Newspaper Page Text
EL PASO HERALD
European War and Theatrical
Annual Advancement Edition
SATURDAY. AUGUST T WERT if-NlNTH, 1914.
sland Outposts of United
States Are Close to
W ashington. D. C Aug:- 2S. As
Japan and the United States are the
only two strong pom era with home ter
ritory bordering on the Pacific ocean,
the American government naturally re-
raras witn interest. 11 not wixn con-
em. the probability of having Japanese
substituted for German neighbors to
ev t-ral of its Island possessions.
Stretching across the Pacific from
San Francisco to the mainland of Asia.
the I'nited States now has in order
Haw.au. the Midway island. Guam (one
of the Ladrones) and the Philippines.
Steamships seldom take a straight
course from San Francisco to the
Philippines. They swing off to the
north to touch at Honolulu, and usually
some Japanese port. Because of the
varjing ocean depths, too, the cable
Itr.es touch at Honolulu.
Midway, a tinv stretch or sand, was
brought to the United States by
treat The Spanish war brought us
Huam and the Philippines. Then, far
to the south, lies American Samoa.
It is a naval station with the best
harbor in this archipelago. Pagopago.
Tutulla and the three islets known col
lectively as Manua. fell to the United
states in 1900 after this country. Get-
man. anu kre Dniaifi iuui oeen j
brought near to war over the subject. I
Germanv took UdoIu by treaty terms I
and Great Britain took Savaii and
promptly relinquished it to Germany
for the consideration of complete rights
in the kingdom or Tonga, and the with
drawal of German claims to the Solo
mon islands, lying south of Bougain
ville Samoa of Xo Economic Value.
Samoa has absolutely no economic
alue The largest American Island,
Tutuila, is only 1 miles between east
and west, and scarcely attains the
breadth of five miles. Its population
is scanty and lacks industry; it is only
is a result of constant prodding on the
part of the commandant of the station,
who is also governor' of American Sa
moa, that the island produces enough
to pa their not onerous taxes. Its
value is wholly military, a most impor
tant post in naval strategy.
The possession of the Pagopago har-
tr carries with it the control of all
the Samoa n islands. In the German
islands of the former kingdom of Sa- i
moa there are but three harbors. Apia
is wholly indefensible, and its record
of destruction In the gale of March,
1889. snows its danger for ships; the
harbors of Saluafata and Fangaloa af
ford poor shelter in this season of trade
winds, but In the summer of the south
ern hemisphere, from November to
March, they are a danger rather than a.
protection to ships.
Hawaii Bottles Up Pacific
Hawaii is so situated that it bottles
up the whole of the Pacific coast from
the isthmus to Paget sound. If in
possession of a hostile power the canal
commerce is threatened, and California.
Oregon and Washington He. open to a
series of wearing attacks delivered
from that convenient base. From Oehu.
San Francisco It is a four darsM
journey at war speed for battle cruisers.
Ulowmsr eight dajs for the advance
to the point of attack and return to
base a hostile fleet could carry enough
oal to allow a week or even- ten days
for operation in American waters.
Could Be Repeated Indefinitely.
Such attacks could be repeated 'in
definitely from this base until the rn
admg fleet has been destroyed. A
naval base is In process of completion
at the Pearl Harbor Lochs, near Hono
lulu. The commercial harbor at the
latter place is nothing more than a
roadstead protected by a coral reef
It serves well enough for the vessels
of trade, but it is quite unsatisfactory
in naval requirements. The town Is
protected by batteries established In
such natural fortresses as Punchbowl,
towering above the residences, and
Leahi. or Diamond Head, at the end
of Waikiki Beach. The artillery of
coast defence type is considered suffl-
lent to withstand such an attack as
in the modern theory of war would be
delivered from sea.
Pearl Harbor has every advantage
that a great naval harbor could re
quire, it has one disadvantage. When
the harbor has once been entered, there
is ample room for a fleet, it has every
facility which might be needed for the
creation of a dockyard and repair sta
tion. The obstacle to its use has been
the existence of a coral barrier across
the entrance. which has blocked the
passage of vessels of any but the shal
lowest draught, although there is deep
water within the lochs. Construction
at this important point has been in
progress ever since the annexation:
just what is the present condition at
the reef, whether it has been blasted
out to admit the entry or vessels of
the -first type, is knewn only to the
general board of the- navy. The build
ing of the repair shops has not been
prosecuted with vigor, but after a doz
en years of work it may reasonably be
expected that the reef has been dis
Guam and Midway, though coming
into American ownership through dif
ferent means, have the -same sort of
importance. The former certainly, the
latter probably, must be held in order
to Insure the safety and even the action
of the Pacific cable. Midway, a low
-roup of sandy islets. Is indefensible.
Its harbor is no more than a cove.
accessible only to schooners of the
lightest navigable draught. Its value
lies in the fact that it affords a speck
of land on which to equip in utter
loneliness a relay station where mes
sages may be reinforced over the long
stretch of ocean between Honolulu and
Guam. There is reason to believe -the
Midway might be sacrificed without
topping the use of the .cable.
The relation to these American out--vosts
of the German possessions in the
Pacific is somewhat Intricate. They are
the Marshall islands, the Carolines, the
Ladrones, the New Guinea colony. In
cluding Bismarck Archipelago, and
Buka and Bougainville, the most north
erly of the Solomon Islands, and In thai
outh German Samoa. New Guinea and
Samoa alone possess economic value;
not enough to attract avarice.
The 31arhall .Island.
The Marshall islands, in two chains
Mjuwn as ttaaak ana Rallk. He midway
between Hawaii and Guam, but some- j
What south nf ttiA mnat irvt 1-n. Af
what south or the most direct line of
travel They are lagoon islands, the
navigation Js dangerous, and the only
point which might serve as a bare ren
dezvous of a fleet is the lagoon of Ja
lnit The Ladrone islands extend north
ward from Guam In the direction of the
Bonin islands, which have long been
in Japanese ownership From Salpan.
the most southerly of the German La
drones. Guam Is visible.
The Caroline islands extend from the
vicinity of the Xarshalls in a long
chain of unimportant islands destitute
of harbors, and In the! --prolongation,
through the equally unimportant Palan
group, came close to the coast of Min
danao of the Philippines. The Impor
tant Twiint in th r-ntllnoc 1c 1,a l.l.nil
of Vap The harbor there Is tortuous, !
and beset with coral reefs. It Js in no j
-ense available for naval purposes. But I
ircjin uuarn a seconuary line oi cauie
e-ctt r"is southwest.
Vp a a German station at the be-
" "' rshie line which reaches I
-hrotigh the Jaxj. seas and Asia, j
BATTLE PICTURE FROM FRONT
Compulsory Military Service
Gives Kaiser Huge Mili
Berne, Switzerland. Aug. 20. As a
result of Germany's rigid compulsory
military service laws, there Is not now
an able bodied man in the city of Ber
lin, according to tourists arriving from
the German capital. The mobilization
orders of the kaiser called out every
male in- Berlin, except those too old.
cripples and boys. These now are do-
ing nciice duty and guarding roads
and bridges. At all the approaches to
tu-'. c?tv and a-oind the bridges nd
pnMic buildings buj. of 12 and 14
years of age say be seen, wearinir
unircrms- and standing guard with
Since this war began much has been
heard of Germany's military regula
tions and much misinformation has
been disseminated. MUlteJ-y service
In Germany is compulsory. Liability
begins at the age of IT and ends at
the age of 45, but actual service be
gins at 20.
There are no exceptions to the rule;
no-wy to- dodge duty except
ing the country. The rigorous-
plies to all. rich and poor, aristocrat
Service Is Set en Tears.
. The teTs; of compulsory service in
the German army is seven years in
the first line or active army; two of
those in the ranks and five in the
reserves, except in tie cavalry and
horse artillery, where the periods are
three and four years. During this re
serve service, the soldier s regarded
as belonging to his. corps.' and joins
it twice in the- five or four) year
period for six weeks of training.
After being in the first line army,
the German soldier passes into the
Landwehr, or secqnd line army. He
serves fite years in the infantry, or
three years for cavalrymen and horse
artillerymen, in the first ban of the
Landwehr Infantrymen are called out
for training twice in this period, each
time for eight or 14 days. Landwehr
cavalry and horse artillery are not
called out in time of peace.
The soldier then is- passed into the
second ban of the Landwehr until he
reached his 40th year. There is no
training during this period of service.
Not Through at 43.
At 40 the German soldier is not
through. He goes then into the
Landsturm, or third reserve body. In
which he is liable for military duty
until he is 45 years old. In ordinary
times the Landsturm is strictly a home
defence, but in this war the kaiser
finally called out the Landsturm for
active duty. After 45 the German sol
dier is exempt from mobilization, but
it is said that many Germans past
43 Joined the colors at the beginning
of the present great conflagration.
The German army, in normal limes,
consists of 20 army corps of about
43.000 men .ich, as well as independ
ent cavalry, a total of about 1,250,000
combatants. Besides this vast array
is the Land vehr of SCO. 000 bringing
the total mobile force of Germany In
peace times up to ,1.850,000. In addi
tion, there are, ccording to some com
putation, about 1.500.000 men. wholly
or partially trained, to supply the
waste of war. These figures do not
include garrison units nor any part of
the Landsturm. Estimates of the total
possible German hosts, men who will
take the field in this greatest of all
wars range from 4,000.000 to 5.500.000.
The German peace establishment last
year consisted of 36.304 officers, 754,
381 noncommissioned officers and men
and 157,81s horses.
The German array is manned by the
obligatory service of the martine pop
ulation, these men being exempt from
military duty. In normal times the
navy personnel is about 73,000 men.
supplemented by a reserve of about
Vap Is equipped as a radio station of
such power as to form the receiving
center of aerograph communication
through battleship relays. Independent
of any control by laws of neutrality
ashore. In New Guinea Kaiser-Wll-belmsland
borders the possession of
Papua, which Is administered by the
commonwealth of Australia. Together
these two colonies, as yet most imper
fectly developed, occupy all of New
Guinea east of the Dutch border at
the meridian of 144 degrees east. At
H.,lurtEhlull. In tl,A Dtomanil, V .hi-
pelago. Is a small center of German
-. ,.- q .l.fU- .-.J. .- -a.-
(-'Hl-' i-c auu ac-WUUdjr 10 lO""
Samoan headquarters of the Deutsche
Handels und Plantagen-Gesellschaft of
Hamburg, the successor to the old
Flrma Godeffroy, which introduced a
colonial policy to. Bismarck's German
empire. In the Marabalt and the Caro
line islands, commerce is almost wholly
In the bands of the Jalult Gesellschaft.
The occupation by Japanese of the
German possessions in New Guinea, the
Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons
and Samoa would be distasteful to a
very large element of the British popu
lation of Australasia.
NORWEGIAN SHIP NOW
FLIES AMERICAN FLAG
New York. Aug. 29 The first ship
to be registered under the American
flag, under the provisions of the re
cently Annrtp fihir rtn.fn. -. I,
the Sloldegaard built in Xorwav' In
i'- ana ownea dy tne cean Freight
line of this cit The paners of reg
istration were signed today.
FRFWCH SKtRnSHBRS ADVAMGfYG.
Terrific Strain Causes Many
to Collapse, but They
London. Eng., Aug. 29. Medical ob
servations in the war now being
fought will be perhaps more complete
than In any previous conflict. The
science of hygiene, medicine and sur
gery has advanced amazingly since
the last great war and every nation
has eminent physiciaas in the field
f watch not only the effect of mod
ern projectiles and Instruments of
war, but the endurance of men on the
fielJ. the percentage of casualties and
Already it has been observed that
present day fighting induces exhaus
tion that finally deadens the senses,
producing a condition on the body and
mind not unlike that of sunstroke.
A London medical correspondent
stationed ,at- Brussels sent a report,
part of which follows
the rule; 1 -Jl havehad an opportunity
binieuj jgVlit tet-er da55 or lslting
-law ap1 C the great Brussels hosz-IU
ambulances and of seeing some of the
wounded who hare been sent down
from the front
Collapse from Exhaustion.
"Two facts have struck me very
forcibly. First, a very large number
of the Belgian soldtera ace wounded
onlv in the less, and arnaniilT manv
soMlers seem to have collapsed through
"In peace time one sees and hears
little or nothing of this extreme ex
haustion because, .of course, in peace
time the almost superphyslcal is not
demanded, but war brings new condi
tions. "Some of these Belgian soldiers
were at work and 'on the march prac
tically without-a moment's respite.
They went literally till they dropped.
Only with actual loss of consciousness
was duty relinquished
"As a medical man this remarkable
state of affairs Interested me enor
mously. That force of will to fight
and struggle until the last gap of
exhaustion one sees often, of course,
and a heat stroke In hot climates is
a commonplace, but this type of ex
haustion Is. by itself, the final triumph
of brave spirits.
"The victims present a very alarm
ing appearance when first met. They
seem to be almost dead. They are
limp and pale and cold. After a time,
however, strength begins to return
and recovery is usually not protracted.
Alwayn Yiih to Return.
"In every case the men who had
been knocked out in this manner ex
pressed the keenest desire to return
at once to the ranks. They seemed
even to hold themselves In contempt.
Many of them have already had their
"The fact that so many of the Bel
gian wounded had been shot in the
legs aroused considerable surprise at
first in medical circles. It soon be
came clear that this was not merely
a matter of chance
"When the German prisoners began
to come in and were Interrogated, the
explanation was forthcoming. It
transpired that orders had been given
to fire low, no doubt In the belief that
a man hit in the leg must be Imme
diately placed hors de combat. While
there may be something in this theory,
it remains a fact that a flesh wound
in the thigh or calf tends to heal
quickly and that many of tliose wound
ed are already on the high road to
recovery. The German wounded, on
the other hand, have been hit for the
most part about the body
"The Belgian doctors are splendid
and are working magnificently. Two
schools have been converted into hos
pitals and I saw an operating theater,
beautifully equipped and arranged,
-which had been made out of a ctaes
room in twelve hours. Only the
blackboard remained to indicate the
original purpose of the room.
"Unhappily the surgical work at
Leige was greatly hindered by lack
of chloroform, which could not be ob
tained In sufficient quantity at the
moment when it was most required,
and this through no fault of the med
New York Owes Vast
Sum to Countries of
Europe Now at War
New York, Aug. 29. That the posi
tion of-Kew York as a municipality is
of much importance in connection with
the European war. Is indicated by the
statement of the controler, that New
York city now owes tS2.M0.00a abroad.
All of this Is in notes, and all of the
notes fall due in Europe within less
than six months, the bulk of them,
amounting to some $38,OOO.O0, falling
due In November. Most of the obliga
tions held abroad are revenue bills is
sued in anticipation of the payment of
taxes. That the taking up of the.se
notes will mean much to the countries
in which they are held, wliile supply
ing them with over $2.000.000 ready
cah for the conduct of war. is a sig
nificant development, which prob-iblv
w is r.ever dreamed of on this tiUe,
whn the note, nrc issu-.il.
Kings at War Resign Mili
tary Commissions Un
der Hostile Powers.
London. Eng.. Aug. 29. Numerous
resignations from the armies ard
navies of the warring powers of
Europe characterized the outbreak of
hostilities on the continent. But the
withdrawals went almost unnoticed.
Thej were not signs of cowardice.
They were the resignations of the
crowned heads of Europe from the
armies and navies of their enemies.
Before the war king George was an
honorary officers in the forces of Ger
msay. Austria-Hungary and Russia.
The kaiser was an officer in the
armies and navies of England and
Russia. Emperor Francis Joseph of
Austria-Hungary held many honorary
commissions. The czar, too, bad his
share of fighting titles in Germany
and Austria. When the war broke
out they all resigned.
Kalirr In Ileal War Lord.
Not without cause has the kaiser
been called the war lord of Europe.
Owing to he complimentary custom
prevailing in European countries dur
ing the last 100 years or so. nearly
ev er ruler held any numb6iaaen-m-missions
in thearaues andrnaTKs or
other powers, and the German em
peror beaded the list. He hetd hon
orary offices in the land and water
fighting forces of nearly every other
The kaiser- hfi- Mk lit nf m11tt--v
I honors with the titles of generalin-
enter of the German army and ad
mtralinchtef of the navy Besides that
he Is colonel in eight Prussian regi
ments, one from Mechlenburg. two
from Saxony, two from Wurtemburg.
one from Baden, one from Hesse and
two from Bavaria. He is a field mar
shal in the Austrian guard, and was
colonel of a regiment of the czar's life
guards and of three other Russian
regiments. Also this Caesar of the
Germans was an admiral in the Brit
ish and Russian fleets.
Could he have retained his commis
sions and exercised his various com
mands at this time, he would no doubt
find a way to settle the war In short
order. At any rate he might have a
chance to settle the difficulty in the
North Sea. But it is to be feared that
viceadmiral Sir John Jellicoe of the
British fleet, though Inferior in rank,
would hardly jrleld place to the Ger
man emperor, should that monarch
appear suddenly over the flagship in
a Zeppelin and demand that he be
given the command.
Hold Other TKlei.
What else be might do if he onlv
could is indicated by the fact that the
kaiser is an admiral in the navies of
Norway. Sweden. Denmark and Greece:
field marshal in the British army, col
onel In the British dragoons, general
in the Swedish army and captain gen
eral of the army of Spain.
The German crown prince is col
onel of seven Prussian, two Saxon,
two Bavarian, one Wurtemberg. two
Russian, one Vustrian and one British
regiment, and a major in the Spanish
army. The German empress commands
two regiments of the Prussian and
one of the Russian guard.
Francis Joseph is a field marshal
in the Prussian and British armies,
general in that of Sweden, honorary
general in Denmark and captain gen
eral in the army of Spain. Besides
this he is colonel of eight Austrian,
three Prussian, one Bavarian, two
n urtemherg. one Saxon, two Rus
sian and two British regiments.
IIo!d High ItanX.
The C"E9I- nf lia l mtnn.1 nf 4
regiments in his own army, and an '
honorary staff officer In 12 others. I
--- -.-omnianas inree renmenu in iiia
Prussian guards, and mm each In th
armies of Hesse, Bavaria. Great Brit
ain and Spain. Besides this, he" is an
aumiral in the navies of Great Britain.
Denmark and Sweden.
The czarina is colonel of four regi
ments in her husband's army, and one
in the Prsissian guard.
George V.. besides being a field
marshal and admiral in the British
forces, is colonel of 22 British regi
ments and honorary commander of
tiu- ancient and honorable artillery
company of London. He also com
mands three regiments In the Indian
army He is a field marshal In the
lT"usaian army and colonel of two
regiments of the guard, admiral in
th navies of Russia and Denmark,
and colonel of Russian and Spanish
Command- Ili-i Knemr-
h-lng Albert or Belgium Is a gen
eral in the army which Is now invad
ing his country and also a colonel In
the Prussian and Austrian dragoons.
The king or Saxony hoWi commands
In the Russian, Austrian and Spanish
armies, besides in those or a number
o German states The king of Ba
varia Is colonel of a number of Ger.
man regiments and of one in Spain.
The king of Wurtemberg Is a colonel
In the Russian and Austrian armies.
King Gustaf of Sweden is an ad
miral in the British. German, and
Russian navies and a colonel in the
armies of Austria and Prussia
I'rri-ldent l'olnrare Is Cnutalu.
RaMnond Polncare. president of
I ranee, holds onl- one commission,
thnt of capt-iln of the French reserves.
Prince Albert of Monaco Is one of
the leat military sovereigns of Eu.
rope His army consists of four offi
cers and 84 men. and his onlv naval
snip is the ma-rnificent private vacht
which he emplovs in the scientific
cruises which have made him famous
imnn-j the oceanographers of the
Mm ill .i-rerthi !:- he is a rear aa
"'ir.U .ii the ..jnish navy
Sunday Island Is
AUCKLAND, X. &, -Aug. 2S,-SeBday Island, a verdant tract of seven miles
by fire, in the Kensadec pss of the south Pacific, is to be al-andoned.
The IS persons who hare been living a Crusoe-like life there have
been driven to deaperatioo br kmeruKM, rate, volckni. rumblings, and other
afflictions, and the Xew Zealand government is to bring the party back to
Thomas Bell, who was landed on the island by a whaler in 1878, held un
disputed possession of the place for 2 years, but the New Zealand government
later apportioned the island among a number of settlers. Since then frequent
attempts have been made to cntoape the place, but Bell is the only one who
stuck it out from the first. Even now, though the other 12 settlers are siek
of, the place. Bell says he would remain if the government would recognize hk
While oranges, bananas and tobacco thrive on the island, there are no cocaa
nuts, and the crops which the handful of islanders try to plant are often de
stroyed by the small Pacific rats which infest the place, and a surviving vokano
frequently gives the whole island a shiver.
TO BLOW UP A TRAIN
a i aL. a-Bs9IOC4"''vnil f I mrM T ofir -qL
."-rHBsssssrWt BWMME' ffjjJn"-cy -rhTl Ti .-nTr Mur "" 0
5ETTM6 TORPEDOES CW TRACK:
On the sea as well as on land dynamite reigns supreme- Mines have been
laid in the waters and several stea-aers have already been sunk by coming in
contact with these engines of destractioB. The Germans are past masters in
the art of raining strategical positions. "This picture shows German cappers set
ting torpedoes on the tracks of the enemy's railway. There is not a track, a
bridge, a tunnel or a mountain pass that has not been heavily 'miaed and can be
blown np at a second's notice.
Since English Fleet Sailed to
Meet Germans No Word
Has Passed Censor.
English Believe the Kaiser's
Fleet Is Seeking Safe
ty in Port.
BY HBItBERT TE3IPLE.
London, Eng.. Aug.
What ktta I
- w at nas i
been going on In the North sea? That
la the .greatest mystery of the war. the
problem most difficult to solve. It Is
now over three weeks since the
nouncement was made that the English
fleet had left Portsmouth under sealed
orders to meet the German fleet. The
impenetrable veil of the censor, sitting
here In London and controllng the
enemy's news as well as his own, was
lifted for the bare statement. Then it
dropped again and nothing authentic
has since been heard of the men 'owar
In the North sea. The outside world
cannot pierce the veil. There are no
correspondents aboard the warships of
either England or Germany in the
North sea to send back even censored
Has Big Battle Been Fought f
Of the fighting on land, the public
hears something. At the. start there
were correspondents in Belgium and
every day some newa more or less au
thentic of the fighting in Belgium and
in Alsace and Lorraine has been pub
lished. Bat of the naval doings In the
North sea, not a word. At first there
were stories of a great battle. Heavy
firing was said to have been heard
at sea off various British coast towns.
One story said that a German Zeppelin
with bombs had destroyed a British
warship every night But all of these
reports were effectively denied. It is
a fact that the world has learned noth
ing from the North sea since the Eng
lish and German fleets put to sea there.
Has there been a battle?
It seems reasonable, if the Germans
had met with actual reverses upon the
sea, that the British censor would be
ready and willing to publish them. On
the other hand. If the Germans have
j h id successes, the Londou utijr would
-:: :: :;: -:j:-Innatitants
hardly be expected to advertise them,
but the fact would surely have been
given out in Berlin and have reached
the world by this time.
Two Fleets Hunt Clah.
The two fleets now in the North sea
are. In their Intricacy of construction
and their death dealing faculties, the
finest product of all ages of maritime
warfare, which Is is eld as the sea and
as old as mankind.
These fleets ate 'to fight the most
iM-l-w- imM. imiu-- w ure , ivi ...
,,. ., ... ... t. -,.n, the
t.n.u.B... 1.A..1 .. !.-. ..i . tha
greatest prize of the great conflict.
England has held the leadership of the
ocean. Germany wants it. Germany
is fighting to control the balance of
power of Europe and to control the
colonies or the world, if sne would
command the land. Germany must con
trol the sea.
So it is that a vital, if not the most
vital issue of the great war. hangs on
the outcome of affairs In the North
sea and that is the one tntng about
whih the public has not the slightest
inkling. Everything is fair In love and
war, the old adage has it. Love is al
ways with the world. There are daily
reminders of its existence, but the
world is now learning again that all
ia fair in war. also
Recall Baron's Statement.
It was 300 years ago that Francis
Bacon told the English. "He that com
mands the sea is at great liberty and
may take as much or as little of war
as he will, whereas those that are
strongest by land are, nevertheless,
often in difficulties."
Germany, under Wilhelm 11. is am
bitious for supremacy in Europe. She
is now engaged in great fighting in
Belgium. If Germany loses this land
battle, her ambition can yet be satis
fied If she gains in her warfare on the
sea. On the other hand. England hold
ing the supremacy of the sea, if she be
defeated in the land fighting, can yet
hold the command of Germany only
victorious on the land.
Naval Victories Often Decide Iaauei.
In nearly all great wars naval victo
ries have decided the Issue. In battles
deciding the command of the sea, the
world's history has had its turning
points. The naval battle of Salamls
was fought B. C. 840 and if- vii-tni-i-
for the Greeks saved the European con-
tinent from Oriental domination under
tne rersians. ine naval battle of Ac-
num. iougnc a i. si. oerthre-, An
thony and Cleopatra and overthrew as
well their plan to make Alexandria,
Kgypt the capital of the Itoman empire
and shaping Its destines by eastern in
stead of western ideas. The battle of
Actlum marked the end of the Roman
empire with many vicissitudes, which
lasted until Napoleon s time
The defeat of the irreat Si-ini-ih
Ai mada of Fhiliu li, b the iLnj-Iish in
LIE AIR PRIZE
For More than 1000 Years
Small Strip Has Been
Fought Over Often.
London. Eng-, Aug. 29. History is
but repeating itself once more In the
big conflict where the French and Ger
mans are battling In Alsace and Lor
raine, buffer state and prize of war
for more the" 1000 years. Almost times
without number, since the year S43 A
D-. the people of what Is now Germanv
and France have fought for the Pos
session of Alsace and Lorraine, that
territory changing from one flag to an
other with astonishing frequency.
The history of France and Germanv,
as separate nations, begins in 84J.
10T2 years ago, and the history of the
woes and tribulations of Alsace and
Lorraine aa the bone of contention be
tween the two and as conquered first
by the one and then by the other, be
gan soon after that same year S43.
Continuation of Struggle.
The present campaign that France is
waging against the Germans in Alsace
is therefore only the continuation or
a struggle over 1000 years old. The
facts of geographical position have cre
ated the problem It is a problem
which will remain unsolved and un
solvable as long aa the Rhine flows
and the Yoages mountains stand.
France says that the Rhine is her true
eastern frontier, Germany says that
the frontier lies beside the mountains.
It was in M that the three grandsons
of Charlemagne, fighting among them
selves, decided to end the controversv
by dividing their grandfather's pos
sessions among themselves. Thev
acted on the ancient principle that the
lands and the people dwelling upon
them, tilling the soil in peace and
fighting the battles in war. were the
private property of the sovereign, rul
ing by "divine right" of kings. Char
lemagne had ruled the -whole of Europe
as one united government, with the ex
ception alone of the private possessions
of the pope or Italy. His capital was
at Aachen the Alx la Chapelle of
modern times, which is now a posses
sion of Prussia.
Too Weak to Hold It.
Charlemagne's son. Louis le Debon
air, was too weak to hold together
such a heterogeneous empire or peo
ples or dirferent race and temoert
ment. and speaking dilferent tongue
their onlv bond being an official r--ligion.
that of their overe'cn. ard a
mm-nfln sATerRimnt He wts toe- iret .-
even to rule in his own family and
long before Ma death, his three sons
were janrreUii-c over their prospective
Inheritance The one who was the
strongest, called Louis, the German.
, a. -- - . I I. tk. iHvlafnn
f and he took northern Burope and be
came king of the tier-mans: sec
ond brother. Charles the Bold, took
southwestern Europe and become kins
of the Franks. In the mam the des
cendants of the people of these twe
kingdoms are the Germans and French
These two brothers took land which
formed a compact whole and which
nM auviar h defended. The people
j of Louis all spoke one language and
all spoke another.
The third brother. Lothair. the weak
est, had to take what was left of his
father's empire. That included what
is now Holland. Belgium. Luxemburg.
Alsace. Lorraine and a strip of north
ern Italy. It was peopled by many
different nationalities. It could not
be easily defended because the Alps
broke it into two parts, and the narrow
strip along the Rhine, from the Alps to
the North sea. which kept Ae posses
sion of Louis from touching those of
Charles was too great a prize not to
be coveted by both thn stronger
brothers and thev soon began to fight
one another about it. each to take it
away from Lothair Thus the troubles
of the buffer states began.
Switzerland Break-i Away.
The mountaineeri of Switzerland
wrested themsel-.es free from Lothair's
kingdom in the thirteenth century and
have been a republic ever since. The
people of Holland gained their Inde
pendence under the leadership of Wil
liam of Orange in 1S48. hot the succes
sors of Charles the Bold, ruling in
France, conquered them later and it
was not until 181S that they were free
again. Belgium then formed a part
of Holland, but the combined coun
tries were too big and powerful for a
buffer state, in the eyes of the great
powers, and Belgium was separated
from Holland in 1833
Luxemburg was promised to Franco
by Prussta if France would stay out
of the Prussia-Austrian war of 1SSS.
but when the war was over, the des
cendants of Louis the German refused
to give the state to the descendants
of Charles the Bold. Luxemburg ac
cordingly was made independent and
theTguns of her forts taken away that
she might not fight on either side. The
small .strip of northern Italy which
belonged to the kingdom of Lothair
was, ' after many vicissitudes, incor
porated In the union of Italian states
under Victor Emmanuel II.
Alsace and Lorraine have alone re
mained of Lothair's kingdom to be
fought over by the two great nations
on either side. Together they coer
an area of 5.1 miles.
During the Franco-Prussian war or
1870 when Germany was the victor,
almost all the great battles were
fought in Alsace and Lorraine. At the
commencement of the present war,
France immediately Invaded Alsace to
wipe out the disgrace of 18i0-
138J when Elizabeth was queen, not
only saved England to the English, but
saved English civilization to the west
ern world of America.
Great Britain was again rescued from
invasion and the domination of the first
Napoleon by the battle of Trafalger ia
Tsushima Made Japan Great,
It was on May 2T. 1905. when Russia
and Japan were at war in eastern
waters, that admiral Togo began the
great naval battle of Tsushima, the
Japanese fleet reading his inspiring
message as the flags fluttered up to the
signal yards of Togo's flagship. Mikasa,
"The use or tan or our empire aepenas
upon toda's battle. Let every man do
j his utmost " Japan on that day awept
the Russian iieet
from the aea at
Tsushima and e-.en;uall slant It from
eastern water-. The Janaitese-Ruseian
war was practlcallv settled by that bat
tle and Jainn s pl.n e along the great
powers of the wot tl dates from that
Shouli" Germanv be able to obtain in
the north such a naval victorv over
the British vvaihtp it would p-rtuMv
in the tv.ir lor he anil rink. ' lrr-
ortance to a T-tfali
i.r a. Is---