Newspaper Page Text
NEWS NOTES OF
Resume of World's Important
Events Told in Brief.
The French-American treaty of 1908
has been renewed.
Representative Olmstead vigorously
opposes the United States' quitting
It is expected that at least 25,000
soldiers and sailors will be in line in
the inaugural parade.
Further prosecution of the alleged
"hard coal trust" has been begun by
the government agents.
Henry Cabot Lodge declares a
strong navy is positively essential to
the maintenance of peace.
President Taft assisted in the lay
ing of the cornerstone of a new Uni
tarian church in Washington.
The senate committee has recom
mended doubling the proposed appro
praition for work on the Celilo canal.
Primary election of fourth class
postmasters is proposed in an amend
ment to the postoffice appropriation
The house committee of the Oregon
legislature has recommended an appro
priation of $200,000 for the Panama
John Barrett, director general of
the Pan-American union, suggests
mediation instead of intervention in
the Mexican struggle.
Twenty-nine officials and others con
nected with the alleged cash register
trust have been found guilty of con
spiracy to restrain trade.
The Portland Railway, Light &
Power company plans to spend $4,
--000,000 in improvements and exten
sions in and about Portland during
the present year.
Government agents are arranging
for the sale of six billion feet of tim
ber, mostly white pine, from the na
tional forests in the Spokane country
during the coming season.
Six were killed and 65 injured in po
litical riots in Tokio.
Mexican stocks are dropping heavily
in the Paris markets.
Portland will raise $100,000 for the
coming Rose Festival.
Portland has 25,882 pupils enrolled
in the graded schools for the spring
The State department has announced
a general policy of "hands off" in
President-elect Wilson refuses to
make any announcement of intended
Peaches from South Africa are sell
ing in Eastern cities at $7 per dozen.
The German government has re
jected an offer of Dr. Friedmann to
i sell his alleged consumption serum.
Mayor Gaynor, of New York, has
authorized the most complete "house
cleaning" ever known for that city.
The chief clerk of the Portland Pos
tal Savings bank says most of the de
positors who withdraw their money,
do so to purchase land or small homes,
or to engage in business, and nearly
all save for some definite purpose.
Wheat—Bluestem, 93c per bushel;
forty-fold, 86c; club, 85c; Fife, 85c;
red Russian, 83c.
Oats—s27 per ton.
Barley—s23.st) per ton.
Rye—s22.so per ton.
Yellow corn—Sacked, $29 per ton;
mixed, sacked, $28.50.
Eggs—Select ranch, 27(3 29c dozen.
Poultry — Live hens, 14(316c per
pound; old roosters, 10c; last year's
chickens, 16(318c; ducklings, 18c;
squabs, $3 per dozen; guinea fowl,
live, $9 per dozen.
Ranch butter—2oc per pound.
Apples—New, 75c(?751.50 per box.
Cranberries—slo(3l2 per barrel.
Pears—Fancy Eastern Washington,
$1.50(31.75 per box.
Honey—New, ~53.50(33.75 per case.
Dressed beef—Prime steers, 13c per
pound; cows, 12Jc; heifers, Nos. 1
and 2, 12c.
Dressed Veal—lsJc per pound.
Dressed Pork—l2£c per pound.
Dressed Mutton — Ewes, lie per
pound; wethers, 12c; spring lamb, 13
Oysters—Olympia, $8.50 per sack,
$3 per gal, 80c per qt; Eastern stand
ards, $1.50 per 100; do. open, $1.85
per 100; do. half shells, $1.30 per'loo.
Clams—s2.2s per sack.
Crabs—Extra large, $2 per dozen;
large, $1.75 per dozen; medium, $1;
Shrimps—Large, 18@20c per pound;
Scallops—Open, $3 per gallon.
Vegetables—Beets, $1 per sack;
bell peppers, 30@35c per pound; brus
sels sprouts, 10c per pound; cabbage,
$1(31.25 per crate; red, 3c pound;
carrots, 75c@$l sack; cauliflower,
$1.75 per crate; eggplant, 25c pet
pound; garlic, B@loc pound; horse
radish, B@loc pound; lettuce, hot
house, 75c@$l box; onions, Oregon,
$1.25 sack; Walla Walla, $1; parsley,
30c dozen; potatoes, on track, $11(314
per ton; rhubarb, 7@l2Jc pound;
squash; Hubbard, $2.50@3 per hun
dred; turnips,'new, $email@example.com sack;
yellow, $1.25; walnuts, 17|@18c
PICK-POCKET TRUST THRIVES
New York Judge Says City Has
Many Criminal Associations.
New York—A "pickpocket trust,":
and other compact organizations of
criminals .exist in this city's under
world, according to testimony of
Judge Swarm, of the Court of General
Sessions, a witness before the alder
manic committee investigating vice
conditions. Pickpockets dispose of
their loot at central "fences" after
being assigned to sections of the city
to ply their trade, and when they are
arrested they are able to get bail read
ily and lawyers to defend them. The
"trust" is run like any lawful busi
ness, he declared.
"Many strong associations of crim
inals exist, well organized and con
; ducted for the purpose of theft," said j
Judge Swarm. "There are, however, ,
many different kinds of associations, j
i For instance, there is the blackmail
To crush these "trusts" Judge
Swarm advocated that city detectives
be divided into separate groups, nom
inally known as the homicide group,
bomb-throwing group, and so on.
Referring to the "pickpocket
trust," Judge Swarm told of one mem
ber being assigned to Broadway and
Forty-sixth street for five years, rifl
ing pockets and pocketbooks of men
and women in the matinee crowds.
This member was arrested four times
and always the "trust," through its
! representatives, came to his defense.
FIFTH DAY'S FIGHT IS DRAW
Another American Woman Killed
by Flying Shells.
Mexico City—Mrs. Greenfield, moth
i er of Harry Greenfield, an employe of
the Mexican Light & Power company,
■ a Canadian corporation, was killed by
a shell in Victoria street during Fri
day's fighting. This makes three wo
i men among the foreign victims of the
Mexico City—Without decisive ad
vantage to either the government or
1 the rebel forces, the fifth day of fight-
I ing in the capital ended at nightfall
! Friday. Firing was continued until
\ after sundown.
Presidet Madero himself said two
hours earlier that General Huerta
| would renew his efforts for the sub
i jugation of Diaz immediately and it
I was authoritively stated that the gov
ernment forces were planning to take
the rebel positions by assault between
| 6 and 7 o'clock, but the day's opera
tions came to an end with the federals
only feebly on the aggressive.
It was another day of terror for
| hundreds of thousands of non-combat
i ants. These included large numbers
of foreigners, who could find in no
part of the city a spot free from dan-
PRINCETON GREETS WOMEN
Suffragist Marchers Stagger Into
Princeton, N. J.—The staccato yell
lof Princeton univeristy, with the ap
| pendage, "votes for women! votes
! for women! votes for women!" greet
! Ed the "army" of suffragists which is
j marching to Washington, when it ar
rived here at 7 o'clock Friday night.
The women, 13 strong, had covered
: 27 miles in eight hours of active walk
ing and several of them were on the
point of exhaustion when the lights of
the university town twinkled a wel
"General" Rosalie Jones, command
er of the expedition, declared that for
real hardship the day's walk exceeded
anything she had ever experienced.
"Corporal" Martha Klatchen, who is
less than five feet tall, had to be sup
ported the last four miles of the
march. She staggered into the village
an hour after the arrival of the van
guard, pluckily refusing offers of a lift
; from passing automobiles.
Farm Women Will March.
Washington, D. C.—Farmers' wives
and women who work on the farms are
; not to be overlooked in the suffrage
pageant here March 3. Mrs. Clara B.
Taylor has obtained the consent of
several farm women to appear in a
farm section of the parade. Mrs.
, Taylor will visit the country surround
ing Washington to urge the farmers'
I wives to rally to the cause. It is
i planned to have several of the women
!on a large float decorated with the
i products of the farm and also to have
| many country women march in line.
$6 Minimum Wage Passes."
Topeka, Kan.—A bill providing for
I a minimum wage for women was
| passed Friday by the Kansas house of
I Representatives. It fixes $6 a week
! for a nine-hour day as the minimum
I wage of all women workers in the
state except domestic servants.
The house also passed a -bill provid
ing for a nine-hour day for all the em
ployes of every individual or business
: concern employing more than five per
Warship Strikes Reef.
Caimanera, Cuba — The United
States battleship Arkansas ran on a
coral reef 400 yards west of Ceiba
reef at 6 o'clock Friday morning.
Later the warship slipped off the reef
and anchored. How seriously the
; Arkansas was damaged has not yet
been ascertained, but water entered
some of her compartments. A sur
vey of the vessel was begun at once.
NEWS OF UIMTOUTCTWA
A Brief Resume of Proceeding* of the People's Bw*l"**^"
at the State Capitol I!Zln?rod.ced, V**d, Reierted, Etc,
IRRIGATIONISTS WIN POINT
Northwest Electric Will Abandon
Olympia — Because of the attacks
made on the Northwestern Electric
company in drastic bills before the
Washington legislature, the company
has abandoned the Klickitat river part
of its power-generating system. This
was made known here by W. S. Years
ley, owner of the riparian rights on
the Klickitat, which the Northwestern
company had taken over on an option.
Mr. Yearsley says the option has been
cancelled and the rights have been
offered to the Horse Heaven irrigation
project promoters for $175,000. The
price asked covers the value of the I
land and the water holdings of Mr. !
Yearsley and the improvements put in
by the Northwestern company.
The abandonment of the Klickitat is ;
to be offered as a compromise plan in
the legislature on the bill now pend- j
ing, which, if passed, would oust the j
company from both the Klickitat and
the White Salmon rivers. Mr. Years- j
ley says the Klickitat rights will be
turned over to the irrigationists pro
vided they will abandon their endeavor
to tie up the White Salmon part of the j
PENSION PUT UP TO VOTERS
Teachers' Bill Is Passed, Then Re
ferred to People.
Olympia —By an overwhelming vote
the senate of the Washington legis
lature passed a bill providing a pen
sion system for school teachers. With
the same stroke the members invoked
the referendum on the measure, send
ing it to the vote of the people.
While the senate was busy with the
teachers' pension question, the house
quietly passed by a overwhelming vote
a bill providing for the pensioning of
destitute mothers and passed to sec
ond reading a measure for the pen
sioning of judges.
The teachers' pension bill stirred up
the first real bitter fight of the session
for the senate; For more than five
hours the chamber was in *an uproar.
Personalities were flung, vehement
pleas for the "overburdened" taxpay
er were made, members attacked the
system as an outrage on the people,
others upheld it as the crying need and
nearly every member took occasion to
explain at more or less length his atti
tude for the benefit of the gallery,
which was crowded with school teach
BLOW HITS WATER COMPANY
Proposes to Prohibit Sale of Cur
rent Outside of State.
Olympia—Bills in the Washington
legislature to prohibit the sale of
power generated in Washington in any
| other state, supposed to have been
| aimed at the Washington Water Power
company, of Spokane, were found at a
hearing to be directed primarily at the
Klickitat River part of the Northwest
Electric company's power generating
system which is to furnish power to
The bills as originally presented
were defeated so far as the committee
is concerned, and it is believed they
will find no support in the house or
A sub-measure has been taken un
der consideration, however, and may
be indorsed by the committee. It pro
vides against the sale in another state
of power generated here excepting by
companies which are supplying inter
state service or before March 1. The
White Salmon plant of the Northwest
ern company now under construction
will not be in operation by March 1.
The bills are believed to be the out
come of troubles experienced in the
Klickitat River country between the
power interests which seek to convert
the Klickitat river into a power gener
ating medium, and the farming inter
ests which seek to convert the water
into an irrigation system which would
I benefit between 300,000 and 500,000
I acres of land in the Horse Heaven
Mothers' Measure Not Fought.
Olympia—There was no fight on the
mothers' pension bill in the house,
contrary to expectations. The bill
providing $15 a month- for the first
child and $5 a month for each addi
tional child in families where there is
no father was passed with only four
nays out of 90 votes. The house
passed by a vote of 88 to 2 a bill cre
ating a court of domestic relations
which gives original jurisdiction to
one court in all questions of divorce
and alimony and gives to it supervis
ion over all juvenile offenders.
Alaskan Studies Law-Making.
Olympia—The Territory of Alaska
will pattern its first legislative assem
bly, which begins in March, after the
Washington legislative system. J. B.
Marshall, of Juneau, a member of the
assembly, spent a day at the legisla
ture getting pointers on how to con
duct a session and gathering forms of
bills, dockets and record books.
Would Have State Flag.
Olympia —The house, following a
general deluge of oratory, passed a
bill creating a board to design and
adopt a state flag.
GOOD ROADS WIN IJN buisai*
Only Five Vote Against Measure—
•Vancouver Bridge Next.
Olympia — Good roads legislation
had its first inning in the senate of
the Washington legislature Friday and
won hands down.
After three hours of fighting con
tending forces, which deadlocked the
session of 1911 and threatened to
deadlock the present session, were
brought together on a suitable work
ing basis and all joined hands in the
general cause of good roads through
out the state. 2
The house bill providing for $1,000,
--000 annual increase in the taxes for
the state highway fund was passed
with only five dissenting votes. The
bill is the first good roads measure to
be passed by both houses since 1909.
At present there is no bill before
the legislature providing for an appro
priation for the Vancouver bridge.
The only measure pending is the
bridge enabling act, which has passed
the house and is now awaiting the ac
tion of the senate. The bridge appro
priation question is expected to make
its debut next week.
It is likely that the legislature will
go on record as opposing the altera
tion of the channel at the mouth of
the Columbia river near Fort Canby
because of the fact that the improve
ment will result in the moving of the
Oregon-Washington boundary line a
mile north on Washington territory.
Memorials asking congress to discon
tinue the changing of the channel
were introduced in both houses. They
ask that the dredging from Sand Is
land to Fort Canby be discontinued
and that boats carrying supplies for
the strengthening of the jetty be re
quired to Use the Maybury channel.
TO CALL HALT ON 40TH DAY
Limit Placed on New Measures As
Olympia—With new bills piling up
at a rate that threatens a congestion
of business that will result in hundreds
of bills being cast into oblivion with
out ever being considered, the Wash
inton legislature will lock the gate
against new bills on the 40th day of
This action was decided upon when
it was announced that the total num
ber of bills for the session will run
close to 1200, or nearly 500 more than
the highest number introduced at any
other session in the hstory of the state.
Up to Friday afternoon there were
669 bills before the two houses. Fri
day marked the 30th day of the ses
sion. On the 50th day of the session
of 1911 there were 882 bills on hand
in the two houses. The gates were
closed to bills on this date at that
session, and the two houses proceeded
to wade through the mass of business
as fast as possible. When the session
was over there were dozens of meas
ures that had never got beyond first
The prospects for the present ses
sion are worse than those of 1911, be
cause of the increased number of bills
and the unusual care that marks the
consideration of all questions, espe
cially by the house. The slowness is
attributed to the factionalism which
enters into the majority of questions.
While the time limit on new bills has
been shortened ten days from the limit
of 1911, »it is believed the increased
number of measures will make the
general result the same. Congestion
and rush is expected to mark the clos
ing weeks of the session.
So far both houses are well up on
the business, the senate having but 15
bills on general file ready to come up
for final passage, and the house hay.
-ing but 25. This is a much better
record than was made by the 1911 ses
During the week the senate passed
21 bills and the house 23. The senate
passed two house measures and the
house one senate measure. The house
killed four house bills and no senate
bills, and the senate killed one house
bill and three senate bills. Ninety
four measures were introduced in the
house and 47 in the senate.
Delay Asked on Alien Ownership.
Olympia—Governor Lister has re
ceived a telegram from Secretary of
State Knox asking him to use his in
fluence to delay further consideration
of the alien ownership bill until the
department of state can examine the
bill in the light of treaty obligations.
The Hughes bill submits to the voters
a proposed amendment to the constitu
tion permitting ownership of lands in
this state by aliens who are eligible to
citizenship. During the discussion it
was pointed out that it would give
grave offense to China and Japan.
* Lister Uses Veto Power.
Olympia— Despite the fact that both
houses of the Washington legislature
voted overwhelmingly to appropriate
$300,000 for the erection of new buid
ings at the Cheney normal school to
replace those burned a year ago, Gov
ernor Lister vetoed the bill on the
ground that the Cheney school's place
should be taken by the other two state
This the first time the governor has
exercised his veto power and the first
time he has attempted to carry out the
economy program upon which he based
his candidacy for governor.
INDIAN MAIDS WILL MARCH
Novel Feature of Suffragette Sec
tion of Washington Parade.
Washington, D. C.-Dawn Mist, a
daughter ©f Chief Three Bears, of the
Glacier National Park Indians, will
command a troop of mounted Indian
maidens in the cavalry division of the
woman's suffrage pageant here on
March 3. This is said to be the first
time Indian women have taken any
part in the nation-wide movement for
extending the franchise to women.
In Dawn Mist's troop will b§ ten
maidens selected as being the most
representative of their tribe. All will
be clad in their tribal ceremonial cos
tumes, and be mounted on Indian pon
ies, richly caparisoned with elaborate
Dawn Mist, who has given much
thought to the woman's suffrage
movement, succeeding in obtaining
the co-operation of Louis W. Hill, son
of James J. Hill, who has agreed to
furnish transportation for the young
women. While in Washington the
Indian girls will live in their own te
pees on- a camp ground provided for
The cavalry division of the pageant
is taking large proportions. It is be
lieved at suffrage headquarters that
nearly 200 mounted women will be
distributed through the procession.
The division will be commanded by
Miss Genevieve Wimsatt, of Maryland.
It is practically assured that one
large section will be composed of wo
men wage-earners. Several of the
women's labor unions of Washington
already have signified their intention
TURKS ROUTED BY BAYONET
Efforts at Sortie by Beleaguered
Garrisons Ends in Disaster. .
Sofia—All attempts on the part oi
the Turks to assume the offensive at
the Tchatalja lines have been re
A semi-official dispatch giving de
tails of the fighting says the Turks ad
vanced in three columns. The force,
consisting of six battalions, supported
by the guns of Fort Gjaurtabia and
the warships moored in Biyuk Chek
medje Bay, attacked the Bulgarian
positions at Arnautkeui, but was driv
en back by a counter attack.
The second column of two battalions
was forced to retire beyond the Kar
ayu River. The third column of one
regiment was routed with great
slaughter by bayonet charges.
In the Derkos district the attempts
of the Turks also were repulsed and
they withdrew to their original posi
ARSON ©JQUIRY SPREADING
Investigation to Be Made of Ice-
Chicago—lee-house burnings in Illi
nois and Wisconsin in recent years
were made the subject of a new in
quary to be started here in the investi
gation of the "arson trust."
Assistant State's Attorney Johnson
said that he was in possession of in
formation that ice-house fires had been
arranged for by the arson plotters'
headquarters in this city.
Another phase of "arson trust"
activity was developed, according to
Mr. Johnson, who said that he had
evidence that a prominent manufac
turer of specialties had employed the
arson gang to dynamite and fire the
factories of his competitors to such
good effect that he soon virtually had
Financiers Are Surprised.
New York — Bankers, representa
tives of American and European in
vestors and underwriters of Mexican
bond issues and heads of railroads and
mining companies in that country were
taken by surprise in learning of the
insurrection and reported overthrow
of the Madero government. William
P. Eldridge, a director of the Mexican
Northwestern Railroad company, said:
"It is a very disturbed condition of
affairs. I would not say that the in
surrection will prove any more menac
ing to the railroad and other property
interests than has been the case for
Ninety Per Cent Vote to Strike.
New York—The ballots of the 30,
--000 firemen employed on 54 Eastern
railroads, it was announced unofficial
ly Sunday night, show that 90 per cent
of the men favor an immediate strike
unless the conference committee of
managers agree to arbitration under
the Erdman act. The employes' ex
ecutive committee will meet the man
agers' committee for a conference im
mediately. The railraod managers, in
a statement to the public, reiterate
more postive than ever their objection
to the Erdman act arbitration.
President Aurajo Is Dead.
San Salvador —Dr. Mankel E. Aura
jo, president of the republic of Salva
dor, who was wounded by the bullets
of an assassin on February 4, died
here Sunday. Don Carlos Melendez
will succeed to the office. President
Aurajo was shot early Tuesday night
by several men, one of whom, a Guate
malan, named Virgilio Mulatillo, was
arrested. Mulatillo, in a confession
declared that the plot to assassinate
Aurajo was conceived in Guatemala.
Mother Dies Saying Babe.
Milwaukee, Wis. — Realizing that
she could not escape the wheels of an
on-rushing automobile which was ap
proaching her, Mrs. Harry C. Lang
emo, 24 years old, threw her 18
--tnonths old baby to the curbing of a
3own-town street and was herself
crushed beneath the machine. She
was fatally injured.
CENSOR STOPS I
Madero Agents Keep World J
Dark Regarding War. I
Americans Fleeing From Scenes
Trouble—Embassies Aid All
Foreigners in Flight.
City of Mexico—The strictest <*
sorship on all dispatches has been*
tablished in Mexico City.
Government officials took charge/,}
the cable offices shortly after 5 o' c y
Saturday night and discarded
] sages of correspondents to their
. pers. Code messages and all 0 £
; sages containing any express^
whatever that might be construed as,
[ sign of the important happenings \\
the capital were confiscated.
Nevertheless several dispatches of»
' somewhat detached nature escape
! censorship, and an early bulletin wj,
[ flashed through that the armistice,
signed at 2 o'clock Sunday mornb
, had been broken and that both sife
were fighting savagely.
The Mexican government was 115.
; able, however,, to shut off the office
, dispatches of the diplomatic represej.
I tatives, but as jthese are sent in q.
t pher, there is considerable delay «
translation, and the fear is expressed
that many things may occur in the
, Mexican capital detrimental to tie
foreign residents before the exact sit
uation is learned by the home govern-
Brief dispatches giving a general
. idea of the situation prior to the fresh
outbreak of hostilities were passed but
' the government apparently is deter
mined that not a word of the fighting
which has torn the city asunder for
eight days shall be communicated to
the outside world, if that can be pre
I Washington, D. C.—Hurried prep
arations were made Sunday in Mexico
1 City for the flight of American women
and children to the United States.
The American embassy staff and the
1 committee appointed by Ambassadoi
- Wilson began assembling the womei
! and children at the embassy. Man]
'< who hitherto had paid no heed to th(
warning of the ambassador to leavt
• the city, now were eager to embraci
I any measures which meant their de
• liverance from the panic which ha
followed in the wake of a week's di»
The easiest way to safety is vu
Vera Cruz, only a short distance bj
. rail. Once arrived there, the refugee
will have full protection pending thi
continuance of their journey by steam
er to American soil.
1 While preparations for the flight 0:
the women and the younger mem ben
of the American colony were goini
forward, the work of removing al
foreigners from the danger zone wa
begun and hundreds sought safety.
REBELS ROB EXPRESS TRAD
$700,000 Bank Shipment Taken-
San Luis Potosi, Mex.—A passenge
train from Tampico, Mexico, was hel
up at Las Tablas, a small station hal
j way to the coast, by a band of rebel
I led by Cerillo Hermanos. The rebel
j went through the express car and se
cured $700,000 in gold and bills whic
was being transferred by the Nations
Bank of Monterey to Mexico City.
The rebels gave no heed to tfr
second class passengers, but robbed al
the first-class passengers of their arm:
and money. Forty- two rebels enterei
the train and 30 remained outside
They proposed to burn the train ant
had sprinkled the cars with petroleum
but the urgent petition of Liccenadf
Alfredo Munoz, who was a passengei
and who at one time had defended Her
manos in court, they desisted.
Americans arriving from Charcas,'
town 40 miles north of here, report tfc
rebels ransacking the town.
Wilson's Daughter Aids.
New York—The Russell Sage foun
dation, through its department of refr
reation, has sent letters to the heads
of the various State Federations 01
Women's Clubs urging them to begii
campaigns at once to secure legist
tion authorizing the use of publ"
schools for social centers.
Miss Margaret Woodrow Wilson
daughter of President-elect Wilson, «
interested in the movement and is as
sisting in the pereliminary worktt
secure the use of all public schoo
buildings after school hours.
$30,000 in Bullion Lost.
San Francisco—The $30,000 in gok
bullion in the safe of the river freigW
er H. J. Corcorafl, which was sunk re
cently in San Francisco bay in col
lision with the passenger steamei
Seminole, is lost. This was deter
mined when John Roach, a diver, ex
plored the capsized hull of the yes
The Corcoran drifted, bottom up,
through the Golden Gate, and w#
towed back to a wharf by a tug.
Czar Sends Curt Reply.
St. Petersburg— The Russian em
peror's reply to the letter recentjj
sent him by the Austrian emperor »
short and decisive. He declares thai
•Austria's attitude in tecent years has
impelled Russia to support the inter
ests of her Slav brothers. Attb*
same time the Russian emperor ex
presses the belief that a means will W
found to maintain peace.