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THE FARM WATER SYSTEM.
ll}<lrnullc Ttniim—Device For lime
One With Iti»u(ll<-l<-iit Fall.
A permanent farm water supply fur
household, stable and irrigation pur
poses is becoming more and more rec
ognized as desirable and necessary.
Tin' schemes fur currying water are
various. A correspondent who has
found satisfaction in a hydraulic ram,
having used it live years, sends a
sketch of his arrangement to the Ohio
Farmer, with the following comment:
"It pumps water for my garden,
greenhouses and plant beds and will
Jill a 100 barrel tank at a height of 30
feet, 300 feet from the ram, every 24
WATER BAM SYSTEM.
hours easily. The size I use takes 2
inch feed pipe with 1 inch discharge.
one can get any size wanted from
three-quarter inch to 4 Inches feed and
three-eighths Inch to 21^ inches dis
charge, and to use from two gallons to
150 gallons per minute and cost from
$5 up to $<!."). The size I use, No. ."..
will cost from $11 to $13. The small
sizes ust! shorter feed pipes than the
large ones, the smallest about 40, the
largest 85 feet. There are 10 or 112
sizes. I use (10 feet on No. 5. The ram
house and feed box can be built of
wood, brick or stone. I used brick for
feed box, cemented like a cistern, and
the rain house is built of stone 0 by 0
by 4 deep. Feed box 3by3 by 3 deep.
Tut them down nearly level with
ground, so you can protect them from
freezing in winter. Be sure to lay all
pipes below freezing and make all
"1 would use galvanized pipe, but the
common black pipe will do quite a
while just as well. I would use a lar
ger size than you think you will need
it" you have enough water to run it, be
cause the smaller the pipes and ram
the more danger of getting out of or
der. Put a screen on feed box so that
nothing can get in feed pipe or It will
get in the ram and stop it. Take all the
fall you can up to in feet, although a
ram will work on 3 feet fall, but not
quite so well.
"If the spring will not furnish water
enough in a dry time to run the ram,
build a tank or cistern on a hillside if
you have one, and till it when there is
plenty of water, and pipe it from there
to where wanted. 1 have nearly 1,000
feet of pipe connected to the ram I
use, and 1 did all the work myself, and
It worked all right from the start.
"I think I can truthfully say that hy
draulic ranis are cheaper and more reli
able than windmills or gasoline en
gines, etc. They are handy to got at
when they need repairing (which is
very Beldom) and will run without any
attention and whether the wind blows
But trouble sometimes attends the
use of the hydraulic rain. One garden
er of note tolls that his brook is so level
he could not got the desired fall with
out using a very long food pipe, and a
long food pipe is fatal to the good
working of a ram. To him and others
in the same box a colaborer gives ad
vico as follows through American Gar
Locate your rams in a desirable place
and decide how much fall you must
have. Get a piece of throe inch (if a
large ram use four inch) steam pipe as
now to get Exorcn fall fok a kam.
long as the fall must be in feet. Put
ft T on one end with a 1% inch open
lug one way and the other opening the
right size to connect with the ram.
Securely fasten this steam pipe in the
bed of the brook or in an excavation at
one side of the brook, with the 1 1|> inch
opening up stream and the T at the
bottom of the pipe.
Run from this a 1% inch pipe as far
up stream as is necessary in order to
get the desired fall of water. Con
nect the other opening of the T with
the ram, using as largo (in diameter) a
pipe as can be used with the ra. i you
have. The shorter this pipe is the bet
ter the ram will work, G to 10 feet be
ing better than 20. This will be found
to be cheap, enduring and more satis
factory by far than a dam, and the ram
will not refuse to do its duty.
Keeping a Few Squashes.
My method of keeping a few winter
squashes Is somewhat different from
that generally recommended and suc
ceeds so well that I will give it for the
benefit of any who may wish to follow
it, remarks an American Cultivator
correspondent. On the approach of
winter, before there is danger of freez
ing, the squashes are placed in a cup
board in the sitting room, the door be
ing left ajar through the day and clos
ed at night in very cola weather. It
wHI be seen that the temperature of
the room is considerably higher than
is generally recommended, often reach
ing 70 degrees. The Hnbbard squash
has been kept In this way till May.
' *. -«.
Some of the Tronitlen lie Has nnd
The question of how to begin in the
poultry business is one of importance.
There must be beginners or there can
be no true fanciers, but a very serious
fault exists in many young minds—
they expect to become fanciers at
the very start. They imagine that the
poultry business consists in merely
buying a few good fowls and letting
the stock produce some more of the
same kind. They hold the belief that
'iike produces like," and therefore if
they place a pen of prize winners at
work the next season will see them
surrounded with a host of equally val
The fact is, the breeding of prize
winners is an art. This is owing to
reveral causes: First, the tendency of
fowls to revert to type—that is, the
strongest element in the blood is the
disposition to get back to the original
parentage in style, whatever that may
have been. This creates a large per
centage of inferior birds in every flock.
In the second place, prize winners
are in one sense artificial specimens,
which have no fixed standard. We
pay this in face of the fact that a
standard of perfection is published by
the recognized authority—the Ameri
can Poultry association. But no two
judges of fowls agree in their detailed
interpretation of that work, and no ex
act reading can be given it. Take the
Plymouth Rock, for example. This
breed comes nearest to being a satis
factory popular one, but there are few
breeders who coincide on the first point
—namely, shape. It therefore follows
that wide diversity of opinion obtains
as to what shall be called worthy of a
prize. Even with the established
breeds color and shape are hard to
These are the principal reasons why
novices fail the second year and be
come discouraged. Experience in the
work and familiarity with the fanciers'
trade are essential to success. No man
can spring into high place in any busi
ness or profession and hold his rank
without having a foundation in knowl
The way to begin is to take a single
breed and study it in the light of pub
lic shows, In the yards of admitted fan
ciers and In one own yards. Compari
son will do wonders as an educative
means, but no beginner should attempt
to sell birds as superior stock until he
actually knows what other men call
good fanciers' stock.
The selling of birds at low price is a
mistake. A fancier's fowl is never sold
for $1 or $1.50. Good birds for egg and
meat purposes can be had at that rate,
but not the kind that gets the winners
at shows. A single specimen may now
and then be picked up from a cheap
flock that shows phenomenal color,
shape and other points and may be
just the bird needed to mate with an
established family, but the chances are
that it will in the hands of a novice
cast back to a ruinous weakness. Only
conQrmed line bred birds maintain
If a beginner is contented to start as
a beginner, he can pretty surely count
on developing into a fancier, but if he
jumps to the front without experience
he is likely to jump back again out of
This rule holds good with those who
aspire to become "large raisers" in one
year. It is safer to spread that ambi
tion over several years. In time the
breeder of fowls for market may rea
sonably calculate on becoming a fan
cier, but there are lessons to learn all
along the way, and the necessary qual
ities to insure success in any business
are perseverance, pluck and Industry.—
American Poultry Journal.
Brooders Beat Hens.
Can the brooder compete with the
hen in raising chicks successfully? I
think it can. I presume it is necessary
to go further into the matter than to
simply make the assertion.
One reason why I am so positive in
this statement is because with a brood
er it is possible to raise the chick both
in season and out of season. It does
not matter whether a brooder is tak
ing care of its flock in the cold winter
months, the moderately n-arm spring
or hot summer months, because a good
brooder will do it every time, and do it
well, if given half a chance. All it needs
is the proper ventilation, proper heat,
cleanliness and proper feeding of the
chicks. A brooder will raise more
chicks than a hen, twice over. Why?
For several reasons. When the ben is
dragging the little fellows about in the
wet grass, the brooder is keeping them
close and warm. It never forsakes the
chicks to go to laying before they are
able to take care of themselves. Above
all, it never takes them so far from
home that half of them are lost. It is
also a sure protection against vermin
of all kinds, while the hen is not Last,
but not least, it is as easy to take care
of 100 chicks in brooders as 20 chicks
with two hens.—G. C. Flegel in Amer
ican Poultry Journal.
To Secure a Constant Egg Yield.
The hardest task in maintaining a
constant and continuous egg yield is to
keep the laying stock in prime condi
tion, says Colonel E. O. Roessle. This
means such a condition of perfect
health that the eggs will not only be
laid regularly, but that they will be of
uniform size, according to the breed
laying them. Under such conditions
we should have large eggs from Minor- i
cas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks and ;
Brahmas. When such breeds lay smaH
eggs, abnormally large eggs with per
haps double yolks or soft shelled eggs,
the stock is out of condition and usual
ly overfat. The eggs will thus be laid I
irregularly, and many times laying will !
stop entirely. Layers should*be kept
active, and activity is induced by short
feeding. A hungry hen is usually a
Mistaken lie Milken.
COLFAX GAZETTE. COLFAX, WASHINGTON, APRIL 27, 1900.
WESTERN BEAUTY APPLE.
Properly the Crosh and Also Known
ns III*? Unmix*, Ohio Beauty, Etc.
In regard to an apple which Is local
ly known in Pennsylvania as English
Rambo, 11. E. Van Deman says In Ru
ral New Yorkor: It Is properly called
(jrosh, although It Is much more gen
irally known as Western Beauty and
in some degree as Big Rarnbo, Ohio
Beauty, Musgrove and a few other
synonyms. English Rambo I have
never before heard applied to It. That
is one of the synonyms of Domlne. It
is not strange that It Is called Big
Rambo, for the habit of the tree Is
much like that of the true Rambo, and
the fruit is somewhat similar In shape,
color, flavor and season, but Is very
much larger. It Is an apple of most
excellent qualities of both tree and
fruit and is well worthy of being In
GEOSH OR WESTERN BEAUTY APPLE.
every family orchard. It Is one of the
best flavored apples of its season and,
I think, better than Rambo, being rich
subacid, very agreeable and the flesh
tender and juicy. It is large, flat,
smooth and regular in shape, except
that one side is usually a little larger
than the other. The stem is short and
the calyx large and open. The color is
greenish yellow, with abundant stripes
and splashes of pale red. The tree is
a strong grower and the leaves very
Dr. John A. Warder, the great po
mologist, esteemed it in his day as one
of the best fall apples. In my own
orchard in Kansas and wherever I
have seen it I have found it to be
among the most satisfactory apples of
Its history dates back to about 1815,
when, according to information obtain
ed by Charles Downing from members
of the Grosh family in Pennsylvania,
the original tree was raised from seed
by Mr. John Grosh and planted at Ma
rietta, in that state, where it was still
standing in 1877. By some means un
known to the pomologists west of the
Alleghauies, it was found by them in
Ohio about 18G0, or perhaps earlier. It
is quite certain that some one had
taken the grafts westward from Penn
sylvania without leaving any record of
Not knowing the original name,
Grosh, which the variety had in its na
tive state, and supposing it to be of
western origin, the name Beauty of
the West was given to it, and this was
soon shortened to Western Beauty.
All who have this apple, under what
ever name, should hereafter call it
Grosh and not be afraid to recommend
it for general cultivation.
A Xew Cherry Worm,
A new cherry pest, a true maggot,
differing from the familiar grub of the
curculio, has been reported this sea
son, and growers of the eastern, cen
tral and northern states are warned
against It by the Cornell station. One
can usually readily determine when a
cherry is "wormy" from the attacks of
the plum curculio, but this new pest
gets in its work in such an inconspicu
ous way that the fruit it infests might
easily be classed among the fairest and
best on the tree or in the dish on our
breakfast table until it has been kept
a few days, when the infested portion
rots and falls in. From the above
statements cherry growers can readily
understand how serious a menace to
their business this new pest might
easily become and how important it
will be for them to learn all they can
about it, for which purpose bulletin
172 of the Cornell station has been is
Laying Down Fruit Cones.
"Most varieties of raspberries, black
berries and grapes need winter protec
tion in this region. The cane or vines
must be laid down and covered." In
calling attention to this point a Colora
do exchange says: "The usual way
when covering raspberries and black
berries is to remove some of the earth
on one side of the plants, then lay them
carefully down and fasten them by driv
ing down iron or wooden hooks over the
canes and shoveling a few inches of soil
over them. Some prefer straw or coarse
manure for covering canes and vines,
for it is more quickly put on and re
moved in the spring and makes a
mulch and fertilizer for the plants in
summer. Probably the simplest plan
is to throw up a furrow or two on each
side of the row with a breaking plow
and complete the covering with shov
One Thonsand Dollar Prize For an
The Minnesota State Horticultural
society offers a premium of $1,000 for
a seedling apple which shall be as
hardy and as prolific a tree as the
Duchess of Oldenburgh, with fruit equal
in size, quality and appearance to the
Wealthy and keeping as well as Ma
linda. The awarding committee is Pro
fessor S. B. Green, J. M. Underwood,
J. S. Harris, Clarence Wedge and A. K.
Bush. The secretary, from whom all
particulars of the competition can be
learned, is A. W. Latham, 207 Kasota
Block, Minneapolis, Minn. ,
STEEL ROAD IN SPAIN.
A«l\ :nii:iu<-« They I'onsen* Over the
Ordinary Stone Kuad.
Horace Lee Washington, Uuited
States consul at Valencia, Spain, iv a
recent report to the state department
on a steel roadway in Spain, says:
The road between Valencia and Grao
Is two miles In length, and an average
of 3.200 vehicles pass over it daily.
Until 1892 it was constructed of flint
Itoue. The annual cost of keeping it
In repair was about $5,470.
Th© construction of a steel roadway
was determined on, and the annual cost
of keeping in repair the central zone of
road thus relieved from heavy traffic,
which proceeds over the steel rails, is
now only about $380.
The length of road so built was less
than two miles, and yie cost in detail
was: Steel construction, $G,SIK); trans
portation and laying steel construction,
$507; binding stone construction be
tween rails and lateral zones, $2,100;
The rails during the seven years they
have been in position exhibit a wear of
one decimal of a millimeter yearly and
have not required repairing.
Ample room is allowed between the
rails for two horses to walk abreast.
Horses do not appear to slip on rails of
At each side of the rail are layers of
binding stones, the paved road being
higher than the face of the rails.
The municipality of Valencia is of
opinion that the saving in cost of re
pairs through a road of this descrip
tion pays for Its construction iv a short
time, and other and similar roadways
are in contemplation.
From various parts of Spain inqui
ries have been made concerning this
road. I learn that a similar construc
tion was decided on at Alicante in
1898, but was temporarily abandoned
when events caused exchange to in
crease. A toll of about eight-tenths of
a cent is charged each vehicle passing
over this roadway.
State Road Convention Declares For
At the first state good roads conven
tion ever held in Wisconsin, which con
vened recently at Milwaukee, nearly
1,000 delegates were present.
Resolutions were formulated and re
ferred to a committee declaring that
the good roads movement deserves in
creased attention and the support of
the United States department of agri
culture; that the discussion of good
roads and road building methods ap
proved at the Wisconsin farmers' insti
tutes should be indorsed; that every
town should own and employ road
graders, road rollers and a stone crush
er for macadamizing purposes, to be
purchased by collection of road taxes
in cash, and that competent labor
should be employed for the improve
ment of country roads leading to coun
ty seats and market towns.
The resolutions declared also that
these results can best be obtained by
state aid, which system is enjoyed by
New Jersey, Massachusetts* New York,
Rhode Island and Connecticut. The
constitutional amendment now pend
ing for such aid was favored.
The Cost of Mud.
More than i? 4,000,000 of public funds
is spent annually for the 100,000 miles
of roads in Illinois. It is estimated
that this fund carefully spent would
construct 2,000 miles of macadam
roads and properly drain and roll 2n,
--000 miles of dirt roads annually.
Ninety-nine per cent of every load
transported by railways or steamer
lines is carried in a wagon or truck
over a highway, it is said. As statis
tics collected by the office of road in
quiry under the secretary of agricul
ture at Washington prove that it costs
the American farmer nearly three
times as much as It does the European
agriculturist, the good roads move*
uient is awakening great interest.
The Good Honda Campaign.
There will not often be a political
campaign in this country which will
involve more important interests than
the campaign for good roads which is
now on in many states.
The earnestness and activity with
which this campaign is being pushed
indicate an advance of popular intelli
gence and the growth of a true spirit
The agitation for good roads is con
fined to no section. It is going on in
t|>e north and the west and the south,
though we regret to say that it is by
no means as strong in the south as it is
in the other sections of the country.—
The Good Roads Movement.
The good roads movement in this
country is not of recent origin, as many
who are following and agitating it may
think. In the earier part of the contury
an agitation for good roads was kept up
for nearly 50 years and had among its
leaders snch men as Henry Clay and
John Calhoun. This movement result
ed in the government taking a sufficient
interest in it to provide fur a national
turnpike through the leading eastern
cities to those in the west. About the
time the movement was well under
way the railroads as a means of trans
portation became so prominent as to
cause the road work to stop.
Left Handed Philosophy.
The philosophy of a good many peo
ple appears to be similar to that of the
"As for the roads which are now
bad," he said, "it is of no use to repair
them, for nobody travels over them,
and, as for those which are good, why
do anything to them until they get
Poor roads make poor horses.
Proper highways are good going and
\S«JK&*// J /iw''' I'raction or i'nrtahlc, Simple or Com
*cr=3=> pound, Wood or Straw Burners.
Th res tiers f-^- -
Automatic Stacker?, Wind Stack KeIQQP! A
ers, Horse Powers, Threshermen's PlU**l-?LLL 0& 131.
Supplies of All Kinds.
FOR CAT.-LOGUI AND rPiCEir.. P^TH
We are Headquarters for
GARDEN, GRASS AND FIELD
Poultry Supplies. Wholesale and Retail.
. i -ri -1 Write for Prices.
Groceries and Feed. Poultry and Produce Wanted.
C. H. MOORE 5
Phone Main :M. Free Delivery. Colfex, Washington.
It will pay you to examine
CARLEY'S ROLLER FEED MILL
Before investing your moiiey in a (hop Mill
Some of its feature*:
No Burrs to Wear Out. No Gears. Only six Bearings
Mills specially adapted to wind mill power.
All sizes up to 3% tonn capacity per hour.
Manufactured by CAKLKY IRON AVOKKS, Colfax, Wanh.
A Maori I*egend.
In Cassell's Little Folks there is a
quaint .Maori fairy tale which con
cludes thus: "Suddenly the father, who
had beeii looking up into the western
sky, cried out in a glad voice: 'There
they are! 1 see them!' The mother
came running out at his cry, and to
gether they saw their two children
standing hand in hand far away in the
sides of the sky, the two little stars
that had not been there before. 'Let
us follow them,' said the mother, and
together they rose into the deepening
twilight and fled after their children.
"But Piri and Noko, far off in the
sky, saw their parents coming and,
thinking they were angry, sped away
toward the western horizon. The par
ents followed, and when they reached
the highway of Tane that god of light
changed them into stars. And now,
when the night is clear, you may see
two little twin stars thing away to
ward the west and some distance be
hind two larger stars in vain pursuit.
Thus forever they go round and round
the world, Piri and Noko running away
from their parents because they were
so foolish as to think their mother did
not love them."
Xot Entitled to a Pun,
"I believe the man who was more
afraid of advertising something for
nothing than any newspaper man I
have ever seen," said a Chicago news
paper man, "was John Knapp of the
old St. Louis Republican. He hated
to print a doctor's or lawyer's name
for fear he would give a free puff.
"One time there was mention made
in the paper of a man having died of
Bright's disease of the kidneys. Old
man Knapp hunted up the copy reader.
" 'What do you mean,' be said, 'by
running in the name Bright in our col
umns? He is not an advertiser in our
paper and is not entitled to a notice
unless he pays for It' "—Denver Post.
Playwright—l suppose you saw the
premier performance of my comedy
First Nighter—Yes; I was there.
Playwright—How did you like the
climax of the first act?
First Nighter—Really, I didn't see
Playwright—Too bad! Got there too
First Nighter—No; went away too
Boon.—Catholic Standard and Times.
Xot Nicotine, l>ut Pyrldlnes.
It is doubtful whether any nicotine
ever reaches the mouth of the smoker
except that present in the moistened
tobacco which is in contact with the
lips. The smoke products of tobacco
do not contain any important quantity
of nicotine, the chief toxic bodies be
ing related to that interesting series of
organic bases known to chemists as
The peculiar gait to which the South
American horses are trained, known
as the "paseo de trote," is a mincing
step, so light and easy that the hoofs
scarcely touch the ground. It is said
to have been acquired in the early days
of the Spanish invasion.
It's love that makes the world go
round, but money makes it go round
without squeaking.—Somervllle Jour
To Cure a Cold in One Day.
Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tar
lets. All druggists refund the money if
it fails to cure. E. W. Grove's signa
ture is on each box. 25c #
Are You Alive
To your own inter
Then nerve them benl l>v
Doors, Paint and
CLARKE & EATON
in the world the kind that in in use in th«n>
and* *f orchards in tfu- gnat fruit, lUtfl ol
California-can b<- obtained in Colfax. The
ladder is Mjbstanti.illy bailt an I i-< m, con
structed that it can ho instantly adjusted to
stand on tho Hteepest »Me hill or on level
ground, an rtcjuired, and it* all around ore
fulncHß h apparent at a glance. Made by
J. I!. GOOD, Colfax.
Call at nhop on Main street and examine.
February 7 to 10, 1900.
WE TOLD YOU SO
The Champion Winter Layers. Alho
M. v. Turkeys.
See our record nt Colfax, Feb. 7, 1900.
Hen Egn $2 for 13
11. B. Turkey Bgga, %i for 13
U. T. FEKGI SON, Endicott, Wn.
Pioneer Drug Store,
W. J. HAMILTON, Propr.
Prescription Work a Specialty.
A corupletn stock of
Drugs, lledidoat, Cbemieala,
Boapa, IJniHhf's, PerfaomiM,
Paiutß, OilH, r , hl^
Notions, I'.or.k-, S( tk>n*ry.
Telfpbone No. 87. Main Street, Colfat
McDonald Squirrel Gun
Improved over last yetir. No more
rubber hose to burn out Pound at
all leading Hardware ttore*.
Cheapest and Surest way
to get Rid of Squirrels.
If directions are followed moner refnndcd II
it does not do the work. GREAT SELLER Any
l"n a rrtl'rr c COnifan-V Wishing to ittTertigSte, Write
for terms. G. E. HICKEY,
Box IS>, Wallit Walbi, \Vnshini;t..n
Buy Your Groceries
A^. E. Fout^,
All goods firet claae. His;hebt prices paid
for farm produce.