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PUBLISHED 12VHRY THURSDAY BT
A. J. NEFP & SONS:
EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS.
THURSDAY, JAN. 8, 1885
preceding rock above named' and
may be distinguished from it by
shells and fossil remains of aui-
nessof the world, and every sane
child should be required to under
stand them before they -enter the
mnlsand plant, it containing no years of maturity.
For the benefit of mineral hunt
ters I will say the minerals of this
country are not distributed over
this country irregularly. There is
a system in these distributions, the
knowledge of which furnishes us
with a rule by which we decide
whether a particular kind of miri
eral may be expected to be found
in a certain locality. The signs by
which we judge whether a particu
lar mineral is present at the place
in question are the general charac
teristics of the rock in that locality.
The knowledge of the relations of
particular minerals to the gener
al character of rocks constitutes
the science or Geology and the
knowledge of the character of min
erals that of Mineralogy.
The history of the formation of
rocks bus been divided into certain
The Granite, or primitive, is the
oldest or first formation, and di
verse from all straificatlons in this
rock, we may expect to find the
ores of tin' iron, copper, lead, cobalt,
silver und anthracite coal. We also
find feld spar quartz in beautifu
crystals, plumbago garnetts, heavy
spar, calcareous spar and flour spar,
and other matter but foreign to the
Metamorphic rock is the second
in age. To this belong a variety of
minerals. Gneiss, mica, slate, clay
slate, limestone and other minerals
in rocks covering tracts of great
extent and at a great depth. Thtf
rock of this class is characterized
by a partial stratification, but does
not exactly belong either to the
compact granite or to the stratified
Metamorphic rock often assumes
the appearance of granite puding
stone and is particularly distin
guished by its close grain and
strength from granite transition
rock in this rock which is the most
extensive in the United States.
We may expect to find gold in S.
Carolina and other southern states.
We also find silver in this rock, al
so gold gold and the platinum met
als together and iron of the best
quality. In it we find zinc, anti
mony, arsenic, nickel, cobalt, tin,
mangansse. It is the home of the
metallic sulpheretts. The rock in
what is known as the flat of the
mountain some four miles from
Montvale Springs, Blount County,
is of this character, and from this
flat on the south side of Chilhowee
Mountain, to the Tennessee river,
the indications of silver are percept
ible; also the sulpherette variety
near Samuel McMurray's on the
river, strong indications are met
with at another point near the
Bright saw-mill. At the foot of
the mouhtain oft-cropping of silver
can be seen and acrost the moun
tain south of Montvale Mr. Engle
has been digging and found beau
tiful specimens of sulpherette of
silver. From my own observations
the body of this mineral must lie
deep in the earth and will require
considerable capital to develop it,
Again, some twelve miles from
Montvale, near what is known as
the Deadrick cabin several mounds
in a straight line from the cabin in
the direction of the Tennessee Riv
er can be seen. These mounds
seem to have been raised or injected
from below by the power of inter
nal heat. They are composed of
red hematite with veins of solid
white quarts running through the
mounds which indicates silver and
lead and gold. But iron predomi
nates on panther creek,rabbit creek,
the Hannah mountains, and on the
Ditny mountain and Smokey
mountain large bodies of iron are
deposited and many other beauti
ful specimens of various minerals.
The rock of this period is the coal
bearing rock par excellence. We
find here the richest and most ex
tensive layers of mineral coal, all
of the bituminous kind a soft coal.
In this formation we are to look for
soft mineral coal, iron ore, lime
stone and salt. It contains none
of the precious metals no lead, no
copper, no gold or silver nor any
metal except iron and manganese,
latter not available.
Tertiary formation is a stratified
rock, but of a later period than the
minerals in it. We may look in
vain for minerals of worth. For a
full description of the different va
rieties of rock the readers must re
fer to the science of Geology, and
for a description of the minerals to
The origin of minerals and their
forms as veins or layers may be
considered tne result of infiltration
to the surface to which class the
iron deposits in Blount County,
aside from the mountains, belong
other minerals of mountain origin
are injected from below, raised by
the power of internal heat to which
class belong the gold and silver ores
of North Carolina and the copper
of Ducktown belong.
The first class consists of wedges
decreasing with the depth.
The second of spheroidal masses
The third of wedges increasing
with the depth.
The first class of veins is the
most deceptive and cannot be de
The second may be measured by
its appearance on the surface or by
sinking shafts into it.
The third class may be depended
upon as improving with the depth.
There are gold bearing localities
in North Carolina, which, if not
equal to those of California at pres
ent, will be of greater importance
in the future, and I predict more
sure and lasting. Throughout a
vast extent of that State in almost
every branch and along all the
courses can be found wash gold, it
comes from the sides of the moun
tain, and the abrasion of rock fur
nishes the metal and when the al
luvial deposits are exhausted work
is generally abandoned and the rich
deposits in Veins in the mountains
are left undeveloped; there are no
gold veins where alluvial deposits
occur. To the injected veins of gold
from below belong the pyrlteous
veins also ferruginous veins. Gold
in these veins have been raised and
condensed along with other metals
andsulphurets; it may be asserted
as a fact that all native sulphiirets
particularly all the sulphurets of
iron contain gold, it does not follow
from this that all pyrites contain
sufficient to pay for its extraction,
as sulphurets cannot possibly pene
trate any rock but from below, we
may naturally conclude that th
heaviest body of such kind of ore
necessarily lie deep in the earth
and all pyrltous veins are invaria
bly found to improve in quality and
quantity with the depth. The gold
of North Carolina is of the pyrl
tous origin in composition with sul
phurets. We have a belt of gold
ores of unparalled extent, immense
width and undoubtedly reaching
down to the primitive formation,
which, on an average, cannot be
less than 2000 feet deep. Here is a
mass of precious metal enclosed in
the rock which cannot be exhausted
forages to come, and in this re
spect the gold regions of North
Carolina are the most important of
all the known gold deposits of the
world, California not excepted.
Also near the gold region is found
extensive mica mines which are at
present being worked at a hand
some profit. Cotton rock in abund
ance, iron of the finest quality and
copper ore in Jackson county; a
mountain of roofing slate near the
line of Tennessee on Tennessee
river, and great forests of the finest
quality of timber. Here in these
mountains He inexhaustible treas
ures to be developed by intelligent
man, and will Knoxville, our peo
ple, still refuse to complete the rail
road from Maryvilleto the State
line, and let these immense treas
ures be lost her forever. The Air
Line road, North Carolina, Is com-
Bevond the mere knowledge of
facts and principals, there are other
advantages equally important and
valuable, that grow out of the pro
cess of study and acquisition.
The training and discipline of the
school quickens and energizes the
whole mental nature, and gives it
faculty of applying itself and its va
rious faculties for manifold purposes.
The new energy given to the per
ceptive and reflective powers, by
study in the schools, remains a per
manent possession after the period
of education shall have eeased, even
though the lessons may have been
forgotten. The boy in his plays
abroad, men and women, their pur
suits of happiness, find ceaseless
occassion for their use' and pleasure
as well as profit in their exercise
The eyes are opened, the dull
vision becomes keen, the educated
boy or girl becomes an observer,
and sees things which the unawak-
ed eye and untrained mind pass by
without notice. The reasoning fac
ulty is also quickened, and the na
ture, relations and purposes of
things are studied. Thus people
become unconscious philosophers
in their several ways with various
depths of insight iuto the character
of the matter that comes before
them. Life is a perpetual opportu
nity for study presented to our at
tention. The earth and all sur
rounding objects, the world and its
circumstances are or may be un
ceasing subjects of observation and
reflection. People and animals and
their conditions are ever offered for
our thought. The mind perceive
these with more or less care and
accuracy just according to its edu
cation and habit
to be continued.
than it will be twenty or fifty years
hence. You see for the last fifty
years, as the older states beanie
thickly settled up, there has al
ways been a chance for a .man of
limited means to get him an home
in the West, and while this' lasts,
we can live under any sort of gov
ernment. Bo while we have been
breeding paupers, like England and
some of the older countries, under
favorable circumstances, what is to
become of us under conditions just
the reverse, which is almost inevi
table. You see most all Europe, for the
last century or two, has been breed
ing paupers, like a dead dog would
skippers in a hot summer day.
During all this time she has enjoy
ed the same advantage that we
have by sending her paupers to
this country. When our western
states become crowded like the
eastern states(and that will not be
many years), won't the poor people
Increase in our midst that much
faster,and it will be with that class
of people then like Parson Brown-
low told the Union men of .bast
Tennessee in time of the war, when
the rebel stopped his paper, he
said, he felt about as helpless as a
cat in hell without claws.
On this subject, before I close, I
think it would be appropriate to
quote a phophesy from "The Fool,"
in King Lear, of Shakespeare's
When priests are move in word than matter.
When brewers mar their malt with water,
When nobles are their tailors tutors.
No heretics burned but wenches sisters,
Wben every case in law is ribt.
No 'Squire in debt, nor no poor knight,
Wben slanders ao not life in tongues,
Nor uut.purses come not to throngs,
When usurers till their (fold in the field.
And bawds and whores do churches build;
Then shall die realm of Albion
Come to great confusion.
Then conies the time, who lives to see it,
That going shall be used with leet."
A book to every
subscriber and old
scriber who pays
to January 1st 1886.
different books to select
from. Read the list and
take vour choice.
pleted to the mouth of Tuckysiege
river, and unless East Tennessee
aids the road will be extended to
Murphy, Ducktown and Chattanoo
ga, and we are left out in the cold.
Sam. J. Griffitts,
My respectable audience, I avail
this present opportunity to address
you through the medium of a speech
on free and compulsory education.
The object of common school edu
cation is ordinarily supposed to be
simply the acquisition of knowl
edge, orthography, writing, reading,
arithmetic, geography and English
grammar. These are the simple
elements which most children ac
quire in various degrees of fullness
and accuracy. They are generally
considered sufficient to fix men and
women for the common responsi
bilities of life. These enables the
possessor to transact the usual busi-
OHIO & MISSISSIPPI
BY WAY OF
10 Hours Only
FROM CINCINNATI OR
LOUISVILLE TO ST. LOUIS,
VIA THE OHIO AND MIS
Than auy oilier line.'
Maryville, Dec. 27, 1884.
In my last letter I said I would
lecture on Political Economy, that
is if I know what that means. Con
cerning this knotty complex sub
ject, I am afraid that the great ma
jority of the people are as ignorant
as myself; and, also, I believe they
could not, with any certainty, com
mend me if I should teach them
rieht or criticise me if I should
guide them wrong. However, I
will say something, as I usually do,
and if ray talk don't satisfy the
public I will let some other philoso
pher try his hand.
A few days ago I left home and
thought I would ride out into the
city to loaf and to talk politics,
(here of late I cannot do this as
pleasantly as I would like, for I am
continually being nudged by the
merchants to buy goods, or to pay
for what I have alreadv bought.)
and as soon as I came out into the m ffMfMlfffl TOIflW
big road I overtook a man and j fltfUtfAAfl 1 iWUfltt
team "stalled" with a load of wood,
and while the driver was whipping Are run on this road, but all
m j a it l .1 '
ms norses, tor teacmng mem wnai
Political Economy was by beating passengers are carried through
them over tho head) there was some on Express Trains without
idle men by the roadside and boys change of cars.
Ul wcuuiji laiuiuca v. wvm
out rabbit and bird hunti; who
had come out of the neighboring
fiulilu mnra it sffmri to me. to
have some sport with the misfort- If VOU are abOUt to IllOVe
une which the wood-hauler had got
into. So I got down off my hor?e
and laid my shoulder against a
wheel for at least my hand on a
spoke) and so I ordered the big bur-
Iv driver down off the load of wood,
and I also called on the idle men to tickets, and may send you by a
lay hold of a wheel also, and we long and round about Route, in
went up the hill screaming (though order to make a sale. Be sure
the mischievous boys on the fence to call on or write to the under-
maae mosioi tne noise;. sigDe(j who ig ft reuai. Affent
ow'T rT'TlV. of the 0. &M. RV and will
ment of soldiers sroimr up a hill 8lve vou the
storming a fort, wherein perhaps
Life of Cromwell. By Paxton Hood.
Science in Short Chapters. By W. M. Williams.
The American Humorist. By H. R. Hawies.
Lives ot Illustrious Shoemakers. By W. E. Winks.
Flotsam and Jetsam. By Thomas Gibson Bowles.
The Highways of Literature. By David Pryde.
Coliu Clout's Calendar. By Grant Allen.
George Eliot's Essays. Collected by Nathan Shepherd.
Charlotte Bronte. By Laura C. Holloway.
Sam Hobart. By Justin D. Fulton, D.D.
Nature Studies. By Richard A. Proctor.
Successful Men ot To-day. By W. F. Cratts, A.M.
Tndia : What Can it Teach us ? By F. Max Muller.
A Winter in India. By W. E. Baxter,
Scottish Characteristics. By Paxton Hood.
Hiatorical and other Sketches. By James A. Froude.
' Jewish Artisan Life. By Prof. Franz Delitzcb.
Scientific Sophisms.' By Samuel Wainwright, D.D..
Illustrations und Meditations. By Rev. Charles II. Spurgeon.
French Celebrities By Earnest Daudet and others.
Our Christinas in a Palace. By Edward Everett Hale.
Writh the Poets. By Canon Farrar.
The life of Zwingli. By Jean Groh.
By-Ways of Literature. D. H. Wheeler.
Martin Luther Dr. Wm, Reiu.
French Celebrities. Jules Claretie.
A reatise on the Horse. Dr. J. B. Kendall,
These books are all recommended by the leading papers of the
United States, such religious and secular papers as can be trust
ed by all people. The Methodist Advocate, Presbyterian Wib
uess, Zion's Herald, Christian Union, Christian Standard, Lu
theran Observer, National Baptist, New York Sun, Boston
Globe, Commercial Gazette, Chicago Inter-Ocean, Sunday
School Times, &c.
The Publishers of
Do not deal with outside Agents
who aie paid a oommission on
half of them would have got killed
before they reached the top and the
rest would have done no good
when they .Trived there. There is
I believe two opposite kinds of labor
sroimr on anion? men forever; oue
kind without capital; it would seem,
producing all things, and the other
supported by capital consuming
down and producing nothing; and
the idea seems to be with some that
if we can give employment to the
idle it will be all right, whether we
take into consideration what that
is or not, it will be all for the best;
and whatever trade a man follows
he wants the people to patronize
him. I think with money we can
hire men to do almost anything, and
while we are bragging on our wealth
as a nation, poor people and paupers
are Increasing too fast, because
our condition at this tune as a na
tion is more favorable to avoid this
BATES FOB TICK-
and furnish free on application,
Land Circulars, Maps, Time Ta
bles, Guides, and full informa
tion in regard to securing Gov
ernment and Railroad Lands
in Western States. Will call
on you at your home when you
are ready to start furnish you
tickets, have your freight bill
ed through, and see that your
party is properly taken care of.
(BTBeing a salaried Agent, I
reuder this assistance free of
JOHN I. POTTS, Traveling Pas?.
Agent, KNOXVILLE, Tenn.
PriHm nd flni.l Munaw. Son Pwm. Ai't
W. H. SUil'l Ul t. Im i Patr. Ag't
believe these books to be worthy. The only cheap thing about
them is the binding which is paper. They are such books as
would sell from $1.00 to $1.50 if the binding was costly, as is
usual on this class of books. But this gives to all a good
BOOK FREE OF COST.
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Is the leading local paper of East Tennessee. It gives more
reading of a general and local character than any weekly paper
in the State, besides the character of its reading is of a higher
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family, and it is the object of the publishers to spare no pains in
making it such a paper as will suit the farmer, the business man,
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it, because of its high moral tone, and while it is political yet it
is of the conservative school which abuses no ojie bat awards to
all free thought and liberty for consistent action.
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