Newspaper Page Text
THIRTY-SECOND YEAR OF PUBLICATION
Superior exclusive features and complete news report by " mSSLSSoiwiE
2e Special Correspondents covering Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas. juexico.
$&& AKSSK iSvS-fi
13 stockholders who are as follows: H. I CapeD. . B-sv'a' r G. A.
MundWaters Davis. H. A. True. McGlennon eiUteW.F. Payne. B. a Canny. G. a.
Martin. Felix Martinez. A. L. Sharp, and John P. Ramsey.
EL PASO HERALD
Editorial and Magazine Page
AN INDEPENDENT DAILY NEWSPAPER
DEDICATED TO THE SERVICE OF THE PEOPLE, THAT NO GOOD CAUSE SHALL
LACK ACHAMPIOK, AMD THAT EVIL SHALL WOT THRIVE UNOPPOSED.
H. D. Slater, Eiftw-in-CMef ana coatreUing owaer, has directed The Herald for 15 Years;
G. A. Martin is News Editer.
FIREMEN ob 54 raUroads east of the Mississippi and north of the Potomac
are ready te strike at a Moment's notice from their officials, aad tie up all
traffic oa half the railroad mileage of the country.. There are 30,000 fire
men on the one side, and on the other there are 50,000,000 people in 18 staten
050,000 of whoa are railroad employes.
If the firemen are ia the right, their strike should have, and will have, the
support of public opinion. There are many technical points involved. The rail
roads maintain that the proposed increases of wages would amount to from
$9,000,000 to SflQOJOOQ, being at least a 35 percent increase ever the present wage
rolL The firemen contend that the increase wonld be only $4,000,000 a year, or
about 15 percent There are many other points in dispute besides wages,' bat the
firemen and the railroads do not seem te he so far apart oa those as to make agree
The main and practically the only point at issue on which the strike may yet
be called, is the refusal of the railroads te arbitrate under a board of three men,
and the refusal of the firemen to arbitrate under a board of seven men. The fire
men offer to arbitrate under the Erdman act, by -virtue of which one man bears
the real burden of arbitration, inasmuch as the other two men are selected ai
special pleaders or partisans. The railroads offer to arbitrate under a board of
seven to be named, as was the board ia the engineers' dispute, by the chief justice
of the United States supreme court, the presiding judge of the commerce court,
and the United States commissioner of labor. On this difference of arbitration
method the question of a general strike hangs.
Our Guns Without Ammunition
SECRETARY STIMSON of the war department is authority for the statement
that there is not enough field artillery ammunition in the United States to
supply the army batteries for one angle engagement, and that it requires
months and even years to make this ammunition. The total capacity of govern
ment arsenals aad private factories to turn out artillery ammunition is 2000
rounds per day, aad it would require more than two years to furnish all the guns
of a field army of war strength with a working supply of ammunition.
One field gun in active employ will fire 300 to 500 shots in a day. In Man
churia a record of oyer 600 shots in a day was reported by foreign observers. If
we figure only 200 rounds in a day, ten guns would shoot away our total output
of ammunition from all government aad private sources, and if we were to attempt
to supply the 1292 guns required by the army on a war footing, each gun would
receive less than two rounds of ammunition per day to work with.
It is estimated by army men that if we should be phinged into war with a
first class power, we should find ourselves nearly 2,000,000 roHnds short of a proper
supply for the field artiHery, aad it would take between two and three years to
The Fraaca-Prusaan war was over in 45 days.
Mast we fight with clubs, if it comes to a showdown?
Artillery is the chief arbiter ia modern warfare.
Censorship Means Weakness
NATURAL deduction is that if the news were favorable to the Madero gov
ernment, the Madero government would let the news get through to the
United States and the world. Censorship means hopelessness or great
fear; nobody believes a single word of Mexico's "official" dispatches. The dis
patches of our own government representatives ia Mexico always need salting
down and revising in the light of what we all know from authentic press reports
to be the truth. ' i
It simmers down to the fact that the Associated Press and a few special
newspaper correspondents in Mexico are the only source of reliable news. Madero
has imposed rigid censorship, aad while that lasts, even the press reports must be
regarded as colored ia some degree by the Madero government, which seems de
termined that the truth shall no longer be given out.
The effort te transfer the foreign women aad children and other noncombat
ants to Vera Cruz and finally te the' States is commendable enough, but this can be
regarded only as a palliative, aot a remedy. There is as much precedent for un
dertaking to protect foreigners and communicatieas in Mexico as there is for aban
doning property aad removing th- foreign colonists.
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, jr, served as foreman of the grand jury which ex
posed the white slave trade in New York city aad gave the lie to the report
of government investigators who stopped when they ran across a warm traiL
Rockefeller found out enough in that investigation to lead him to organize the
"bureau of social hygiene," which will have a nendowment fund to work with and
will make exhaustive studies of the social problems of cities and towns, especially
that of organised and commercialised prostitution. Laboratory methods will be
applied te the study of individual cases, and intensive methods will be used in
analysing the facts as gathered in different cities of the United tSates and Europe.
This is the first time the problem has been approached in a big way freed'
from politics aad from freak faddigm. There is hope for some tangible good from
the new foundation. Ia no better way could the rich young man devote his talents,
his energy, and his money, for the betterment of the world he lives in.
Bonds For Local
EAST EL PASO will find it cheaper and better to bond for improvements than
to try to do the work on individual subscription. By the bonding plan there
is uniformity and high excellence, while if the individual plan be followed
there are more bare spots than park plots, more holes than sidewalks, more sand
bars than street pavements, more rusty tomato cans than trees. East El Paso is
particularly adapted to the boadiBg plan because almost no improvement work has
been done ia the section to be covered, and all the work can be done at once for
everybody, uniformly and cheaply, while payment k deferred over a long period.
Diplomacy ha? nit failed: :t is the diplomats who have failed.
14 Years Ago Today
From The Herald This Date lSftB.
A. W. JDutton, who founded the Kl
Paso foundry, is in the city.
Dan Kelly went to Jarilla this morn
ing to spend a couple of days.
A force of workmen was busy yes
terday repairing the railroad crossing
on Santa Fe street
A. W. Gifford, a mining man, who
is operating in the Jarilla mountains, is
in the city for a few days.
S. H. Buchanan ,and Mr. Francis left
today for Doane's ranch where they
will tpend a couple of days on a hunt
George L. Siebrecht, United States
narshall of this district, will arrive
this afternoon over the G. H. from San
W. H. Gibbs, superintendent of the
T'nited Copper company, operating in
the Jarrillas, came in last evening en
route to Las Cruces.
Miss Stella Jennings, of St. Louis,
w ho has be en the guest of her brother
here for tb last three weeks, left to
day over the Santa Fc for St. Louis.
Eggs arc unusually short in this
city at prtbci.t. it is Lent and there
is an unusual demand for them by pri
late families, as well as restaurants.
The Lyceum Dramatic association is
preparing for a performance to be
gi-cen at the opera house soon after
lent for the benefit of the new ;ity
Tne big flag at the G H hni's was
fiat rt f"im the polr t h-Jf mi-t
yes'irdd.. ia t"' o tie first aruu- j
versary of the destruction o the
Capt George Curry, who commanded
troop H, of the rough riders, is ex
pected to arrive in this city shortly ind
reorganise his troop to go to the Phil
ippine islands and help keep Aguina.do
and his followers in line.
The regular meeting of the Woman's
club was held yesterday afternoon in
the commissioners' room at the court
house. Mrs. Leigh Clark was elected
delegate to the Galveston convention,
and Mrs. E. Kohlberg alternate.
City clerk Ben Catlin, who returned
from Austin yesterday, says that Billie
Bridgers. representative from this dis
trict, has prepared a resolution to he
presented in the house, protesting
against the annexation of this part of
Texas to southern New Mexico.
The women of the Library associa
tion met yesterday afternoon to con
sider the question of providing supper
for the mask ball, which the ball com
mittee had offered to place in their
hands. After a discussion it was de
cided to decline the offer with thanks.
Superintendent A. S. Greig, of the E.
P. & N. E.. thinks that the new park
should be named in honor of Mrs.
Buckler, whether she is willing or not.
"She has been untiring in her efforts
to beautify the new park." said super
intendent Greig, "and it should be
named in her honor"
Last Monday Dr. I. J. Bush, health
officer for Pecos, was the recipient of
a present in the shape of a gold medal,
bearing on its face the following in
scription "Presented to Dr. L J. Bush
b the women of Pecos. Texas, :n
crateful recognition of his noble ser
nv m thi. bmaSpoi epidemic of 3 '-
A Short Story.
AM very pleased to toll you.
Mr. Gilbert, that the board of
directors has appointed you
the traveling representative of the
"I am delighted to hear it," said Mr.
Gilbert, "when do I start?"
"On Monday morning next. Here is
a letter from our president which you
will hand to the cashier. Mr. Dum
mond. when you come back. I shall be
away for some time myself."
A' moment later Gilbert left the
splendid offices of the bank aad
mounted a bus which carried him to
his poor lodgings where he lived with
This friend, Henry Chevron, was a
born swindler, but he concealed his
real character so well that Gilbert
thought him honest and respectable In
"Good luck at last. Henry," Gilbert
cried as he rushed lnU the room. "1
have been appointed traveling repre
sontnHvo nt the Credit Universal."
"My heartiest congratulations, old
boy. Is the salary good?"
"Twenty-five dollars a week to start
with, and more later on. It is a very
responsible position, for my duty will
be chiefly to carry gold and securities
He went on to tell that the manager
of the bank was going abroad and that
he was to hand his letter of appoint
ment to the cashier, Mr. Drummond, the
"I would not mind being in your
shoes, old boy," said Henrx Chevron,
with a smile, "the job would Just suit
That same evening Gilbert was sud
denly taken sick and 48 hours later he
was dead. This gave Hetry Chevron
an idea. Why shouldn't he steal the
letter and present himself in the bank
He did not doubt that he was able
to pose as his dead friend. The man
ager of the bank would be away, and
the resemblance between himself and
Gilbert was strong enough to prevent
any of the clerks from suspecting any
thing, especially if he put on the dead
On Monday morning he put on the
clothes of his late friend, put the let
ter in bis pocket, and went to the
He was taken to the cashier's office
where he handed over the letter.
"Oh, yes. I see you are our new trav
eling representative. My assistant. Mr.
Herve, will instruct you as to your du
ties." The work was not very difficult Mr.
Chevron was informed that when he
was not abroad he was to carry cash
and securities between the bank and
its various suburban and provincial
branches, but as none of these amounts
was was very large, he decided to wait
until a large sume was turned over
to him. He was very careful and punc
tual, and his superiors -were exceed
ingly well pleased with him.
One afternoon about four weeks
later he was delighted to hear that he
was to be sent on a more important
errand. He was to carry about half a
million dollars In South American se
curities to the branch in London. His
heart beat faster at the thought that
here was the long looked for chance.
"I shall go straight to Brussels, sell
the papers to Meikstein and skip. The
old rascal will give me at least 350.060
for the papers, and I won't have to do
another stroke of work."
At half past five he entered Mr.
"There is not a moment to waste."
the cashier said. "I have telephoned
for a cab and you will Just have time
to catch the London boat."
"You. may depend on me. sir."
With greedy eyes he watched the
cashier counting the bonds and placing
them in a strong leather satchel.
"Xow you must be very careful, Gil
bert. There are bonds to the value or
$485.06$. and you must not give them
up to anybodv but our London mana
ger. William Briscoe. I suppose I need
not warn you to tell nobody of yonr
"No, of course not. Mr. Dummond.
"Well, you must be off. No. just a
moment. Please sign this receipt. It
is a mere formality, of course, but it
must be done." .
He filled up a blank and handed It
to Chevron, whose heart was beating
fast with excitement. He took out his
fountain pen and quickly signed the
The cashier took It half mechanic
ally, glanced at it. and was about to
send him away -when he suddenly
"Salt a moment," he said.
His face was so stern and his Tolce
so changed that Chevron trembled.
"I will have to hurry to catch the
train." he stammered.
"Perhaps It won't be necessary for
you to catch it." the cashier replied.
The speaker rang a bell, wrote some
thing on a telegraph form, and handed
it to the clerk who entered. Then he
calmly locked the door and put the key
into his pocket
Chevron sat down and waited. He
felt that somehow the game was lost
After a while there was a knock at
the door and the clerk was admitted.
He handed the cashier a telegram.
Mr. Dummond broke it and read:
Gilbert died five weeks ago, buried.
"Go and get a policeman. Raymond,
Dummond ordered the clerk.
A moment later a policeman entered
the room. ,.
"Arrest this man, said Dummond.
"he has posed as another man in order
to rob the bank."
Chevron smiled and said very calmly:
"I submit to the arrest on one con
dition. Tell me how you discovered
that I am not Gilbert"
"With pleasure. Just look at this re
ceipt signed by yourself half an hour
aSChevron looked at the receipt and
struck his forehead with his fist
"What a fool I am." he exclaimed.
The paper was signed, "Henry Chev
ron." True Happiness
By Walt Mason.
"When torrents are pouring or temesta
are roaring how pleasant and cheerful
is home! To sit by the winder all drier
than tinder and watch the unfortunates
roam! With glad eyes to follow the fel
lows who wallow around in the rain or
the sleet, to watch them a-slipping and
sliding and tripping, and falling all over
the street! There's nothing so sooth
ing, so apt to be smoothing the furrows
of grief from your brow, as -'tting and
gazing at folks who arc raising out there
in the mud such a row! To watch a mad
neighbor through hurricane labor, while
you are all snug by the fire, to see him
cavorting and pawing and snorting
what more could a mortal desire? I
love storm and blizzard from A clear to
Izzard, I'm fond of the sleet and the
rain; let winter get busy and whoop
tiU he's dizzy, and 111 be the last to
complain. For there is a eajsement just
over the basement where I In all com-'
fort may sit, and watch people wading
through mud or parading through
snow till they fall ia a fit.
MURRAY ADDRESSES HIGH
SCHOOL; TBLLS OP PRIXCBTON.
H. G. Murray, secretary of the gradu
ate council of Monday. This evening
the Princeton club here will give him
dinner, and Tuesday evening he will
deliver a public address on his col
lege at the First Christian church.
Trouble will meet you half way and
iill gladly accompany you the rest of
So iidimes the campaign runs the
. n.ud (te and snrrctimes the candidate
runs the campaign.
Seems like th' folks that have th'
least use fer knowledge have th' most.
I guess Tipton Bud is purty hard t' Kve
with He blurts out jist what ,he thinks
at the' breakfast table, let the corn
flakes fall where they may.
Letters to The Herald.
All communications must bear the
signature of the writer, but the name
will be withheld if requested.
Altura Park, Bl Paso, Feb. 17.
Editor Bl Paso Herald:
Some time ago you published a letter,
presumably an answer to some agnos
tic who bad previously written a letter
pleading for a rational and scientific
Times have been, it is true, when
there was scarcely anything visible in
the way of religion except the super
naturally revealed varieties. In fact I
used to think that the supernatural
istr were going to so flood the lan
guages with their supernatural mean
ings that there would be no room for
rationalism, naturalism, or science m
such terms as religion. God, Christi
anity. Some of us did not care but
rather preferred to be thus crowded
out and admittedly called ourselves
irreligious, atheists, and un-Christian.
To others of us, however, these terms
Sounded harsh and unjust
The Unitarians have struggled against
great odds for a century or more to
deserve their claims to be called Chris
tian, Godly, and devout They have,
however, been a small body, and had
it not been for their excedlngly large
representation in our best literature,
the above terms -would probably have
been defined so narrowly that it could
not have been said of the Unitarians
that they were Godly, devout or
However others have stepped for
ward aad put their shoulders to the
wheel of progress. Numerous societies
of Ethical Culture and other free re
ligious churches have proved them
selves so genuinely Godly and devout
and Christian in spirit and in truth
that these religious terms can so
longer be monopolized by the super
naturalists and the superstitious; not
withstanding the implications to the
contrary of our friend, your recent cor
respondent The crisis in religion Is past The
term religion is saved to express the
reality of a higher thing than mere
pagan idolatry, medieval priestcraft or
modern superstition. The reformation
began with Luther and his contempor
aries, but it is just now working in
The reformation is like the process
of -weeding a garden. The largest
weeds are pulled first and some think
that this is good enough. But a good
gardener keeps on finding smaller
-weeds no less harmful. Supernatural
ism is only a finer form of idolatry.
It is not enough to do away with the
worship of images and saints as a
means of salvation, but I say do away
with the idea that a man can be
saved miraculously by believing any
set of theological dogma.
This is why an agnostic has as
much right to speak and think in
terms of faith and religion as has a
worshiper of wooden Images or a wor
shiper of a man, or a worshiper of an
infallible church, or a -worshiper of
an infallible book. I have lived inti
mately with devout supernaturalists
of the very best men and women, but
I have also known agnostics who would
say "Nature is good," with as deep
and genuine religious feeling and rev
erence as ever I heard the former say
"God is good."
Let us not repeat the mistake of
exalting the form above the reality.
Above all lets be honest to our own
God glTen faculty, the intellect for
if we belittle the intellect we belittle
the greatest gift that God ever gave
P. J. Andrews.
Arkansas Pass, Texas, Feb. 16, ISIS.
Editor El Paso Herald:
I am a reader of your valuable paper,
and the clipping I enclose from your
editorial column strikes me as being
the situation exactly, and I feel that
this country has stood It about as
long as it can, and when "patience
ceases to be a virtue," I think we
should do something.
It is plain that there will be no
Improvement in the situation for years
to come, unless the United States
takes a hand, to at least keep the rail
roads and other interests from the at
tacks of the rebels. Business is
crippled to such an extent and life of
Americans so insecure in Mexico, and
f3en, on thls s,de o "to line that
the loss and Insecurity are too great
to be allowed to continue. I have
property near the border, and so have
some of my friends from back east
that we are anxious to develop; but
pare not venture now. and cannot risk
it until peace is secured.
How long can El Paso and such big
business as the Pearson company en
dure such loss. If it was a war whore
one side or the other would win. soon,
t would be all right to let them have
it out, but it is not and Madero's sol
diers never can win. The rebels have
the best of it and will continue to
nave and we are, besides this, pay
ing damages for their lawlessness. Let
us do something soon. W. G.
PROOF ENOUGH FOR HKR.
M11 ' Miami. Ariz.. Feb. 16.
Editor Bl Paso Herald:
I have been very much Interested
in reading the letters you haTe pub
lished lately about religion.
There is no secret about there be
ing a God. a heaven, a devil, and a
hell. In the regular orthodox wav.
We may overdraw those things some
times, but one who gets down on his
knees in earnest and seeks to find
out these things will have them re
vealed In so overwhelming a manner
that a man cannot doubt after that
I know there is a God and a place
of rest and peace and I Know that
there ! an nil spirit and a plate fir
all ei! but trip onU wa I can pro.o
. . ... .1 V . l M . 1. ,
i' i'' til (i. iirotnr li i'1 i
doubting nature to the altar w lien- IJ
An El Paso Pioneer
(By W. M. CoIdwrlL Bl Paao.)
The death of W. W. Mills, at Austin,
on his 77th birthday anniversary, has
deeply moved all the older residents.
Mexicans and Americans, of this valley;
aside from the grief which it has oc
casioned, the event may be deemed to
close the first volume of our local his
tory. With him has gone the last man,
of purely American education and train
ing, who was here conspicuous in those
far distant days, when Americans were
but strangers in the land, and the peo
ple, in their civilization, language,
thought and everything but normal po
litical allegiances, belonged to a dif
ferent, and not always amicable race.
His death severs almost the last strand
of tradition even. In 18SS. barely 22
years of age, he first saw the sun rise
upon Mount Franklin, and from that
day. to the hour of his death. El Paso
never ceased to be his real home and
place of affection.
Mr. Mills, in many respects, was a
shining example of the fallibility of
hasty human judgment Those who
ought to have known better fre
quently supposed that he cherished
prejudices which were the parent
of animosities; nothing can be far
ther from the fact On his arrival
here, he did not judge the people (alien
in everything but common humanity,
but who for more than 200 years, in this
then distant wilderness, had main
tained the banner of Christianity, and
the essentials of civilization) from the
narrowing standpoint, which is even
yet too characteristic of our country
men. From the very first he appreciated
the Mexicans, won and attained their
friendship and their confidence, and
thereby an influence, which time and
again was exercised for the common
good of both races, on -those frequent
occasions when misunderstandings due
to difference of race, arose between
them, and threatened the welfare of
both. He was supposed by many to be
a man of the north, not from the acci
dent of birth alone, but as the repre
sentative of all its prejudices and ani
mosities, whereas, there was little but
the accident of birth to distinguish
him and all the great features of his
character from the people among whom
he spent four-fifths of his life, and one
of whose daughters he married unless
his unswerving devotion to the union
can be adduced as an evidence of his
alienage, and he shared that reproach.
If such now It be deemed to be, with
many of the most illustrious men'' of
He bore arms for the union, and to
his latest day, though seldom men
tioned, that fact was evidently the one
deed of his career, at which he most
rejoiced. But no man better understood
and more highly honored, the prowess,
the spirit and constancy of the soldiers
of the confederacy. He claimed them
all as a part of the common national
glory, regretting only the occasion of
When the civil war ended. In the tri
umph of the caHse for which he risked
his life, the seceded states were not
regarded by him as conquered prov
inces, to be oppressed and plundered.
bnt as an integral part of a re-unlted
country, in all matters of local interest
to be ruled by its own people, and not
by the camp followers of the victorious
legions. He himself claimed to be a
southerner; and who will deny his
claim, save those -who would brand as
.non-Americans, the millions who
though born abroad, at all periods of
our history, performed all the duties.
shared all the dangers, and felt all
the sentiments of the children of the
What is "success?" Is the gold
standard alone its measure? He never
craved, and never acquired wealth, but
lived and died, possessing more than
was necessary for his wants. An offi
cer in the army, a collector of cus
toms, a member of the constitutional
convention, and long an honored con
sul abroad, in every instance perform
ing his duties in such a manner as to
Increase his reputation identified by
his name and deeds with the history
of the valley and of the states, a con
spicuous member of a family that will
be remembered here, for genera
tions to come how many of all who
have lived and labored here, have been
got my proof right down on my
knees in humble contrition.
Ella P. Haust
DOWNTOWN ALLEY PAVING.
Editor Bl Paso Herald:
The Herald's editorials on the down
town alley paving are commendable.
The first improvement district coat
and is costing dearly: yet they never
complained bnt started the ball rolling,
and it has kept on rolling with no indi
cations to stop; and there were no
holes or missed places left but all
seemed to be anxious to have it done.
Just as The Herald has said it was the
only way at that time that it could
be done. But the writer agrees with
The Herald that the city should pave
the downtown alleys, and encourage
the liberal epirit shown by the people
of the first paving district
WHAT IS A SYRIAN
Miami. Ariz.. Feb. 16.
Editor El Paso Herald:
To settle an argument will you please
answer the following question:
Is a Syrian or a native of Syria con
sidered a white man? Is the Syrian
government considered as a white
government by the white race?
The Syrians are not only a "white"
race but the Syrian stock is one of
the three ancient races from which
the socalled "white" races of today
sprang. Syria Is now a province of
Asiatic Turkey; the Turkish govern
ment is of course a "white" govern
VOTE OF TEXAS. l
Roewell. N. VL, Feb. 15.
Editor El Paso Herald:
Please give me the official vote of
Texas for president
E. B. Mooney.
Wilson. 221.S8S; Taft 28,853: Roose
velt 26.7S5; Debs. XS.743; Chafin, 1738.
Editor El Paso Herald:
At which nearest point in the United
States (not Mexico) is located a Ger
v T. T. C.
In Denver, Georg Plehn; in Galves
ton. Otto Scheldt Editor.
WAITING FOR TRIAL
Warrants Served Oa Alleged Gamblers
In the Corporation Court
While waiting for trial in the cor
poration court Monday morning on
charges of gaming 13 alleged gamblers
gathered in by the police In the raid
on the Hotel Angelus and Bronson on
the information furnished by the grand
jury, were served with warrants for
their arrests on indictments returned
against them 1 the same grand jury.
The l.t wrr. lind up by deput sheriff
Stanlev !r...rl jr. and state rangers
Moore, W- bsior ami ("line, and m ironed
from the irioration court to th;
Thoe arrested were S Polk Janus
Masinl. R. Hays. J. VV Walker. I W:i
lin. P. IVrr. A. B Beaer, Jeorge
Gaskins. T. Olden. L. J. Coles, alias B.
If Cooper, A. Wilieke. V. L Williams
and V N. Knox The bonds in each
i iso were placed at J :00. pendinc :h-
trill of the d frn.l i' f- on th( li i u
"f gamine whith is ; m duled to u'liii
up iii the counts i ourt during tha
M irth t. rm.
Canal Planned 50 Years Ago
England Surrendered Rights Held
By Frederic J. Hartiln
WASHINGTON, D. C. Feb. 17.
The story of how the United
States came to be bound up
with Great Britain in the building of
an isthmian canal goes back more than
half a century. The United States had
only recently finished its continental
expansion, and the year 186 found the
North Amedlcaa continent north of the
Rio Grande in the possession of the
United States and England. Each of
the countries needed a eanal to connect
its east and west coasts.
England Centreled East Coast.
England had long had a -west coast
in Canada, bnt the United States bad
only so recently come into possession
of such a coast that it was inapired
to begin at once to look forward to
their connection by an isthmian water
way. But when it turned its attention i
in mat airection it round mat ureal
Britain was holding the position of ad
vantage in the isthmian region. It
held the Bahamas and Bermuda. Ja
maica and Barbadoes, Trinidad, the
Windward and the Leeward islands,
British Guiana and British Honduras,
and a protectorate over the Mosquito
coast' now the east coast of Niaragua.
That protectorate covered the eastern
terminus of what was thought the feas
ible route for a ship canal.
Treaty SoHght By U. S.
Under these circumstances a treaty
clearly was necessary between the two
countries, and such a treaty was sought
by the United States. England agreed
to enter into such a treaty, after two
treaties had been negotiated between
the United States and Nicaragua, giv
ing to the United States Nicaragua's
assent to a program that -would afford
large powers to this country in the con
struction of the canaL These treaties
-with Nicaragua were negotiated but
were never presented to the American
senate for ratification. They were prob
ably negotiated to make Great Britain
feel willing to make a treaty.
By the resulting treaty with England,
known as the Clayton-Bulwer treaty,
the two countries agreed that neither
government should "ever obtain or
maintain for itself any exclusive con
trol over the ship canal;" that neither
country should ever erect or maintain
any fortification commanding in the
vicinity of the canal; that neither na
tion should ever colonise or assume to
exercise dominion over Nicaragua.
Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast or any
other part of Central America; that
neither country should take advantage
of any Intimacy, alliance, connection,
or influence with any country in Cen
tral America in order to secure for It
any rights or advantages in regard to
commerce and navigation not possessed
by the citizens or subjects of the other.
Ue ef Canal in War.
The second article of the treaty pro
vided that In case of war between the
United States and Great Britain, ves
sels ef both nations should be exempt
from blockade, detention, or capture
while in the canal or within certain
fixed distances from it The third ar
ticle set forth that in order to secure
the building of the canal, any party
or parties undertaking the task under
the sanction of the governments
through which It passed would be pro
tected in their rights by the United
States and England.
Br the fourth article the two coun
tries undertook to use their influeaeei
with the countries tnrougn wnicn we
canal should pass in the direction of
inducing them to co-operate in the
work of construction, and also ,to use
their good offices to secure a free
, port at each end.
xne iiiui &rucie oouna win &oiu
ments to protect the- waterway from
interruption, seizure, or unjust confis
cation after its completion, to guaran
tee its neutrality so that it might
forever be free and open, and the capi
tal invested secure. It further pro
vided, however that either or both
governments might withdraw their
support, upon six months notice, if
persuaded that unfair discriminations
were made or unjust tolls levied.
Invitations to every other country to
enter into like stipulations were ex
tended in the sixth article, to the end
that they might share in the honor and
advantage of having contributed to so
important a work. Agreement was
also made in that article that the two
countries should enter into treaties with
the countries of Central America, look
ing to the expedition of the work of
building the canaL for the benefit of
mankind, on equal terms to all.
In the seventh article of the treaty
the two countries agreed to give their
support to such competent persons or
as first might undertake the work of
constructing the oanaL Such persons
or companies were to be given a year
to show their resources and to begin
work, and if they were not ready to go
forward after that time the next
comer -was to be considered.
Open en Kqnal Terras.
All of these stipulations led up to
the final one, contained in the elgntn
article, which recites that the twoeom
panles have entered into the treaty not
only for the particular object of pro
viding for the construction of the canal,
but as well for the establishment oca
general principle, and that they
to extend their Joint and several pro-.-..
. - ..- nrsctleabie com-
municatlons, whether by canal or raU;
way across the uuunos "-rt-
the isthmus of Tehauntepec. """.VSTi
recited that in granting this !"
it was agreed that u,.ef "5233
or conditions of traffte shouldbe madd
than those approved ythe irtvowun
trles. and that they should" be open to
& f cnlzeU aid subjects of tte two na
tions on equal terms, and "ceJ.te;nc
the citizens and suWfCts of all such
nations as might be willing "g.JSJS
the United States and 0r Jte
in the protection of such interoceante
Contract Between 2jJS?"the
Tt will be noticed, in studying Hie
& and srws?: r
plain 'nJ""-., Two countries and
solely between u,?flwo, i This is
bo other nauon J" " that the
advanced by some Pgfd. but
contention that not only Kht to
Prorragalbte canal toll
law. is not weU founded u vlew
Tho8 .? h righte they claim
mneh as to clauses m lSlT.,fot
much as to
-..i Onnal Intended.
? fe nreeaTteyr,bMed "a
Clayton-Bulwer treaty x wUh
thowughty neuU-al canai.
reference to defenceitnai toward suoh
rence to ton. mignt join with the
othereonntraoing n ions in maintain
.tW n? neutrality. In 1896 and prior
'" f .here were those who wanted
I"" ahead and ouild the canal under
assumption that the Clayton-Bul-!r
maty as a dead letter, because
Zrulitions had completely changed.
Richard Olney was then secretary of
Sat" and he wrote in reply to that con
tention "upon ver Principle
which governs the relation to each
ether either of nations or of individ
uals 'the T'nited States Is completely
estopped from denving that the treat
is in full force and vigor If ch-ingd
conditions now make stipulations
w hi h vr oiue decreed .dvanta.:wus
llth. r in ipr'1 able or injurious, the
By GBORQK PITCH,
Aather of "At Good Old Sitvaj.1
THB trombone is the most dashing
and impressive of all horns. Bands
can exist without trombones just
as statesmen ean exist without plug
hats and frocks coats, but the effort
isn't worth while.
The trombone is a slender, refined
toot producer, about three feet long in
repose and about six feet long in full
cry. It is made in two parts, one or
which slides over the other, thus pro
ducing a large and well selected stock
of tones. To pfcty the trombone the per
former must grasp the slide end of the
thing between the thumb and forefinger
and locate notes up and down its thorax
with unerring accuracy. Should he miss
a note by even aa eighth of an inch, the
instrument will resent it with a weird,
uncanny shriek, and sioek in that par
ticular band will go down eight points.
A dozen trombonists marching at the
head of a 300-hrag-power band, each man
jacking a tall note out of the zenith at
thesame instant as easily aa Ty Cobb
picks fly balls out of the bleachers,
forms one a nature's most impressive
The trombone has a loud ehurion note
"Can stab a fly ia faH flight witheHt
missing a beat."
like aa Indiana orator, and whenever it
elbows its way into proceedings and
takes up the taread of discourse, the
fact cannot paee unnoticed. A bad trom
bonist ean make more trouble in a band
than Joseph W. Bailey used to make in
the senate, and can get as much atten
tion. But when the trombone is well
played it makes inspiring music, and
people often pay small sums for the
privilege of. watching an expert trom
bonist come out ou the stage and try to
stab the proscenium arch wick his ver
satile and alarming horn.
One ean learn to play the trombone
in a few mouths, bat not weH enough
to he safe. Hie best trombonists are
bora aad afterwards -aggravated -by &
long course of training, at the ead of
which time- they are so expert that they
I ean travel lis lineal leet per minute
up aad down the scale and can transfix
a fry in fall flight with the swift Hying
slide without missing & beat. Te play
this peculiar horn the performer must
feed his face into the ruoutbpiece ia
such a way that he eventually acquires
au upper lip like a gladiolus bulb. This
is the sign of the craft aad aa grip or
password is necessary.
(Copyrighted by George Matthew
true remedy is not in ingenious at
tempts to deny the existence of the
treaty or to explain away Its provis
ions, but in a direct and straightfor
ward application to Great Britain for
a reconsideration of the whole matter."
Englaad Surrendered Rights.
The McKinley administration did
conclude that the stipulations that
once were deemed advantageous were.
under changed conditions, inapplicable
and injurious, and did make application
to Great Britain for a reconsideration
of the whole matter, thus carrying out
to the letter the idea set forth by the
previous administration. Kngland did
generously recognize the appeal vt the
United States and did enter into a new
treaty that surrendered many of the
rights that were held by that country
under the Clayton-Bulwer treaty. Yet
the new treaty, while surrendering
much that Bnglaad held under the old
one. did reaffirm the general principle
of neutrality contained in the eighth
article of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty.
Same Treatment for 1H.
Probably no one denies that under
this reaffirmation Kngland expected
and believed that British shipping
should receive equal treatment witH
American shipping. It is true that the
argument has been advanced, both in
England aad in the United States that
so long as Great Britain gets the same
treatment that is accorded to other
nations, the treaty is lived up to. Pres
ident Taft advanced this argument, and
K was advanced also m congress when
the canal act was pending. But in the
official correspondence the issue is not
upon the general question of whether
the United States may exempt its for
eign shipping from tolls, under the
treaty, but rather whether it -may ex
empt its coastwise shipping
Right ef Exemptions.
The right of exemption is based
upon several grounds: First the British,
have no interest In our coastwise
shipping, the law restricting it tr
American ships. Second, that Bngland
itself does not construe a general
treaty as applicable to coastwise ship
ping, as is evidenced by its construc
tion of our general shipping treat.
now nearing 100 years old. Third, that
by exempting coastwise shipping w
do not place any additional burden upo-i
foreign shipping. Fourth, upon the di
rect admission of the Innes note, which
says ir. so many words that the matter
of coastwise shipping is not on all
fours with the general shipping proposi
tion. It is certain that there are a great
many people who oppose the exemption
of coastwise shipping who are. on the
other hand, opposed to the British con
tention that we have no right to ex
empt it. And it is further certain that
a great many Americans believe in our
right to exempt coastwise shipping but
deny our right to exempt our foreign
Tomorrow The Hay-Pouneefot
ALDK)ULl DIES ATER SERVING
22 YKARS O.N CHIC VGO COCXCIL
Chicago, I1L. Feb 17 Alderman Joe
J. Brennan died here Sunda. Mr.
Brennan was serving his 11th consecu
tive two-year term in the city counc.L
Attacks from various organ izaiions
and even a sentence to the house of
correction failed to shake his hold on
the ISth ward. Brennan was sentenced
to serve two years by judge Gar hut
the appellate court reversed the decis
ion before the alderman had served two
and a half months.
Btennan '.! one of the best known
figures in 'h t.ago politics.