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DRILirij SUE'iAKIJIE GIL
WELLS AT 5UMKEELAM.CAL
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T NuiiuihtI.uiiI, (
mil' h 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
nil Vcll:4 in Mine.-;
t inn, and it iii.iiiv
t here lire
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nore '.; -'s
Kai icrcl along ilic I
HlllllS Ml' 111,' lii-lisi
, li'i u c 1. I lie
li'hl lowest tA'C.
The vi lis farthest from
lie ar in
from lil teen in t iht.v live i'vt !' wa
ter !ii low tide Tin' diUlieg or Mih
mariiv oil veils, its i M -it . itntt il ;it Suni
incrland, primal ily involves the on
hlniclinii ii!" a wharf IKuii the share
to hii;iio I'oin: over !i" oi! jr . I ti' -i ' !
strata, or ncio.s the r i . 1 1 while tie
borings lire i : . : 1 1 i I : . t . I . In strength
of structure ll; 'm' v, h.irvcs have lnvh
luiilt in consl(li'i':il;,' variety, from
tbo; o co'islsliir,; of a mere double low
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BKOl'JO.WAL HIAvillAil SHOWING Til 3 liE
lATIOX OF TUB C0:;iUCT01 TO THE
KE'iT OF Tlin CAolNG IN A SL'B
MAIilNC OIL V.T.LIi.
of piles with eight, by eight cross
beams ami stringers and with a narrow
walk from one to live feet wide as 11;1
only means of access to the wills
situated upon them, to strong and eo n
inodious structures thoroughly pla::ked
and capable of withstanding either tile
heaviest soulheasters which visit that
coast or bear any kind of tratlie to
which a wharf might he subjected.
Upon the eoniplet ian of the wharf,
or so much of it as is necessary for
the immediate purito.se, tlie drilling ma
chinery is assembled at the location for
a well. In beginning the, drilling op
erations the first: important: work to be
done i.s in putting down what is locally
termed a "conductor." The conductor
consists merely of oil-well easing of a
size larger than that with which the
well would have been started were
there no sea to contend with. Often
casing of inferior quality is used for
this purpose, and it is sometimes put
down without a shoe where the pre
vious borings indicate (hat no cobble
stones will be met: in passing through
the sea sand. Usually nine live-eighth
easing is used, but for the shallowtr
"wells seven live-eight Ii i.s sometimes
In starting the conductor in fro n
fifteen to twenty-live feet of water,
two jnints of nine live-eighth casing
are screwed together, making a length
of from thirty to forty-live feet, or of
sufflcient length so that when the shoe
or bottom end is resting on the sand
under the water, the top end will ex
tend well up toward the top of the
roof in the derrick. In setting it, the
conductor is hold suspended by the
sand linejn an upright position with
the shoe about a foot above the sand.
It is then plumb 'd as nearly as ran
be, and, watching a favorable eppor
tunity when the wash of the water
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I'M t N l"l''il. Il h vii'I-lciily (lroi,VM to
tin1 i.mikI. It i-t then (k ri.i .ilrly
pi'iinlii'l wliih' rr.-lim; on the j'ro'.iml
inn! r tin- oii'an, ami is siM iircij in It-
viTthal pii'-ii Ion liy inrai's of lioarJ.-i
lo llio (I in l!oor III Hllcli a
way that Ihrfr '!. s lioar :ii;aliist llif
- in j: I'loiii four 1 i MVrci, t tlirci'tioiiM.
The (!:'u!h;,' strin, which h.'is hern ur
vlnii 'y lilt- il witli a driving lir.itl ainl
( hih!iK, i.s thru inn into the roinliirtor.
ainl it i-i ilrlveii into tlie h:1ik1 :h far
as it will safely co. Then the clamps
are rrniovul ami tlie ilrill sot to Mork.
and liy alti rnale drhiiiv.s and driilinus
tlie riiiidii'tor is winked through tli"
sand lo the clay h 'lienili, wliere is Is
discontinued. Ity the time tlie to) of
tic conductor has horn driven to the
level of the derrick Hour the bottom
end has heroine so de ply enihedili d
In the sand that the slays tan he re
moved and the oasim; driven lien"ath
tlie derrick to a point m ar the lev d of
the water unden'.cath. Should it then
prove too short to penetrate the saml,
otinr lengths are screwed on iind tin1
operations continue -i tit il that object
is attained. When tlie conductor has
been driven n f( w feel into the clay
u i!i icily iny; tlie K-a saiiif. the ocean is
as (ffectually shut off from the well,
for all practical purpose.-!, as if It wen?
held back by a dike or sea wall. How
ever, there is still danger of letting i1k
ocean water into the well tlirou.'ili the
carelessness or incompetence of the
driller. It Is quite essential to change
the drilling bit to the next smaller
size Immediately on stopp!nj the con
ductor or whenever it Is decld 'd to po
no farther with any size of casing, and
also to keel) the casing following close
ly after the drill. Otherwise, when
drilling ahead of a conductor or casing
that Is permanently stoppd. Ik lore
reducing the size of the bit, there Ls
danger of water breaking through
from above into the new boring; and
when drilling too far ahead of the
casing the tools nr-p liable to gain
more and more swing, cutting the hole
larger and larger, especially in either
clay or shale strata, thus creating a
i cavity of much greater diameter than
the casing will fill and which fre
quently becomes a water-course out
side o!' the casing for the ruin not only
of the well, but also of the adjacent
ril territory. In other res-ports the
drilling of submarine wells differs little
from those put down on land. Scien
New York's Grai i Old Ma.
CoiiyriKlit, 12, by llct-kwood, Ktw York.
KX-MAYOR ABIJAII S. HEWITT.
Kccent experiments in England have
demonstrated that furnace slag, satu
rated Avith coal tar, makes a superior
water aud dust proof road surface.
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OF SUMMERLA NI, CAL 8UI1MARIXE OIL FIELDS.
Mount Etna is found by Professor
RLceo to have been lowered sixty-live
feet on the south side since lHdS and
twice as much on the north. The top
is supposed to have been slowly blown
away by the wind.
Apart from insane persons main
tained at home, concerning whom no
ollicial returns are made, Scotland had
u I last year 1G.12S8 lunatics.
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I'KOiSISiS TO HI: A
GREAT rCOTBALL ItE
MS I UmHIIHIUTUl
Nekil'ir St houcluick, tile Ilsoui.nuil
boy that plays on the Carlisle Indian
School football eleven. Is th-e only
player of his race. Schouclnick Is not
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SCIIOUCIIUCK, FlItST ESQUIMAU TO PLAY FOOTBALL.
one of the dwarf Esquimaux "who in
habit the northern portion of Alaska,
but is of that tribe of Indians who
live several hundred miles south.
SchouchueU plays heady, snappy foot
ball now, but had never soon a pigskin
nor spoken a -word of English until
fourteen months ago.
He is nineteen years old, weighs 103
pounds, and is five feet seven inches
in height. His face aud head are
extraordinarily large, and when he
laughs his pair of almond-shaped eyes
become almost closed. This unique
character was born in the Island of
Pogenauk, in the Aleutian Islands.
When quite young th-e family removed
to the Island of Kadiak. His parents
are u-ad, but a brother and sistvr 'still
1 live in rogenauk. Prior to couupg to
fill lisle, Schoii buck received a f i w
. cars' schooling in a Uu.slan Institu
tion In Ala-ika and learned (lie Russian
When he was thirteen this famous
rcnlie was employed by fur traders,
and the sturdy lad traveled as far
south as Seattle, Wash., ami to Sitl.a
and.lumau. At the Jovrrnmei.t school
at t'ailisl ' he is learning carpentering,
lie is acquiring the different languages
remai kably fast. His muscles never
seem to tire, and' he Is stronger than
f r .
. , ' e.
'V- v -:i-. ' .v
most men -who weigh '200 pounds. 1I
plays like Lou-? Vo'.i, the greatest
centre Carlisle ever had.
All Know a Good Thing.
The Ohio Penitentiary managers and
economists, says the Cincinnati En
quirer, had boon wondering what to do
with the crusts of bread that are left
over every time the 1000 prisoners sit
down to a meal. They Anally decided
to cut the crust off all bread and male?
the crust into bread pudding. Since
this information has worked its way
through the prison the piles of left
over crusts are daily increasing.
The Nile Dion.
Since 1S99 the great Nile dam at
Assouan has given steady employment
to from 10,000 to 20,000 Italian and
t -i-J 'l'-- 'rJ'-v''V ' -JiV.-r
BACK AGAIN TO HAKD STUDY. ,
From Harper's AVeekl;
"Del you know tin i;r pollt'ral
a.np ''d-'t I. id i :i- t ri fl i-tlo.is 0:1 yuar
truth and ver.i' ity."
"What nro you f;oir,g to do about
"Nothing. My prli'e forhhl-i n;e t i
f. gat nay ore ex' pt 11 c, ntlrinan. And
n tnan who rail.! unether a liar hi 1:0
m-nthn:un." Washlt tn:i Star.
Oppcrtunlty's Goft Knockc.
Opportunity knocks at tin door' of
most in en ko gently that they enn't
hear It If their niH nn r.!ii"J to the
keyhole. New York Pre
Remarkable tc. tin.-ny to thn vnlin1
i-f t h. new ry.:t' i:i ,f hlentfving crini
I n ! .s by t h"!r li'.Kvr iicprestdons win
;.fi'.ir:le,l in the ct- of a man charred
;;t I.om'o-i witii the;t.. While in Iloi
l';.v:.v prl.vr.i tbo niviiaei had fhig'T
imprcfei.'en ti'kcn and thy were
found to accord with ihore of a man
rentrneed r.t Heailir.n; in 18'.t9 to s!
monthf" lord la'ror for a jewel rob
bery. Prl -oner, who had Riven a dif
ferent name, admitted that he was tbo
CUilEC DLCCD PCI50K. CANCER.
Vfhln-r Hone, Sliiriin; I'ntu, Itching
Skin, rinilfl, Kutlnc Sorr, rr.
If jou have Pimples or Offensive Erup
tions, Splotches, or C'oppcr-CV.orcil Kr tip
lions, or raidi on the skin, Festering Swell
iii;jn, Glands Swollen, Ulcers on any part
of the body, old Soron, Boils, Carbuncles,
Pains and Aches in Hones or Joints, Hair
or Eyebrows falling out, persistent Sore
Mouth, Gums, or Throat, then you have
Hlood Poison. Take P.olanie IV.ood Palm.
(I5.li.I5.) Soon nil Sored, Pimples and
Eruptions Viill heal perfectly. Aehes ami
Fains cease, Swellings subside, and a per
fect, never to return cure made. 15. 15. 1!
cures cancers of All Kinds, Suppurate;; ;
Swellings, Eating Sores, Ugly Ulcer, aftcY,
all else fails, healing the sores perfectly.
If you have a persistent pimple, watt,
swollen glands, shooting, stinging pains,
take I51ood Palm, and they will disappear
leforc they develop into Cancer. (Write f
for special circular on Cancer.) Druggist.'
1 per lurge bottle, including complete
directions for home cure. Sample free by '
writinj; Pi.ood Balm Co., 1G Mitchell St.,
Atlanta, Ga. Describe trouble, and free
medical advice sent in sealed letter. 1
Some people only tell the truth when it
" I have used Ayer's Hair Vigor
for a great many years, and al
though I am past eighty years of
age, yet I have not a gray hair in
Geo. Yellott, Towson, Md.
We mean all that rich,
dark color your hair used
B to have. If it's gray now.
no matter; for Ayer's
Hair Vigor always re-;
stores color to grav hair.
Sometimes it makes the
hair grow very heavy and
long; and it stops falling
or. the hair, too.
$1.00 a battle. All draniats.
If your druffpist cennot supply you,
Bend us one dollar and we will express
you a bottle. Ite sura and give tlin name
oi your noarost express onieo. Address,
J. C. A Viill CO., Lowell, Mass.
WRITE US FOB
I f 1 B . (i A 1 S 1 1 I 1 1 our ' KW rrir,
iUUItUIIBI illU Lit,cove!-lneout
entire line nf t'ai
i-ltiir ami Wit go
Miitei'lalM, a! 1
HIQHTOWOR & KIRKPATRK
f) fct rtirtr
g U y LiGR1FPI(, IilS f.
and Iti;AI).t Ilt.S.
Sold by all I)rucists. fJ?
Gsnaine starrped C C C. Never sold ii I
Beware of the dealer who tries to sell
"something jast as pood."
for graduate or tuition reiunded. Wrr
at once for catalogue and apeciul offn
Louisville. Kf. Msntgomerj.
Hout'.on. Tx. Columbus. C
Richmond. Va. Birmingham, Ata. Jack omlll.
Economy is Wealth
Money Savin' Catalog
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