Newspaper Page Text
MBKR ME El
The Board of County Commission
ers met pursuant, to adjournment,
May 15, 11)11, all the members pres
Current Expense Claims Allowed.
Bains, J. C, field deputy as
sessor $ 35 0
Brewer, J. A., assisting sher
Campbell, Dr. D. R., medi
cal service for indigent. . 20.00
Case, Geo. W. Jr., field dep
uty assessor and postage. . 180.60
Codd, Patrick, supplies tor
poor farm d.SO
Cole, Win., expenses as dep
uty sheriff 26.85
Curtis, W. A., constable
.Eastep Bros., blacksmithing. 5.00
bastap, J. ii., expense as dep
uty sheriff 16.45
Class & Prudhomme, sup
plies for treasurer 82.75
liickman, C. \V. t guarding
Jrwin-Hodson Co., supplies
for auditor 5.00
Kimbrough, J. H., supplies
for sheriff 5.25
licCaw, J. M., expense as
county engineer 20.25
.Nolan, Charles, assisting
Oliver, Thos., repairing shoes
for prisoners 2.0 0
Pioneer Bindery <t Printing
Co., supplies for auditor. . 7.50
Reed & Ripley, drayage.... 2.50
£yu&. H. 11., plat for auditor 2.50
t »b. R. X., cure of indig
\\ alter, (Jeo. \\ expense as
county assessor 5.32
liojid and Bridge Claims Allowed
Beall &. Co., extras for crush
Best, Conway, freight on
crusher 1 . 11.45
Clark, \V. L, labor and team 5.00
jibson, Elbe, labor 26.25
.Miller, A. P., freight 7.98
l'otlatch Lumber Co., lum
l'otlatch Lumber Co., lum
Poison Implement Co., im
Poison Implement Co., im
Smith, R. X., labor and team 20.50
Steptoe Lumber Co., lumber 113.25
Stueckle, John & Wife, right
of way 46.00
Valk, A., balance on Grand
street bridge 109 8.00
Valk, A., balance on Cooper
Lake bridge 2855.00
Rice,, Albert R., labor and
Vincent, Korah, labor and
Marquis, Frank, labor and
Hice, John, labor 14.00
Itoad District Claims Allowed
District No. 1.
Best, Conway, labor 40.00
Rosalia Transfer Co., loading
District No. 3.
Turpin, M. 8., blacksmith
J-ireer, W. J., engineer .... 48.25
mason, Peter, labor 7.25
-JWtrtieson, R. 0., labor 4.75
Oaket, George, labor 7.25
Cook, C. If., labor 18.00
Chapman, Dick, labor 13.00
harper, W. G., labor 7.25
Davis, J. C, labor 19.00
Frazer, W. G., labor 32.25
Sullivan, Tom, labor 10.00
McClurg, James, labor 13.75
Smith, E. L., labor and team 27.45
Clark, W. 1., labor and team 4 9.40
Smith, P. C, labor 12.10
<Juske, Wm., labor and team 3.60
Hickey, John, labor 4.25
Bloom, John, supervisor.... 36.00
Wilson, J. W\,labor and team 7.00
Cook, C. M., labor 7.50
Hunter, J. 8., labor and team 13.00
-Mostyn, Tom, labor and team 22.00
Wynne, J. 1., labor and team 16.00
Johnson Bros., labor and
Klaveno, H., labor and team 36.00
Madding, Ed., labor and
1 Taylor, E. C, labor and team 26.00
Deegan, \V. E., labor and
Horton, E. if., labor 6.35
Collings, Ed., labor 5.00
McDowell, W. P., labor 5.00
Benson, August, labor 5.00
Harper, W. G., labor S-75
Crawford. Bert, labor 8.75
Benner, John., labor 11.50
Lommasson, George, labor. . 19.25
Wynne, J. 8., labor and team 38.70
Bafus, Henry, labor 2.50
Jackson, W. H., labor and
Jackson, Leon, labor 13.75
Galaher, Bob., labor and
B. F., labor and team 42.75
J. M., labor and team 98.50
VDistrict No. 6.
Allen, Lee, tools and sup
District No. 8.
Boyd, A. R., foreman 50.00
Reid, Charles, labor 38.50
Carter, James, labor 27.30
Cable. J. D., labor 27.30
Bonell, Clarence, labor .. . 27.30
Stone, Clarence, labor 13.25
Anderson, A., labor 22.75
Crandahl, Iran, labor 18.25
Little, Charley, labor 4.00
Hays, Robert, labor 10.00
Rays, George, labor 18.25
Hollenbech, R. E., 1ab0r.... 7.75
Miller, D., labor 14.25
Lacey, W. R., labor 12.50
tt, Paul, labor 10.00
Galbraith, D., labor 8.75
District No. 9.
Allen, Lee, tools and supplies 24.80
Surveyor's Cost Bills Allowed
Improvement of the G. N. Clark j
Thomas, W. N., surveyor. . . 55.00
DePledge, Cedric, assistant.. 10.00
Ristvedt, Tom, assistant .. . 10.00 1
Small, R. L., assistant 16.00
Eastman, Robert A., board
and lodging 33.05
Walters, O. H., livery 8.00 ,
McCavr, J. M., expenses.... 8.15 I
Schrack, Frank, assistant . . 1.00 j
Miller, L. L., assistant.... 11.00'
Justice Court Cost Bills Allowed
■fcenry, Geo. N., State vs.
JP Poabi 3.00,
"»•..'■ *:•■■«-v, •
D°.°S ■■■■8..-«at e -\V. "
Doomtle. I.'B.V'stale'W. "'
Doc:s i: ■*•.■■•.«»■«. -"
D°S' n ■■BV's.a.a'vs'.
DooHttle, I. 'b.V'state "v 3:
Fltzpatriek . o sn
DoS' L *•;■---V, ■
DoolltUe, I. b.. state" vs.
Allen ... „ - v
Doolittle. 1. B.V "state" vs. "
Charles . .
Doolittle, I. B.,"'state W. '
McAndrews - - }
Doolittle, I. 8.." "state" vs. '
Udlgent Soldiers' Claims Allowed
Colvin, Clark, allowance...
Orders as to Taxes.
On account of error in assessn ent
01 improvement on west 40 ft.
8, block 14, Reaney's second add. to
owned by J. p. Duthie, the
ooard ordered the cancellation of
$4b.so tax charged thereon, foi
Personal tax against the Farmers
'■rain & Supply Co., Thornton.
amounting to $15.00 for the year
1910, was ordered refunded for'the
reason that the same property was is
sessed as improvements on realty.
City tax for the year 1910 charged
against lots 5 and 6, Monroe Btreet
extension, Pullman, amounting to
$7.50 was ordered cancelled for the
reason that said lots are not in the
Taxes for the years 1908, 1909
and I'.tlOand S. 20 ft. of lot 5 an
6,block 71, Daw's addition to Pull
man, were ordered cancelled for the
reason that the said lots were cover
ed Jay a tract assessed for the years
mentioned to O. O. Gocerud.
City tax of $20.00 on lots 2, 3
and 4, Monroe street extension to
Pullman, assessed to Lucy E. Dickey
for the year 1910, was ordered can
< -'lied, it being shown to the board
that said lots are outside the cor
City tax of $24.99 on lots S to 24
inclusive, block 2, and lots 3, 4, 7
and 8 and 11 to 23 inclusive, block
:!, Mount View addition to Pullrnaa
for the year 1910 was ordered re
funded on account of the said lot 3
being erroneously assessed in city
Personal tax of $6.9 0 was ordered
refunded to James Gumph on ac
count of $300.00 exemption not hav
ing been allowed.
Delinquent personal tax for the
year 1903 amounting to $25.16 and
for the year 1904, amounting to
$19.59 were ordered cancelled, it ap
pearing to the board that the said
taxes are uncollectible.
The application of J. F. Patton for
the cancellation of school tax charg
ed against personal property for the
year 1910 was rejected.
The contract for the building of
the Codd bridge across the South Pa
lovse in Colfax was awarded to J.
\V. Janney of Colfax; his bid there
for being $5,069.00, with an agree
ment that should it be found neces
sary to place the foundation at r\
greater depth than that designated
in the specifications to do such extra
work at $12.00 per cubic yard of con
The contract for furnishing 21 24
--inch steel I beams for the (our:
House Bridge was awarded to O. 11.
Stratton of Spokane, the price to be
$61.00 per lon, f. o. b. Colfax.
The plat of Geo. F. Stivers' second
addition to Garfield was approv
The board approved the formation
of Scho<.'« District No. 177, reported
by the county superintendent as fol
lows: "Commencing at the XE. cor
ner of section 6-20-41. thence west to
the NW. corner of section 2-20-40,
thence south to the SW corner of
section 23-20-40, thence E. to the
SE. corner of section 19-20-41,
thence north to point of beginning."
The bond of F. A. Davis, justice of
the peace of Precinct No. 40, was
The claim of I. B. Doolittle for a
balance of justice fees amounting to
1133.80 was rejected.
A petition signed by J. \V. Hinkle
and others for a road to be known
as the Hangman Creek road was re
ferred to the county engineer.
The hearing in the matter of the
Terrell change in the C. W. Hughes'
road was continued to June 19, 1911,
at 2 o'clock p. m.
The board adjourned to meet June
5, 1911, at 10 o'clock a. m.
THE PAVING QUESTION.
Missoula Committee Finds Against
A committee composed of the mayor
of Missoula, Montana, and four other
prominent citizens were chosen recently
to investigate the paving question. They
covered all the principal cities between
Miesoula and Chicago, going north as
far as Winnipeg, and on their return
have reported they will recommend the
use of creoeoted wood blocks for the
principal streets of their city, and further
report that "the investigation has shown
conclusively that bitulithic was hardly
the paving material to be recommended.' 1
This is a very pertinent matter for the
Colfax people at this time and may be
worthy of their consideration.
Sunset Magazine for June.
In Apple Land, by Walter V. Woehle,
beautifully illustrated in fourcolors. The
Biggest Job in the World, by Frank Sa
vile. Tne Present Status of thp Panama
Canal. The Smell by the Williamsons.
Ask your news dealer.
Ih there anything in all this world that
is of more importance to you than good
digestion? Food must be eaten to sus
tain life and must be digested and con
verted into blood. When the digestion
fails the whole body suffers. Chamber
lain's Tablets are a rational and reliable
cure for indigestion. They increase the
flow of bile, purify the blood, strengthen
the Btomacb, and tone up the whole di
gestive apparatus to a natural and
healthy action. For sale by all dealers.
COLFAX GAZETTE, COLFAX, WASHINGTON, MAY 26, 1911.
PERSONAL NEWS HEMS
Mrs. Nellie Livingston of Portland
formerly Miss Nellie Jackson) left for
her home yesterday, after enjoying a
visit in Colfax of nearly two weeks with
relatives and old-time friends.
Mrs. Ivan Chase and sons Olney and
Evan left Friday morning for the home
ranch above Potlatch, Idaho, where,
with Mr. Chase, they will spend the sum
Mrs. James E. Duff and children left
Saturday evening for their home in
Lewiston, Idaho, after an absence of
several weeks. Mrs. Duff was released
from St. Ignatius hospital only two
weeks ago. wheie she underwent a serious
W. A. Nicholas, formerly city superin
tendent of schools, came to Colfax last
Friday, returning to Spokane Saturday.
James Cairns, after an absence of six
weeks on the coast, returned home the
last of last week.
William F. White, connected with the
real estate firm of George W. Larue &
Co. at Spokane, came to Colfax Satur
day, returning Sunday evening.
C. B. Stuht of Spokane, brother of Dr.
Stuht, arrived in Colfax Friday evening,
and has been the guest of his brother for
Henry O. Barnum of Lyle, Minnesota,
is visiting with H. W. Howard. Mr.
Barnum settled in this county in 1872,
but has lived in Minnesota for the last
I). W. McAdams, one of the well to do
farmers living near Colfax, registered at
the Hotel Pedicord, Spokane, the first of
Mr. and Mrs. Matt Johnson left for
Spokane Sunday morning, where they
will be the guests for several days of Mr.
and Mrs. Ed Johnson.
Mrs. Foster Hoag of Spokane was in
Colfax last week enjoy ing commencement
exercises connected with the High school.
Miss Aline Browder, one of the grad
uates, is a niece of Mrs. Hoag.
S. D. Woodward of Sunset was trans
acting business in Colfax Monday.
E. N. McCaw of Prescott, Walla Walla
county, spent a half day in Colfax Mon
day while on bis way to Moscow to at
tend the Farmers' Union convention.
Mr. McCaw is one of the well to do
farmers living in the Prescott district.
Fred S. Ratliff was down from
Spokane Monday mingling with the
J. M. McCroskey of Colfax registered
at the St. Nicholas hotel, Spokane,
Miss Sadie E. Smith of Montezuma,
lowa, sister of Miss Rhea Smith, a
teacher in the public schools of Colfax,
arrived last Friday. Together the sisters
left Monday for an extended trip through
Washington, Oregon and California.
S. H. Hicks, assistant cashier of the
Farmers' State Bank of Colfax, left
Tuesday for Sprague, near which place
Mr. Hicks will spend a month on a cattle
ranch for the benefit of his health.
Mrs. Harry McCabe of Sprague is
spending a conple of weeks visiting with
her sister, Mrs. H. M. Love.
Milan Still was up from the farm at
Rock creek this week, and attended the
farmers' meeting in Moscow.
Miss Jeanette Scriber and Ruth Chap
man left Sunday for the Scriber home
stead near Northport, where they will
spend the summer.
Miss Jessie Pitcher left Monday for
Sherburn, Minn., where she will spend the
Mrs. A. W. Mechling is in attendance
at the meeting of the Ladies" Home
Missionary Society of the Methodist
church at Spokane this week.
Ross R. Sheriey and wife of Moscow,
Idaho, were in Colfax Sunday to see
relatives and friends.
Mrs. John M. McCaw returned Sunday
from a two-weeks' visit in Spokane with
J. R. Ruply of Pullman, ex-county
commissioner, was in Colfax Tuesday.
Mr. Ruply is seeking a new location for
his health. He is troubled with nervous
ness, and thiaks a lower altitude is what
is needed. He may go to Portland or
to Ashland, Oregon.
Miss Gertrude Morrissey, late teacher
in the public schools of Coifax, left Tues
day for the coast, where she will visit
with friends in several of the seaport
cities. She will be gone a month.
Ed Johnson of Spokane came down
Tuesday in his auto, bringing with him
Mr. and Mrs. Matt Johnson.
Dr. A. E. Stuht, accompanied by his
family, left yesterday for Omaha, Ne
braska, to be gone a month. While
there they will attend the wedding of the
doctor's sister, Miss Mabel Stuht, which
takes place soon.
William M. Pointer, the well-known
horse man, now of Spokane, was in
Colfax during the week renewing old
Mrs. August Siler of Four Mile valley
was in Colfax Tuesday for the first time
in several mouths, she having had a
long siege of sickness. It is pleasing to
note that the lady is able to be around
Mrs. Caroline Sprague announces else
where in regard to her hair dressing par
lors in the MacKenzie block.
HAS NO SUBSTITUTE
The only baking powder
made front Royal Grape
Cream of Tartar
NO ALUM.NO LIME PHOSPHATE
SOCIAL SIOE OF COLFAX
Shower for Miss Sina Miller.
A shower party that was a shower
party was given by Mrs. I.J.Davis at
her home Monday evening in honor of
Miss Sina Miller, who the next day be
came the bride of Virgil Laird. About
35 lady friends were present, and the
bride to be was simply overwhelmed with
beautiful and costly presents. The Davis
home was decorated elaborately with
flowers, the dining room in pink and
white. The whole was a bower of beauty
and sweetness, arranged in artistic dis
play. Streamers extended from the
chandelier to the cake leading to the
name of each guest present, a unique
feature of social gatherings. Aside from
the shower features and the dainty re
freshments served, social converse filled
in the happy moments, to the end that
all departed highly delighted for their
having come together. The hostess was
assisted by Mrs. Sam Burgunder, Miss
Agnes Davis and Miss Mac Miller.
A Double Surprise.
Monday evening, at the home of Mrs
J. M. Baker, Mrs. Seymour Manning
was given a farewell reception by the
ladies of the Christian church, of which
Mrs. Manning has always been an active
and honored member. The occasion
was brought about by the fact that Mr.
and Mrs. Manning will soon take their
departure for Pasco, where they have
bought several acres of land subject to
irrigation and will go there to live. As
a token of friendship and good will Mrs.
Manning was presented with a gold pin.
While these interesting proceedings
were in progress the Helping Hand So
ciety of the Christian church put in an
appearance at the Baker residence and
gave Mrs. W. A. Diggins a handkerchief
shower. Fifty-three were present at the
double event, joy being uncontineu. A
program of music, recitations, etc., fol
lowed, to say nothing of the many good
things to eat.
Parcel Shower at Thornton.
The home of Mr. and Mrs Ralph Com
egys was the Bcene of a great surpri c
party od May 17, when the "Delta Al
phas," the young ladies' Sunday school
class of the Thornton M. E. church and
friends made entrance by a back door
and surprised Miss Lena Gregson, a
teacher in the public school, with a par
cel shower. The presents were placed in
the center of the room in a large basket,
and the young lady was invited to un
wrap it, which brought to view many
beautiful aud useful presents. Miss
Gregson expects to make Thornton her
home. She will soon become the bride
of Garin Young. They have the heart
iest congratulations of a host of friends.
They are well known here.
Mrs. Windus Honored.
At a meeting of the Ladies' Aid So
ciety of the Congregational church, held
at the home of Mrs. W. A. Mitchell last
week, a pleasant feature of the occasion
was the presentation to Mrs. W, J. Win
dus by the members of the society with
a *et of silver spoons, the same being in
appreciation of the services of Mrs.
Windus in her work in the church and
choir, The presentation was made by
Mrs. A. J. Davis and was feelingly re
sponded to by Mrs. Windus. The affair
wis greatly eDjoyed. Mrs. Windus
let Wednesday for the farm near
Newport, where the family will reside in
The B. C. B. Club.
The lady bachelors of Colfax, who
have organized themselves into a club
for offensive and defensive purposes j
known as the B. C. B. Club, met Tues- j
day evening at the home of Mips Imo j
Berry, where an enjoyable as well as a
profitable time was spent. Needle work
occupied their attention. Elegant re- j
freahmeuts were served. It was the in- i
tention to initiate Miss Sina Miller into
the mysteries of the order, but she gave
her young lady friends the slip by get
ting married Tuesday and sliding quiet
ly away to Spokane.
Mrs. H. I. Williis Is Hostess.
The Pythian Palousers met Wednes-
Our store is certainly headquarters
for all implements needed to prop
erly care for your Lawn and Gar
den. Call and see.
SIMON DREIFUS & CO.
Corner Main and Wall Streets Coltax, Wash.
Sole agents for the Howard Heaters and Malleable
day with Mrs. H. I. Willin, about 20 all
told, and had a pleasurable time. Five
tables were filled with those who took
part in playing five hundred, Mrs. Harry
M. Love winning first prize, Mrs. I. J.
Davis accepting with good grace the
consolation prizp. I»aioty refreshments
were served. The ladies, one and all,
expressed themselves highly pleased with
the events of the day.
Five Hundred Club.
Mr. and Mrs. E. M. Woodin entertained
the Five Hundred Club on Tuesday even
ing. Only members of the club were in
attendance and the evening was spent
in the pleasures of their chosen game,
Mrs. G. A. Chapman and A. J. Davis
winning prises for the most progressions.
Ladies' Aid to Moet.
The Ladies' Aid Society of the Congre
gational church will meet on next
Thursday afternoon, June 1, with Mrs.
Miller, at her home corner Island and
Lake streets. She will be assisted by
Mrs. I. J. Davis.
Pythian Palousers Club.
Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Neil, Mr. and Mrs.
J. L Irwin, Miss Rose Lippitt and Mor
ton Lippitt will entertain the Pythian
Paloueers Club at the home of Mr. and
Mrs. Neil this (Friday) evening.
In Honor of Mrs. Hoag.
Mrs. W. B. Palamountain enter1
oo Thursday afternoon at a delightful
four-course luncheon in honor of Mrs.
Foster Hoag of Spokane. Covers were
laid for twelve. The rooms were beau
tifully decorated, yellow being the color
scheme. The dining room was darkened
and adorned with yellow tulips and
ferns. Dainty place cards were of yellow.
The afternoon was spent in playing five
Auto Destroyed by Fire.
Lew Irwin left Wednesday morning at
6 o'clock in his anto with D. Milliard
and Sullivan, marble men, as passengers
destined for Dayton. They crossed Snake
river at Penawawa'and had climbed the
big hill getting out of the Snake river
valley when something was found to be
wrong with the transmission gear. While
planning what to do the machine took
fire, being entirely consumed and only
the personal effects of the three men
were saved. They had to walk five miles
to the nearest farm house. Milliard and
Sullivan proceeded to Dayton by team,
Mr. Irwin returning to Colfax yesterday
by train. The auto consumed was a
Keo and cost when new $1450. The loss
to Mr. Irwin is heavy and is much re*
gretted by all his friends.
Sunday School Will Not Meat.
The Sunday school connected with the
Methodist church will not meet next Sun
day, the torn up conditions around the
building making it advisable to hold off
for the present. Work on the new church
is going on apace, the structure begin!
ning to show in size and beauty.
The Elberton Picnic.
The program for the Elberton picnic
has been completed and will be published
in full in next week's Gazette. The four
days' events will be full of interest. Keep
it in mind.
For soreness of the muscles whether in
duced by violent exerciße or injury,
Chamberlain's Liniment ia excellent.
This liniment is also highly esteemed for
the relief it affords in cases of rheuma
tism. Sold by all dealers.
For plumbing, material and supplies,
call on J. B. Brown. Phone Red 152 x
Sick headache results from a disordered
condition of the stomach, and can be
cured by the use of Chamberlain's Stom
ach and Liver Tablets. Try it. For
eale by all dealers.
Mrs. Caroline Sprajy ne
Scalp and Facial Massage, Shampooing,
Manicuring, Hair Dressing.
Telephone Red 821.
MacKeDzie Bids., Apartment L.
( OLFAX, WASH.
NEW RIDCEWAY THEATRE
R. G. CLEWDBNIN, Lts>ee
AND SATURDAY MATINEE
3000 feet of the beet
4 —Changes a Week—4
A beautiful piece of furniture given
away May 3 ), at 9 o'clock.
Children sc. Adults ioc
A purse with Home coin and other ar
ticles. Prove property and get same at
For Sale—Thoroughbred French Poo
dle puppies for sale. Inquire of Mrs W
A. Mitchell at 17 W P «t street.
We want a few good farm loans. If
yon want a loan call on us or write as
Coi.fax Ins. & Realty Co
Lippitt Building, Uolfax, Wash.
Wanted—Description and price of land
lor sale from owner* only. State loca
tion and terms. Address Lock Box 696,
Live Stock Wanted.
I am in the market to buy hogs and
cattle and will pay the highest market
price. Will be in Colfax Friday and
Saturday of each week at the Hotel
lolfax. either write or phone.
_____^__ A. .1. Logsdon.
For Rent—Desirable rooms for house
keeping. Icquire of Mrs. Melrose.
For Rent-Two rooms en suite upstairs
one room down stairs, with bath'
and hot and cold water $3.00 per week
for either. Mrs. Twaddle, 716 East st.
Girl Wanted—To do general house
work- Apply to Mrs. B. Bnrgunder, 14
went Wawawai street.
Plymouth Reek Chicken*.
For Sale—l desire to sell my entire
flock of Plymouth Rock chickens. Price*
reasonable. Leonard Burgunder. Colfax
Pasture for Horses.
Have good pasture for horses. Plenty
of water. Apply to St. Clair Saxon,
16 inch and 4 foot seasoned or green
nr, tamarack and pine in car load lots
Also tie, slabs, and cedar and tamarack
posts. Drawer A, Plummer, Idaho.
Household Furniture for Sale.
I offer for sale all my household fnr
niture. Sam Bovkr.
FOR SALE AT A BARGAIN
1 IS h. p. Fooe gasoline engine (hori
1 Dederick power hay press 17x22.
1 Aultman's new separator 32x52.
All new and complete.
<HAS. H. DODD,
580 First St., Portland, Oregon.
My o-pasaenger auto thoroughly over,
hauled. Now tires. A bargain. See Dr-
W. A. Mitchell,
DO YOU KNOW
that we are very successful in
getting nice photos of Children 1
All other subjects are easy to
See name on display case.
For any special bargain in
I have a buyer. Money to loan in large
or small amounts.
RICHARD 11. REID
102 Main St. Colfax, Wash.
$7.50 PER TON
ASK US ABOUT if
Phone ua your orders
Phone Main 21
TENNY ADV CO By monß B1«t
ILnni MUf. UU. Spokane, Waah
j keep the Gazette oo file and are It*
! aothoriied agents for advertisement*
[ and subscriptions.