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LOW PAY EFFECTS
Underlying Principles of the Mini
STRENGTHENS THE RACE.
Industry That Cannot Pay a Fair
Wage Is Parasitic—ln Effect It Ex
acts a Subsidy From the Community.
A Nation's Most Costly Production.
Discussing some of the fundamentals
that underlie the principle of a mini
mum wage. Mrs. Margaret Drelet Rob
ins in her address as president of the
National Women's Trade I'nion league
at the annual convention spoke of a
living wage as one of the important
means of strengthening the race.
"The industry," she said. "Which can
not pay a fair wage is parasitic and
receive! a subsidy from tlie community
through its public or private charities,
through its clinics and hospitals,
through its reformatories and prisons,
through Its almshouses and homes for
the aged. We are living in the midst
of a wealth producing, poverty breed
ing, Industrial chaos, The demand for
the minimum wage on the part of the
general public is simply the statement
that it is tired of subsidizing indus
"Through such subsidies it has ena
bled many an employer with no busi
ness qualification whatever nor knowl
edge nor judgment to open an Indus
try, put the wages as low as condi
tions permit, quite certain that the
community will bear the burden. It
would seem that a training school for
employers is as essential to the wel
fare of the community as a trade
school for workers. Just as the most
Important knowledge to the worker is
the value of his or her labor power, so
the most important knowledge to the
employer is that a living wage Is the
first charge upon any industry."
Mrs. Rollins called attention to thp
fact that In 1908 the first industry to
come under the minimum wage act in
England was that of chainmaking.
done largely by women. The wage
hoard decided that the women's wage
should be doubled. "Who were these
women so exploited?" Mrs. Robins
asks. "They were the mothers of
those men whom the English army
would not accept into its service dnr
Ing the Boer war because they did not
come up to the physical standard de
manded. Three times the British army
has had to lower its requirement! of
physical strength, for the men could
not measure up to the standard de
manded. But these woman chainmak
ers were not only mothers of sons;
they were also mothers of daughters
the mothers of girls, potential moth
ers of another generation, each one
representing a lowered vitality and
constant trend toward degeneracy."
Mrs. Robins concludes tliat "tlio most
costly production of any nation and its
most valuable asset is not its annual
output nf corn, neither the wheat
harvest nor tlie yield of coal or cot
ton, but its output of men and women.
T'pon the quality of each generation
depend the strength and greatness of
the nation. This we recognize by pro
viding that the state shall care for
the health of the people and contribute
to their education. Is it not. therefore,
time for us to insist that the state
cannot afford to put in so great an in
vest ment only to reap the continuous
loss of the defeated young lives that
go under In the industrial world?"
Few conventions of associated em
ployers or capitalists have surpassed
in altruistic spirit the American Elec
tric Railways association, which met
recently at Atlantic City. Witli the
recent growth of interurban lines, this
body represents a capital of nearly
$4,U'*».ooo,onn with Srtt.uno employees.
The report of the committee on the wel
fare of the men proposed that a step
be taken in advance of accident in
surance "by compensating for dis
ability through illness or superannua
tion" and by issuing service annuities.
The same committee drew tip and
recommended a scheme of profit shar
ing. It proposed the setting aside of
a percentage of the gross earnings for
a profit sharing fund, to be issued to
all the employees in the form of divi
dend bearing securities of the com
pany. Vice President Sergeant of the
Boston elevated railroads declared
that "when new means of transporta
tiwn are desired by the community
the benefits to that community should
be recognised and the city at least
made a partner in the undertaking"
A SONG OF LABOR.
A song for the builders of beauty.
The rearers of temple and spire;
A sons to the strong men of duty
Who shape the world s future In
Sing, sing to the women, the moth
The weavers of life and of fate;
The sisters who toil for the broth
And open to hope the white gate,
A song to the hrnln that devises
And bends nature's will into law;
A song to the brain that suffices
Its purpose from many to draw.
Sing, sing to the thinkers and hew
To brother" of tirain and of
A song to the world's mighty doers
Who wo-k for t M.tsteninK dawn.
—Horace Spencer Flske
In .society every man's rights
nro subject to hi* obligations to
liis fellows. So man has n right
to work nor has any right to
employ under conditions Injuri
ous to the interests of society.
Join the union of your craft in
this great humanizing education
al movement that has proved Ita
worth and stands today the only
force between workers and deg
No Other movement on earth
can Compare with organized In
bor in the practical, direct bone
llts to the toilers.
Let unionists proclaim the
faith that's in them and let them
spread the gospel of trade union
ism to their unorganised crafts
Grit your teeth and organize,
for you will enjoy only those
benefits that you take.
Grounds on Which Convicted Union
ists Ask That Verdict Be Set Aside.
Objections to the conviction of thirty
of the thirty-three dynamite plotters
found guilty nt Indianapolis last De
cember were laid before the United
States circuit court of appeals at Chi
cago recently in an appeal of the men
to have the verdicts set aside. On be
half of Frank M. Ryan, president of
the Structural Ironworkers' uulon;
Olaf A. Tveltmoe of Ban Francisco nnd
the other labor union officers adjudged
guilty of complicity in dynamite plots
Chester H. Krum. their chief counsel,
"That even If the defendants had
been guilty of illegally transporting
dynamite and nitroglycerin on passen
ger trains in violation of federal law
and even it" they had blown Up the
work of contractors who refused to
join the union the statute of limita
tions had run against tlie offense be
fore the men were tried.
"That the federal court at Indianapo
lis erred in allowing Ortie B. McMani
gal and Edward Clark, confessed dyna
miters, to testify against the othel
men. because Clark and McManigal
were codefendanta and their testimony
"That the destruction of nonunion
work was an offense against the state
and not against the federal govern
"That the law prohibiting transporta
tion of explosives on passenger train!
was a precaution for the safety of pas
sengers and was directed against tho
"That the men were convicted both
of conspiracy and of direct violation ou
the same evidence and therefore Wen
punished more than once for the same
"It was as invalid to punish thost
men twice or thrice as it would be ti
try them more than once on the same
charge," said Mr. Kruni. "Further. It
is inconceivable that men residing in
Boston, San Francisco, New Orleans
Duluth, Philadelphia and other places
equally scattered could have got to
gether with a common understanding
to direct the actions of McManigal and
Only two of the convicted men were
in court—Ryan, who still is president
of the ironworkers, and Richard II
Houlihan of Chicago. Ryan had served
only a few weeks of his seven year j
sentence when he was released on
Of the three defendants not Involve*,
in the appeal one remains in the fed 1
oral prison at Leavenworth, Kan., and
two have been paroled.
Should the present appeal be adverse
to the convicted men the case will be
carried to the L'nited States supreme
LABOR MEN IN COURT.
To Help Children to Find Work.
The question of establishing an em
ployment bureau in connection with
the Philadelphia public school system
is being considered by members of that
city's board of education. The object
of the proposed bureau Is to advise
boys and girls and get employment
for them after they have completed
the vocational course. John Hurt,
chairman of a special committee ap
pointed more than a year ago to con
shier the question, has collected con
■iderable data, which will be embodied
in a report to be submitted to the
Advises Against Strikes.
James Matthews of Shenandoah,
president of the Ninth district. United
Mine Workers, in his annual report to
the fourteenth annua! convention of
that body at Shamokin. Pa., strongly
■ advised against strikes. He said that
every other means of bridging differ-
Snces between the mine owners and
their employees should be exhausted
before the collieries were shut down
as a result of a strike.
Plan Fighting Force.
A number of prominent British labor
leaders are planning a new policy,
which, eliminating the benevolent fea
ture of tlie unions, will leave till the
funds to supply the war chest—ln
other words, will convert the trade
unions into a fighting machine.
Washington is the only state In
Which compulsory • workmen's
potnpan—Han Inwiim v v nt this time
lln force, the fund being :Ml'n!nistered
by the state nnd the law being c«m
--1 pnlaofT upon all employers and em
IN LABOR'S SHOPS
Status of Co-operative Industrial
ism In England.
HOW THE SCHEME WORKS.
Stores Are Prosperous, but Manufac
turing Societies Are of Slow Growth.
Spirit of Solidarity Manifest In Co
Samuel P. Orth writes as follows
in the New York Times of co-operative
enterprises in Great Britain:
After over sixty years of earnest
attempts in Great Britain to establish
co-operative productive societies there
are vow seventy-nine societies In ex
istence whose combined capital is $8,
--017,000, with an annual trade valued
at $(i,2::r),000. Assuredly this is not a
formidable showing. This is largely
due to the lack of capital to finance.
On the other hand. It is easy to start
a co-operative store and keep it going,
because the amount of capital required
is not large, the number of employees
is small, the amount of managerial
skill needed is limited, and the market
is always at hand among those who
back the enterprise. As a consequence
the wholesale nnd retail societies have
grown enormously and with rapidly
Leicester, a nourishing manufac
turing town, may be called the center
of co-operative production. Here the
Co-operative Productive federation has
Its headquarters. This federation is
the practical organizing body of the
co-operators. The secretary of the
federation. Robert Hnlstead. was a
weaver's apprentice, became a co
partnership workingman and now is
a leading spirit in Ihe movement. With
him as my guide I visited a number
of the productive societies in Leicester.
One of the oldest is the Co-operative
Printing society, established In 1876 in
a little shop. It has flourished. I
found till the external evidences of
thrift and enthusiasm. These were nl
' ways in evidence in every co-operative
shop I visited. I asked the various
j foremen if they had any difficulty in
getting labor. One of them answered.
"We have a long waiting list, almost
nil of them shareholders in this con
cern. We get the pick of the men.
Mind you. we consider printing an art,
and a very intelligent class of men ap
1 learned that there were very few
, labor ructions. Once a foreman had
; become unpopular and was retired.
Hut there have been no strikes. If any
employee becomes unreasonable or tin
endurable he is tired, as in any Othei
shop. Only the committee gives him a
! chance to be heard. The fact that hp
is ti stockholder does not shield him.
I questioned a considerable numbei
of the workmen. I found that nearly
all had experience in competitive shops
and that they greatly preferred to |
work for themselves, as they termed
', their present employment.
One man said: "The spirit in this
| shop is very different from that of any
other I have ever been in. There is
I more care for the product here, the
i men are not so wasteful, and we have
I a self interest in the output."
In one of the shoe shops I wns told
( that a workman Was overheard saying
| to his neighbor, "John, you have a big
I pile of waste today." The quarterly
balance sheet shows the profits of each
\ department, and there is rivalry among
i the departments' to make a good show
| Ing. "We always read the balance
I sheet," one of the women told me.
j And I suppose that this vigilance is
one of the indications of the success of
the copartnership idea.
What 1 fouud in the Leicester shops
I found elsewhere In shoe factories,
textile mills and printing works. On*
may say that the productive co-opera
tive shops have always the pick of
the most industrious and ambitious
workmen; that self interest stimulates
them to the greatest industry and
economy in their work. It would b€
Interesting to measure the waste In
a co-operative shoe shop and a com-
I was impressed with the superior
quality and intelligence of the man
agers and the up to date methods in
It is not surprising to find a spirit
of solidarity among these workmen.
One of tln> elder women in a boot fac
tory put it this wny: "Yes, I have
worked in other ■hope, but I like it
here best because we earn better
wages. And then we have sociables
and tens and all get acquainted, so
that we feel like one big family."
Secretary Ilalstead said to me: "It
takes brains and heart to be success
ful In co-operation. Not every kind
lof business can be conducted on this
plan. We can succeed only In lines
of business that enlist intelligent and
expert workmen. Unskilled labor
would not be a practical field for us.
and contra< ting, for Instance, Is not
a good business for copartnership.
There Is too much risk in It."
"Then." I asked. "It takes money
, Be turned uulekly nnd smiled
TtMt is where, after nil. we hnve our
. greatest difficulty." he replied. "The
rich have not the heart to come to us.
Compared with all the great industries
In Great Britain w *' are small and In
significant financially. But our oh
■\tect is not to make nil industry co
-1 OpMßtfre. We have not set out on so
Innos&hV'* 11 task. But we do claim
to set art- example of what industry
might he tt organised more accord
ing to the henf* nn<l ,eB9 according to
the purse." *\
UPLIFT OF TOILERS.
English Parson Began Movement For
Improvement of Workingmen.
It was in October. 1860, that the
Rev, Henry Belly of Lancaster, Eng
land, organised the Workingmen'!
Mutual improvement and Recreation
society, the pioneer institutiou for the
mental and social uplift of the toll-
Very sorrowful Is the story of the
•forking people from tho earliest time
well down into the nineteenth cen- j
tury. Socially tlie laborer was a no- ;
: body, and if he was permitted to have
a reasonable sufficiency of coarse fare
and a pile of Straw to sleep on at
night It was as much as he had any
| right to expect.
For ages no one ever dreamed Hint
the men who did the world's work
might have a desire to better them
selves socially, might have the wish
,to hear music, to look at a picture,
to read n good book, to sit down at
! night when the day's work was over i
In it place that was clean, cheerful
and comforting. The idea would have
seemed perfectly ridiculous had It boon
offered. The workingman needed oidy
muscular strength and the will to
work. As for social aspirations, knowl
edge, a respect for his domestic sur
roundings—that was all nonsense. So
the upper tendom thought nnd, to
make mutters still worse, the workers
themselves were largely of the snine
opinion. As n rule, they were content
ed with their wretched lot and seemed
to feel that they were getting all that
they were entitled to—all, in fact, that
Beginning, however, with the great
hearted English clergyman, things be
gan to look up. Starting with Pr.
SoUy's club among the Lancashire
weavers, the propaganda for the im
provement of the workingtnan's condl-
tion had assumed worldwide propor
tions, atul the vital problem, so long
ignored, of the emancipation of tlie
workers from the ignorance and
squalor of the ages, has in our time
become the burning issue in every
civilized land.—Rev. Thomas B. Greg
ory in New York Evening Journal.
MITCHELL DAY OBSERVED.
Miners In Anthracite Coal Fields Cele
brate Old Time Victory.
All through the anthracite coal field
of Pennsylvania the miners remained
idle on Mitchell day (Oct. 20) in observ
ance of the successful termination of
the strike of 10fx>. which was tlie first
conducted by the union under the lead
ership of John Mitchell, then its presi
The strike won for the men a 10 per
cent wage advance and other conces
, sions and was the entering wedge of
the United Mine Workers in the hard
! coal region. Up to 1!MK) the men were
! not organized, following the disband
ment of the Knights of Labor.
There was another strike in 1002.
Which was settled through the commis
sion named by President Roosevelt.
The agreement then entered into has
been effective ever since, with slight
modifications from time to time on the
three year renewal of the contract. A
year ago last spring tlie miners entered
into an agreement for four years.
Since then there have been numerous
i petty "button strikes to force men
into the union or to compel delinquents
: to pay up their dues.
New York's Labor Commissioner.
James M. Lynch of Syracuse, who
was appointed commissioner of labor
for New York by Governor Glynn, has
served fourteen years as president of
the International Typographical union.
Commissioner Lynch has always held
that the best time to settle a strike
was before the strike commenced and
that settlement could best be reached
through calm and passionless discus
sion of all the points involved between
the parties at issue. Through his wise
direction the typographical union has
been brought to the point where it is
today the strongest labor organizaion
In this country and one that has least
trouble with the employers.
Indianapolis Street Car Strike.
The strike of the newly formed
Street Railway Men's union of Indian
apolis affected about 700 men. The
strike was the climax of two months'
effort on the part of the union to get
the companies to consider its demands
for higher wages, shorter hours, recog
nition of the union and future arbitra
tion of all differences. The officials of
the companies, however, have stead
fastly refused to acknowledge that
their men belonged to a union or had
TRADE UNION BRIEFS.
There nre thirty-four unionists per
thousand inhabitants in Switzerland.
Five new local unions of shoe work
ers have been organized in New York
The recent strike of the mail truck
drivers in New York city appears to
have heen ill advised.
Telegraph operators at Buenos Aires
have formed the (Irst organization o f
the craft In Argentina.
Clothing cutters In New York city
will secure a forty-eight hour week
beginning .Inn. 1, 1914.
An evening class at the Philadelphia
high school prepares girls for positions
as salesladies in department stores.
Tin' workmen's compensation law of
Ohio has heen amended so as to make
it compulsory, hut the amended law
will not take effect until Jan. 1, 1914.
FEARS LABOR INVASION.
Frank Morrison Says Indiscriminate
Immigration Is an Evil.
Frank Morrison, secretary of the
American Federation of Labor, ad>
dressing the western labor immigra
tion congress at Seattle, Wash., de
nounced ex-I'resident Tuft for vetoing
the immigration bill passed a year ago
and declared that employers who op
posed this bill were bent on "tearing
down the civilization of the country to
fatten their own purses."
Mr. Morrison predicted an enormous
flow of European immigrants to the
Pacific coast through the Panama ca
"When these strangers come—soo,ooo
to 800.000 of them—the first year." he
said, "they will have to find work. If
they can't get $3 a day they will take
less, possibly 50 cents, or just enough
to buy bread and avoid starvation. By
admitting those people you are not
only hurting yourself, but the nations
from which they come. If conditions
are bad there the only way they will
ever be bettered will be by forcing the
dissatisfied workers to remain and fight
their own way to victory."
Worker Gets $25,000 Verdict.
Fred C. Neun. a New York city iron
worker, who had his neck dislocated
while be was at work, recently receiv
ed a $25,000 verdh t against his em
ployers in the New York supreme court.
The verdict is said to be the largest
one for personal injuries rendered in
New York county under tlie compara
tively new workmen's compensation
law. He sued for 100.000.
Venn, who is twenty-eight years old.
has a wife and three children, who nre
respectively seven and live years and
seven months old. Before the accident
he was an athlete, making running his
spc laity, lie belonged to the Pastime
This Clock in front
of our store.
YOU WANT YOUR CHRISTMAS MONEY TO GO FAR, DON'T YOU? AT THE
SAME TIME YOU WANT TO KNOW THAT WHAT YOU BUY IS GOOD. COME
THEN TO OUR STORE. THE GLITTERING ARRAY OF REASONABLY PRICED
THINGS YOU WILL SEE WILL PROMPT YOU TO MAKE OUR STORE YOUR
STORE FOR EVERY GIFT YOU WISH TO GIVE. OUR LIST OF GIFTS IS TOO
LONG TO PRINT HERE. COME IN AND LOOK AT THE GOODS THEMSELVES.
PRICE THEM AND YOU WILL BUY THEM.
Everett's Reliable Jeweler
is now on tHe market. After many
months of labor and much expense
we offer you a beer equal to tbe
celebrated German Beers.
Phone 159 for- a caise to be delivered
to your home.
EVERETT BREWING CO.
HOW SAVINGS CAN GROW IN THIS BANK
The following scale will illustrate the growth of your small monthly
savings if you deposit same with us at
interest compounded twice a year
Amount Deposited For Five For Ten For Twenty
Each Week Years Years Years
One Dollar I $ 293.00 I $ 650.00 | $1,614.00
Two Dollars ... | $ 555.00 | $1,301.00 $3,228.00
Five Dollars — | $1,462.00 j $3,252,00 $8,070.00
Amount Deposited For Five For Ten For Twenty
Each Month Years Years Years
One Dollar $ 66.00 I $ 147.00 $ 366.00
Five Dollars ___ $337.00 $ 736.00 $1,830.00
Ten Dollars ___ $644.00 j $1,473.00 _ $3,661.00
A deposit will double itself at the above rate of interest every seven
teen years and eight months.
EVERETT TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK
THE OLDEST SAVINGS BANK IN THE COUNTY
UMBRELLAS FOR XMAS FROM 35c to $35.00
Foley's Umbrella Store
1714 Hewitt Aye.
Friday. December 19, 1913.
1616 Hewitt Aye.