Newspaper Page Text
Vstlnc finny Varieties to Se
lect the;,: j-it I'r(f!t:iMc
C.pti iiiunt-; In Crj;s
l-r U. . !.iri!iill.
YT7 i'lilUOM lit of v!;; :;t Is
I n very !.i ; ;i t.ant i.iatbT. r.t l
I 1 t t . .1 4 t . I. . 4. . 1 . .
J U v,'o"l; hhoiild ho undertaken
1 y th" .,i Inieiil stall' n of iJn lo id
I::;; wheat State of l!r M li iu -
I'ui.MlNii Tii,.ST 1'J.UTS WlTil
sota. Tlio Ftution is locaU'rt at t. An
fjjthnny Park, which i.s iK'twocn tho
f titles of St. Paul anl Mlinn'aiiolls. Tho
proximity of the jrroat llourliis mills
of tho latter city avp excellent facil
ities for testing the milling (iiialiU.'s o?
' , 1 ( i, w. 1
' .if. 1 ' vfr i w
' " '
"V ' If :
ELECTED 11JEH3 T1K UP TO
il Fi.OM BIB )3.
various wheats with which experi
ments were made. All the variety
tests were not made at St. Anthony
Tark, however. A large number of
experiments were made at tho March
& Spalding farm, in the northwestern
I :tk d ' tt&Vr ' :
CKOSS FEUTlLIZlN(i BY II AND.
part of the State, near Warren, in the
famous lied Uiver Valley; at Glyndon,
in the southeastern part of the Hod
Uiver Valley; at the Northwest Experi
ment Farm, near Crookston, Minn., and
at the Northeast Experiment Farm,
near C::: 1 JMpH liUiv. Extend vo
let undo ;it I In North D il.o;a ?'a-
tlull Wi'i'c ill-O :lil'i IllJn i-ilTil.t -mt lull
in th :i v. !t.g -iiicu-iii;. Tne iiu-rag"
P'MilH of tixlM made nl nil these wide
!y -;;, r;i t !y polo; ciui'mt h !; but In
j J r'lnl : vl v ;l i d i iiiii ;-i ve,
'I l.i' variety te; vciv begun ii ISA
and hive been I 1 1 i t II t ! ci'li! ; i u 1 r,n-
t'l ill !,.,..,.! t th, ,, V. ,,,,.!.. m
' " ' ' ' ' - I I . 1 1 i , .'ittjtt r I Hill 1
I.I'M HI Kllll U'S Wl'lV Ki'i I'.l'l'il i;l (III he-
unnlng from M ! 1 1 ; i i x a Tul various
other States, as well as fp i I'ii'S'.'l.
!li!::j:i:,v : i : 1 1 1 e'.li'T En: o; m:i t-i.;::i;i ;s
;n:il from Canada.
Ttic llH'llioil of making tin' field tests
is Interesting. " h " l-i n.l at !'.t. uniwr
sily fiirm is divided Into plots eight
j - t f
A PLANTING MACHINE.
rods long and one rod wide. A shoe
drill a half rod wide is used, so that
one round will plant a plot. After one
variety is planted the seeder Is cleaned
liy hand, and then every remaining
seed blown out with a hollows and
rubber tul An alley two feet wide is
left between the plots of grain. As
wheat is nearly always self fertilized,
there is little cross breeding of varie
ties. After the grain heads out, the
plots of newly secured varieties are
gone over, and ail plants not of that
variety are removed.
The different varieties are planted
in the order of their ripening season,
beginning at one side of the field. The
earliest variety can thus be cut first,
and each succeeding plot as It ripens.
The binder is carefully cleaned after
each plot, and tho varieties are marked
by placing a stake beside each shock.
The separator used in thrashing is con
structed so that it will clean Itself
thoroughly when run a few minutes
after the feed Is stopped.
To further guard against the admix
ture of varieties, the first half bushel of
a variety is placed in n large sack, and
then a half bushel is caught and placed
in a small sack and saved for seed.
The remainder is placed in a large
sack. The vitality of the seed is tested
in a germinating chamber, in which
tho temperature is as low as that of
the poll at sowing time. Where neces
sary the seed is treated for smut.
Many of the Russian wheats were
found to be badly mixed, although
they were samples of the best varieties
grown in that great wheat country.
Some contain from two to four distinct
In 1S07 the 200 original varieties had
been so closely culled out that only
eight of the best were still retained
! for further testing. In order to still
v.'; -. ' vS,y . . ' j::-.' .
;' ' ''ifVv'--; ..;
further decide among these, small
ainouiits of each kind were made into
Hour and were subjected to careful
tests, known among milling experts as
the "color test," "giuten test" and the
"bilker's spon? test."
Tie gluten ti-st is r.:ada by mixing
M.'ilor wiihiu ore unin'O of lbur r,r.
ll.i-n kiiculiir; It Into ! ni-h, m I.'.i h
l-i lu'ld iiinlcr a Micam of water and
piiilod and wuikid inild Hie starch ban
all I. con washed out. Th'' wet I'bileii
s Wei-hi d and t!i"n l;l.ii and weUhed
again, In U'dir to aseertal.i its inu'.ht ore
holding power. It is i.!i'fi lied Into
long ilire-iiU end th, .hii till'y N limed.
E.'nt'y it is iimulibd 1'itn a p. urn! bail
and laid upon a card. The better th"
Ibnir the better th" gluten bail v. Ill
retain I'.s :-!iap.. Tie poo'er the chiton
il." limp' It v;:i Ibituii o.!t a;id spread
oer th cinl.
In th" baker's Knonge tet Hi" volutr.e
and lime of rUin ; of t'c dough are
noted. 1 1 1 1 " n from , I'.olten's i'.lue
Stem produced f-Ity times its velum1
of loaf, while K! Grande only pro
duced f.fty t'mes Its bulk of bread,
though It contains on" per cent, more
gluten than the I'due Stem.
In IMio the work of improving what
by selecting the best individual plants
was begun. In lSiiJ' pM) kern ds of
each of tight varieties were pbinted
singly In bills twelve by cl.'liieen
Inches, and tho be-t plants Were se
lected from each variety. In 1 S'.iH
V2tv) of the largest bird kernels of
I'.olton's l'due Stem were selected and
planted by baud, four inches apart
each way. As the grain approached
maturity the poorest stalks were re
moved. Successive ceilings reduced
- m m a
C' !! im.tnvu 4A,J -
3tMJ , ...t.u.avCl
the number of stalks to seventy-five.
These were carefully saved and used
for succeeding trials. Other varieties
were tested in a similar manner.
Another method of improving is that
of hybridizing or cross pollenating.
The grain is planted with a machine
which places each two kernels four
inches apart. One hundred seeds are
planted In n plot, which is called a
Cross fertilizing, or pollenating by
hand, Is an interesting and delicate
operation. The best stalks are selected,
and when the flowering period ap
proaches tho upper ami lower spikeieva
are removed, leaving fix or right on
each head. The anthers are withdrawn
with sharp-pointed tweezers to prevent
self-fertilization. Pollen grains from
another plant are placed upon the stig
ma and the head wrapped in tissue
paper to exclude pollen from other
The hybrids produced in this way
generally show a great variation iu
type. A cross between 1'lue Stem and
Fife produced over a dozen different
varieties. In this way many new vari
eties have been originated, though few
are equal in value to the parent plants.
Comparatively few true 'crosses are ob
tained, and only four to twenty-live
per cent, of the experiments iu arti
ficial fertilization are successful. New
The latest invention in the domain
of ceramics is the manufacture of vio
lins and mandolins from porcel ain. A
well-known manufacturer of the Meis
sen ocarinas and porcelain organs litis
invented a process for the manufacture
of violins and mandolins from clay.
Some violins have already been com
pleted, and the inventor lias applied
for letters patent for the same in dif
Under this process- the violins are
cast, and every violin is guaranteed
a success and to be unexcelled for pro
ducing music. The latter quality con
stitutes precisely the chief value of this
invention. Tho porcelain body, it is
claimed, is better able to produce sound
than a wooden one, since it co-operates
in the production of sound, making the
r.ctes saft and full.
i '-7 I I 1 I I -
AN ODD OU) (HUB. I
l Us:J by lit: Prcst Jcnts of i
lor lU:y Ccr.crail ins.
S-?f-,: -,J A -,i 1 ; t "
ONE of l he i:iot Intel et In g
pl'-i-es td' a., e:i nt Col. -id l
i ui ui! w In th.. co.r.'ti.v.
s-ay. ! ie" Eo-to'.i Herald, U 1 1.
il. :lr um.I by II: ' l'lesid,-; I of Ilai va:d
l';'.i ersity tlurlng th' iii'iiu:.! cifii-r.:"i!ct-j
;ei , xeri i-es ia Am !-'
fr.nu tic fact that it H veiy onl, ih"
tl.alr lias t!i" ill.-t lin t Ion of being al
most lb" only one of Its kbid In Amer
i'M. ki far as coib-etors hue In en all'
The I'rt'hddf nt's chair, as it is always
called, l;:is been used by thirteen l'resl.
dents of the college and university.
It Is stoutly t obstructed of oak. In tlu
style known as "thrown." or turned,
and dates bad; to th sixteenth een
tury, so that It was already something
of tin "antlqii"" when it was brought
over to this country by some early
Puritan or Pilgrim. Oliver Won.lil!
Holmes has described it thus:
"Funny old choir with a scat like a
Sharp behind and broad front edge
One of the oldest of human, things-
Turned all over with knobs and rings
But heavy and wide, and deep and
Fit for the worthies of tho land."
For ShootliiR PoUoiifd Arrow.
Indians who use poisoned arrows do
not trust alone to the venom with
which they anoint their darts. In ad-
dijrlivewiy ofton nPnl' l,ois011 to the
bow much diiid utter certain spells over
Itneestors o;i idea that it would launch
de?.0;1"!! the arrows it shot. The
head of one of these Indian bows ;'or
shooting poisoned arrows is shown
above. It will be observed that rattle
snake rattles form an important part
of its decorations.
At ri'Kted For Not Oolnit to flmrch.
To such an extent does religion pre
vail at Gonoatoa. In the South Seas,
that every man, woman and child en
that Island who does not go to church
at least three times a week Is liable to
be arrested and lined, the tine going to
An Englishman has invented a brick
laying machine which lays and mort
rrs the bricks.
m&M f sip amfejft
It li f:'!!:i;ated that II"1 co. t of pn
ieetiiig trees i ) preent dise.iv'o, by jh0
use ,i' Kprayl-ig mixtures, lesi than
tiie-tirih of a cent per tree, ar.d the
fspiTyiir: may -ibo Increase the piot'.t
o:i fruil, l y Inducing better tjuality.
The winter is the time to prur.o
p-niH' vines, arid it should not be de
layed, as tiny cannot be tut back with
paftty after Kpring opens. Vines put
out last spring may be cut 'back to
three eyes and older vines may have
their new wot.tl cut back to six or eight
THE HEDGE PLANTS.
The h"dg. plants along the roadsldo
fdiouhl receive an application of fer
tilizer in the spring and be also neatly
trimmed. Hedges are frequently mucu
neglected and die out, no attempts be
lag made to prevent them from insect
attacks or supply (hem with plant
food as a compensation for the enor
mous growth made every season.
In storing fruit or vegetables In the
cellar, the better plan Is to have boxes
or bins, and arrange them so that they
will be raised two or three lnchn
nbove the bottom and the same dis
tance from the wall. This gives n cold
nir space all around them, and will aid
materially In beeping them at a more
even temperature, while at the same,
time the risk of Injury by frost is con
It is now contended that it Is a mis
take to cut blackberry canes back too
low, as they will give better crops if
Allowed move cane. They should he
given lieuer cultivation than is usually
besiowed. One point to observe U that
if the o'.d canes have not been cut out
r.r.d burned there will be damage from
borers. Blackberries will thrive on all
hinds of soil, but to secure good crops
fertilizer should be supplied early in
the spring and the canes thlned out la
the rows where they are too cIclc
CPRAYING ArrLE TREES.
When to spray apple trees depends
r.pon the purposes desired. Use Bor
deaux mixture when tho buds nro
swelling, nnd if canker worTLrf a!?
abundant spray also when jthe blossoms
are about to open. After the blossoms
fall spray again with Bordeaux mix
ture, also Paris green, repeating both
applications a wcok or ten days later.
In about ten days or two weeks an
other application may be made of Bor
deaux mixture. These remedies or
preventives arc for scabs, bud moth,
codling moth, tent caterpillar, curcullo
and canker worm.
Evergreen hedges are ornamental
and useful. The desire to securo a
quick hedge induces close setting of
the plants, which causes them to crowd
in after years, as well as struggle for
plant food. Give plenty of room nt
first, allowing not less than a yard of
space between plants, as they will fill
the space as they advance in growth.
The enemy of hedges is the basket
worm, and the "baskets" should be
picked off and burned. They are really
cocoons and can be easily found.
Spray the hedge with Taris green two
or three times during the season.
A TORTABLE IRRIGATOR.
A portable irrigator especially adapted
for treating the roots of a plant witL"
fertilizing liquid is hero shown, the
cut being taken from tho Scientific
i American. The general shape of the
irrigator is similar to that of a pitch
fork, the tines and handle of which are
hollow. A piston is adapted to bo
operated within tho hollow handle.
' serving as a pump to draw the fertiliz
. lng liquid from a supply pipe entering
at the top of tho fori; head and to force
it out through tho openings in the tines.
. In operation the tines are buried into
j the ground with their lower ends in
I proximity to the roots to be treated.
The liquid can then be forced out i:i
I a line spray at the point where It will
' do tin most good.
- '.;.- 'JSP.-