was the greatest source of
food. In a wild state no bigger than a
hazelnut, it was developed in ancient
Peru into as fine a tuber as the best
sjstem of modern gardening knows. Of
corn there were at least 30. distinct va
rieties, each valley having its own kind.
In the valley of the Piura river was
grown a peculiar kind of cotton, so like
unto wool as to be scarcely distinguish
able from the latter. Within the last
few years, by the way, this "wool cot
ton,'' as it is called, has come into ex
tensive use for making women's fine
"merino underwear and stockings.
Aborigines Were Alpaea Garments.
On the pampas along the east shore
of Lake Titicaca the aboriginal herders
partured their flocks of alpacas, Just aa
they do today. The ancient Peruvians
dressed in garments of alpaca wool,
which was made into yarns and fabrics
of varying degrees of fineness. It is a
beautiful animal. When the young one
is a year old its wool is a foot long and
as soft and fine as afHc The llama was
likewise domesticate, partly for its
wool, but mainly to carry burdens. It
was, in fact, the only beast of burden
employed in the New World up to the
time ef the introduction of European
civilization. To kill one was punishable
by death. At intervals the llamas and
alpacas were collected and shorn, and
the wool, which was the property of
the Inca, was dealt out as the people re
quired It. As for the vicuna, its soft
fleece was the "ermine" of Inca aristoc
racy, and no one not of royal blood was
permitted to use It save only the high
priests and vestals of the Sun.
The ancient Peruvians, at the time
of the discovery of America by Colum
bus, were in tne Bronze Age. Their
knives, needles, spearpolnts, lances, and
even war clubs were of bronze. The
remarkable bronze pins and T-clamps
used for fastening stones together were
a precaution against the overthrow of
buildings by earthquakes, which In that
part of the world are frequent and se
vere. In the sciences these people of
antiquity seem to have been consider
ably advanced. They had observatories
for astronomical purposes; with cylin
drical columns whose shadows were
used for adjusting the calendar. Appar
ently they knew the law (as the Ko
reans did not) which causes water to
seek Its own level, and utilised this
knowledge to carry water bejow the bed
of the river at Cusco by inverted
miWrtt r rmi
XMfflb. ii mm
A I si
., V A Sl
m'x 2 .4 i
The trade drawing
power of a well lighted
store is too well recog
nized to require dis
cussion. If you have any doubt
about it, let our illu
place a few
Edison Mazda Lamps
in your store and show windows, and watcL
In the meantime ask him to give you the latest
facts about light and lamps. He will tell you
how to increase the attraction of your store,
without increasing your present light bill.
El Paso Electric Railway Company
Electric BuikW. & 2323
siphons to supply the great temple and
some of the palaces. .
Dry Clhaate Prevents Decay.
The climate in that part of the world
Is so dry that there is no putrefaction.
Walled up in caves or burled in the
sands, bodies thousands of years old
are today In as perfect a state of preser
vation as the mummies of ancient
Egypt. In fact, they are natural mum
mies. Among the most curious and interest
ing objects found with such mummies
are toilet Implements and accessories
used by young women of Peru in pre
historic times. These include short
, .. .. hAllnm Hint uinoa rrii1& to
serve as bottles by stopping them with
wads oi cotton, ana rouuuuiog vuo
pigments There are also cotton "dabs,
for applying the pigments to the face.
A small stone with a cup-shaped hol
low on the upper side, in which fits a
round stone answering for pestle,
shows how the pigments in question
were ground fresh wien wanted But
how did the Peruvian belle of long ago
get on without a mirror, in which to
see her pretty face? The answer is that
her mirror was a piece of iron pyrites,
the shape of half an egg. with the Hat
ASSAYERS & CHEMISTS
Custom Assay Office
CRIICHETT & FERGUSON
Assayexa Chemists Metallurgist
AGEKTS FOR ORE SHIPPERS
210 San Fraacisco St
Pell Phone 334. Auto Phone 1334.
side highly polished.
BKLIEVK BALLOOX IS I.OST.
Berlin, German . Nov.2 . It Is feared
that the balloon Duesseldorf. with the
two American aeronauts, attempted to
cross the Baltic sea. A belated report
from Stralsund says a balloon was
.i.ii nn Vtnh.r S8 hicrh above the
Baltic .going eastward.
Independent Assay OfHee
P. W. RztTTKur. 'SJL, Proprietor.
Aftntfr Or SUpetr Attaf oh4
OUarfcs Amalmtft. khm mAm4
emd Riporttdlfpoa. Atfw Wtrk a
" P. Q- BOX 8.
Ofiee and Iahorstaey:
All Work Guaranteed.
We gtve gas for extraction.
203 Txast BMg.
For the Last Lap
1622 Boulevard, 4 room brick,
lot 371-2x120, easy terms
Kine lots on Hutton St., in
cluding 2 corners, easy terms
Apartment house site, 100x150,
on Franklin St $15,000
Prospective business corner,
close in, with good build
ing ... $25,000
S room brick with 2 lots, in
good neighborhood $4150
30 acre farm in Yaleta. im
proved, only $6750
3 acres and small house near
Washington rark ear line
$50 cash and $25 a month buys
2 lots in Tobin's 4th Addition.
5 acres 6 miles from El Paso,
only $1750, on easy terms; for
few days only.
240 acre tract near El Paso
Tobin Real Estate
The Post Office Is Behind
There is just one best way
to do anything
In the handling of money
or the keeping of records
This is IT!
bbV. k " fids' A l?d40a BaLjfts sVSflfcl fe.
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256 different kinds of businesses have granted
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No matter who you are, where you are, or
what you do if you handle money or keep
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sort and size of National Cash Register is
made to meet your especial requirements.
National Cash Register
Office 414 N. Oregon A. J. Strayer, Sales Agent