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. President's Message.
- Fellow-Citizens of the Senate ,
House nf Representatives:
The annual meeting of Congress is' nl
"j. . . . mi
:ways an interesting evem. tne represen
tatives of the States and of the people,
come fresh from their constituents, to take
counsel together for their common good, af
ter an existence of near three fourths of a
' century, as a free and independent republic.
The problem no longer remains to be solv-
.ed, whether man is capable of self govern
ment. The success of our admirable sys
tem is a conclusive refutation of .the theo
ries of those in other countries, who main
tain that a favored few arc born to rule,
and that the mass of mankind must be gov
erned by force one subject to arbitrary or
hereditary authority. ' The people arc the
only sovereigns recognized by our constitu
tions Numerous emigrants,, of every Hue
LOUISIANA;, PIKE COUNTY, MISSOURI, MONDAY, DECEMSER, 20, 1847. N O. 3:
counsels, 'and the' demands of justice. In pointed to proceed to the headquarter? of
the part cf the United States. The result
of t!te conferences which, took place he-
t-M';i those fm.ctinnaries of the two fv
t!iis hope wo were disappointed. O'nrtni'n-'oiir army, with full powers to enter on ne
ister of peace sent to Mexico, was insult- gotiations, and conclude a iust ana honora-
mgiy rcjecicu. me Mexican Uovernmcnt ble treaty of peace: lie was not d.rectcditrnmciitf, was a failure tr conclude a trra
r .1 - i. t ..t . . r i. . I. . j. , -
ttiiistucicn lom-arins rei-ms ot adjust- to malce any new overtures or peace, butlty of peace. Tiic Commissioner of the
mem wi-.icn ne was airtnorizou to propose, was tiic bearer cr a despatch trow .he Se-Si united States look with him the prtfet of
anu nnai:y, unaer wnoity unjusliiiablc pre- relary ot Mate of the U. S. to the M h.lt- the treaty, prepared, by the terms of which
te'xtr, involved the two countries in war, by tor of Foreign Affairs of Mexico'; I i reply the indemnity required by the United States
.Louisiana a'nd.the Floridas. , In like wan
ne r ,' i t was an tfci paled t-fi at, jn ' seftlipg Jtha
teriris of a treaty of limits ' and boundaries
with Mexico', a ceiyionofibhitbrjtiT
ted to be of greater1 Yal op tban'lhe'Jtmoiint
of .bur u"emand,s8gaTnsVnef,"mrg6t'ivt ob
tairied., ai'sd itiiropyigijittnqli
sum. in part' consideration for Ci'-lcrj-i-y
ceded, on lhe"f nnchisjGn.pT'a tr4y4 J 9
its ratification on'lier iarf niieiH'hejVik in
ducement, wilh'hcrfo ina"ke such '.a. Jryes
ion of territory as"Would e . satisfacftrjrto
the United States: and, wthotfgitTi'ianre
to conclude siicl! a' treaty' lir.s xeri.dereyit
M urtessiiry ii use any 01 inc lirce
1 -ns ii'prnpriaicitpy uiai act, ar.u t)f
ure.suui s;::i reuia:us 111 me ireas
invading 'tenitory of the Statu of Texas,: ta one received from the latter, of iSe 'l;wa a-eession of territory.
striking the first blow, and 'shedding the'of IVbruary, 1347, in which thi-Mcxin
b!.;od of oi:r cilizrns on our own soil. jGorcriimpnt wSs Infnriucd of liist app'rVnt
Tiiough the United States wcio the og-Jnient, and of his presence at the hcad.jiiar
grieved nation, Iilexico con-meneed the jters of our army, and that he was invested
war,' and 'wc were compelled, in self dr-! with full powers to conclude a definitive
fence, 'to reprl thr invader, and to vindi- treaty of pj:-.Ci5 whenever the Mexican Gor
cate the nntioal honor and interest?, by 'ernment might 'signify a desire to do so.
prosecuting it with" vigor until we should' While I was unwilling to subject the United .portion of her territory. Mexico lias no
It is wdl kr.owii, that (lie. only indemuitv
whieh it is in the power of .Mexico to make
in satisfaction of the just and long deferred
Ciaims of our citizens against her, and the
only means by which :she can reimburse
the United States for th expenses of t!ie
war, is a cession to the United States of a
obtain a just and honorable peac."
States to another indignant refusal, I was: money to pay, and no other meani of ma-
Un learning that hostilities had been com- yet resolved th".t the evils of ttie war should ! king the required indemnity. If we refuse
menced by Mexico, I promptly commtini- not be protracted longer than might lie ren-i it, wc can obtain nothing else. To re-
cated that fact, accompanied with a suc-ldered absolutely necessary by the Mexican jecl indemnity, by refusing to accept a ces
eiuet statement of oi?r other eanscs'of com-. Government. Care was taken to give notion of territory, would be to abandon all
plaint against Mexico, to 'Conrrrf p'.T.nd that instructions to the Ccinmissioner which nur iust dernadns and to wace the war.
age and language, attracted ly Iht civil ihody, by the act of the 13t!i of :-.Iay, 181G,:cou'd in any way interfere with our miiita- hearing all its expenses, without a purpose
and religions freedom we eitjy,and by' ourjdeclared, that by -act of t'-.c 'Kepsiblic' of iy operations, or relax our energies, in the or definite object.
happy condition; annually cr.iwd to 'onrj Mexico, a state of war existed between that 'prosecution of the war. Me possessed no A state of war abrogates treaties previ
fiores, and transfer their hearts, tint lessGovcrnmM.t and ths United States'. Thrs'aiilhojity, in any manner, to control thcsrjously existing between the bejligerenb, and
than their allegiance, to the country where aet, declaring the War to exist by the act of 'operations.' He was authorized to exhibit' a treaty of peace puts an end to all claims
dominion belong? alone to the people. No the Republic cf Mexico, and inkin' pro- his instructions to the General in command, for imb.-iniiity for tortuous acts committed
.. .. e ?. . 1 1 1 f il.. 1 4 r a . i..l... i!. ...iu.:.. ..e a.
ijti.i'n. 1.1. ut4tt.vi. ij ,ii utir j'jvi. rnmenc a-
, of I ;ainst the citizens and subjects of another,
unless t!u-y are provided f'r in its stipula
tions. A treaty of pearc wliicli would ter
lniua'etiiC existing war witiiout providing
for indemnity, would enable Mexico, an ao
kr.nwledged debtor, and herself (h'c aggres
sor in tin? war, to relieve hers-lf from her
just liabilities. .
Fry suc! a treaty, our citizens, who hold
just demands against her, would have no
remedy for them, either again3t Mexico' or
their own g ivernment. Our duty to these
citizens must ever prevent such a peace,
country lias been soninca favored, or should j vision for its p-f.errt'lien, 'to a speed r' and(f the army, and, in the event of a treaty
acknowledge witli deeper reverence llieisucccssfid termination, was paF6d wkh : being concluded and ratif;r.d, on the part of
manifestations of the Divine protection. 'great unanimity by Congrrs, there -being! Mexico, hewn-- directed to give him notice
An All-wist Greater dire.ciid aui ; girdcd;!)'it two negative vo'.ei ni the Senate, ar.djof tbt fact. On t!ie lioppftiing of such
us in our iafai.t strng-'es iV r Irec doin, and hut fourteen n the IIr;use of Rrpresenta-; contingency, and on receiving notice thcre-
liai c.instJntly watcned over our surprisingivive . : The existence cf Oik war' bavin.0'? t" ('enfral 1.1 command was instructed,
progress, until w; Lave beco;ne one tf t':c jt'.us been declared by C-ihgress, it bccame'by la Secretary of W'nr, to suspend active
jgre'at natrons if tb.' e:;rt!i. It is in a co;;n-u-.y duty, u;iJ;t the Constitution and the i military operations until farther orders.
try thus favored, and under a Government if .ws, to condoct and pnsccnte if. TldsjThesc instructions were given with a view
i.i wliieii t!ie execiiiiwe a:;d legislative jdutv has been prfoiin'ed, a:id though atjt" it-",Tii Imitilities u itil the treaty, t!:n
brancites held their authority for limited pe-'every stage of its progress, I have mani-ra!ified by Mexico, cnld be transmitted to
rtads, alike from the people, en J where al!;fcstf.d a willingness to terminate it by a just W:ish;iigto:i, and receive the sanction of the
are refj onsi'il;- ! 1 their rec'Ive c-).istit-jpac, Mexie ) i'.is refused' to accede to any j United St! s.
uencies, that it is cgiin my duty to coiiiiii'.i-Ncni.g wldch could be accented bv the Uni-! 1 ' e Commissioner was sis uirccti d, on
ideate witii Congress, upon the state of the 'ted States, consistently with the national! reaching the army, to deliver the Gen-: and no treaty which does not provide am-
Union, and the present condition of public : honor and int-rests. The'tnpid nnd IriJ-jcrat in command, tiic despatch wl.reh he.p'e means 01 tiiscnarging mose demands,
liant success of our nrmics, and the vast' 're from the Secretary of State to the; fan rneeive my sanction.
Dunn" the r.nst vcar, the most -ratify i;.r extent of the enemy's territory,' wl.icli had: Minister of Joreirrn Affairs cf Mexico, ai.d. - treaty 01 peace sliouM settle a!l exis-
proofs are j.resei.ted, that our country has! been overran" a:.d c'onaurrsd before t!iein reccixing it, the General was instrnctrd ' tln3 ''!ler
iTeiiccs between i!ic two countries.
I . . .
been blessed with a wide spread and uni- close of the la; t -cession of Congress, wre;T tin? ecretaryof War, to cause it be " aueqinie cession 01 territory be such
transmitted to the comma:u prof t in Aipv -i" "'J'1'1 l" "'
versa! prosperity. There has been no peri-; fully known to that body. Since thr.t time.
od, since the government wai founded, :the war lias been prosecuted with increased
energy, and I-am gratified to slate, with ii
success 'which commands universal admira
;f.,.,,. -.11 l ..r. 1;. . i. ...i
f... . .t . 1 . 1 wn w iik ii.iuiiiiic. unit aiiiiitr .uni
orces, wit.i a rpnnest that it mifhl be . ... . , ... 1e . ,
' 1 payment to our own citizens. If, instead
communicated to Lis government.' j.-f this, the United States now to consent
Tiie Commissioner did not reach the; to a treaty by which Mexico should again
when all t!:; industrial pursuits of our peo
ple have been more successful, or when la
bor in all branches of business has receiv
ed a foirer or bitter reward. From ourlmany glorious ricf .'ries achieved by any na-:Iiinl victory had crowned our arms at Ct r-
abundance, wc have been enabled to per- tion, within so short a period. Our army, ,rt (ordi.
form the pleasing duty- of fnrui-Iung food ,regu!ars and 'vo'unti rs, 'have '-crowned
for t!ie staning millions of lrss favoredliemstlves with imperishable honors, when
eountries. In tiic enjoymer.t of the boun-'ever and wfieever our forces hareencoun
ties of Providence at home, such' as h ive tered the eircmy. Thoug'i ho was fovaria-
rarely fallen to the lot of .viy people, it is blv suneri or in nnm'oers, a?d often entrench-ier with toe despatch of the Secretary m t:()lj. pJ t, c t of Mexico. Such a treaty
cause of congratulation t.jdtoui intircc.urse cd iufoil.fied positions, l Ins own s lec
with all the powers of the earth, eKceptjtion and of great strength, he has been de-
Mexico, continues to be of an amica'de featc d. Too mueli pr.iist- catmot be bestow-
character. It lids ever been our cherished
tion. History presents no parallel of so headquarters of the army until r.nother brH-j ";;aK J )ay the heavy amount of indebt-
v . 11 v. .-.,- 11 jiih iiaiiv-iiiiii-ijr if uiir u-
eruuii'nt and citizens -uotdd impose upon
her. it is notorious taut she does not nns-
rni. . .1 a-i -..1 -i. 1 1 r j ' . .
1 ne uenpaicu, wnicii ne oore irom i.ie.sess Uie moans to meet such an linderta
Secretary of W'ar to the General iu com-jking. Trom sucii a treaty, no result could
mand.Wiis received l.v thatofiieer, then atUL" aticipaled but the same irritating dis-
Jalapn, or. the 7th day of May, IS 17, t.vr.-th-r H 'minu-nis inc.. nave nereioiore uuen
1 ...... . . oed the viol..lions of similar treaty stmuia-
Sl ito to the Minister of Foreign Affairs in,Woiild be but a temporary cessation of bos-
Mexico, having been Irransmitted to Liinjtilitii s, witliuut the restoration of tliefriend-
from 'i ra Cruz.
policy to cultivate peice and good viil with
all nations, and this policy has been steadi
ly pursued by me.
No change has taken plate in cur rela
tions with Mexico since the adjournment of
the last Congress. The war in which the
with each other In dct-ds of naWc daring.
While c-verv patriot' heart must exult, and a
just national pride animate, every b'nsom,
United States were forced to engage Wtthlon beholding the I, ig'i proofs of courage,
the gorvernmcnt of that country, stiii con- consummate military skill, steady d:scip.
our often and -men, regulars and! rived atthe headquarters cf the army a few
volunteers, and their gallantry, discipline.jdays auerwnrus. 111s presence wun me
indomitable courage and perseverance all
seeking' the' post of darker, ar.d vieing
The. Commissioner ar-is'"P a:itl U".d understanding which suould;
ciiareterize the intercourse between the
t An routines.
That Congress contemplated the accep
tance rf territorial indemnity, when that
body made provision for the prosecution of
army and hir':dipl')mnl:c character, were
made knon to the Mexican Government'
I deem it unnecessary, sifter the full ex
position of them contained in my- message
of the 15th of May, 18Jo'anj ihy' annual
message at the commencement of the ses
sion of Congress in December last, to reit
erate the serious causes of complaint which
we had against .Mexico before she com
menced hostilities. It is sullicient on the
present occasion to say, that the wanton
violations of the 1 rights of persons and prop
erty of our citizens, committed by Mexico,
her repeated acts of bad faith through a
long series, of. years, and . her disregard of
solemn treaties stipulating ',r 'indemnity to
our injured citizens, not only- constituted
mnle cause of. war. on our tart, bat were
r ; r,Vatp'.l character as would.
VI BUl.ll UIB n ' - 1. - ,ilACiJ
nave justified, us before tlie whole world in Cruz, and with it the'strong Castle of Sari
tesortine to! this extreme .remedy. With Juan d'UHoa,' by Whlcli 'it'was defended.-
line and' humanity to the vanquished unemy
exliibited by our gallant army, the nation is
called to mourn over the loss of many brave
officers and so' Jie-. s, who have fallen in de
fence of 'lh'?-ir country's honor and'interests.
The brave dead met their melancholy fate
in a foreign ' land iiobly discharging their
diily,' and t ith tiieir 'country's fl.ig waving
triumphantly i:i the' face of the foe. 'Their
natriotic deeds' are justly appreciated, and
will long he reiileinber'rd by their grateful
countrymen. 1 lie parental care ol uicgov
ment they love' and served, should be ex-
tendeo to their surviving families.
Shortly cftvr lhe: adjoitrnineiit cf the last
session of" CongrcS?,'thc::gr'fltirying ' intelli-
"crtce was receiveu 01 vuk ".uut " ...v..
Vista, and of (lie fill of the city of Vera
from Puehla, on the 12th of June, 18-17, by i the war, is obvious. Congress could not
the transmission of the despatch from lI;(.l've n.eant wla-n, in May, 18J5, they ap
. -, . ,!. . , n ipropriaic.i ten miilions t dollars, and au-
Secretary of State to the Minister of For-.,,,,,, thp Pu.fidvnt Ut cmvoy tha mi.
eign Affairs of Mexico. Many weeks 'chips J i t i r. naval and military forces of the
ed alter ls receipt, and no overtures were; United States, and to accept tnc services
made,' vir wa any desirs e pressed by the ul tvn thousand volunteers, to enable him
l - 1 J . 1... 1 . 1 ...1 .1 !..:.
an anxious desire to avoid a rupture be
tween the, two' countriesi'we'. 'forbore for
years to assert WROgUts bj force", anthcou-
tinued to seekrediiess ior tha wrongs we
had, ".offered, by'raini9abIeViiljpcrati6Tis; in
the hope thaVMe'xlco niiglit' yield to pacific
that after these and other sue
cefe sd hondrablevt6 oirarmS,and so dis-asifous-td
Mciicolhe' period prSpitious to
-tir.Vwt 'rirr'ari o'nnor't unity, if !ic thought
proper to embrace it, to enter into negotia.
tidhs for peace, a Commissioner was ap
fi t f. T i ..,1... i" 'rosecuie mo war., aim wnen .11 men
uuivillllli.llt J iinaivw fcv m... iiiiw 11 t 1 1 . ... ,
- . 0 last session, and utter our army had . inva-
t.ations for peace. ' d, d Mexico, thev made ad ti;'ioi!:d appro-
Our army pursued iti march upon the! pri-.it ions, and an'thoried the raising i f ad-
capital, and, as it approached, it was met' ditional troops for the same ' purpose, that
by a formidable resistance. Our forces'"" indemnity was to be nhtain.-ii fro Mex-
r 1 i 1 ,i . 1 . i j ico, at the conclusion of the war: and yet
first encountered Hie enemy, nnd achieved. ., ' . . n . r
IV 1. l.J VII lUltl, ... .... l v k.ll uiniuij
was acquired, that no indemnity could be
signal victories in the contested battle of
Contreras nnd Churubiisco. It wa-fi not tin-'
fil after these actions resulted in decisive
It is further manifest, that C jjigress civ-
victories, and Hie capital 01 tnc enemy was. "-r"" " " .m m.,-:.. ln
in our power, that tlie Mexican urtvorn- , . , and at
1 11.- - 'passed. up:n tie Lj.vlcuIivxs reeomtiwn.u-l .
inent mar.ifestfa anvdisnosit.oH to enter m- : souIU
nnv nnfrrtf intitna f,Y 'tlntlPP. nilfl Vl n ... : r ! . ..!.:,.. I ' PI T M''?
i" J iiv.iiiini. j. """'UPII lll.ll V
urv. it ms
Still applicable 'to tljat .'object, ' 'sfiou!d;:'tiie
contingency occur making such appropria
tion 1 proper. ...,:'.;;; ; .
1 h.-i "tloctrlne rf ho territory 'is the "doc
trine ofno indemnity," fc'njf'if: ganctipriea,
would be a public .ackhowledgehftnt thif
0111 country was wrong,8ird 'that" tfie: war
declared by CongTess, with' extraordinary
unohimty, Was'iinjust Brtd'shotrld rTe'afctri
doned: an admiSsicn unfotindetf in facf'Tnd
degrading to tlie national character! ?fe
terms' of the treaty profrered by the .United
States were not only iust to Mexico, but,
(considering the' character and-: amoiint1 of
our claims, the Unjustifiable and tmprbVdked
commencement of hostilities byher,!tha
expanses of the war to which we hafe been
subjected, and the success which had of
fended our arms, were deemed to be- of a
most liberal character; '
The eommissinncr of the United 'States
was authorized to agree to the establish!
meut of the Rio Grand as the boundary,
from its entrance into the Gulf, to its inter
section with the southern bonudary ofNew
Mexico in north latitude about twertty'-two
degrees, and to obtain a cession to fhe"'U-
nited States of the province of New Mexico
and thc-Californias, and the privilege' ofthe
right of the way across the lsthmuof 'TJTe-'
iniantepec. ' ' ' pyrt
The boundary of the Rio Grande 7itne5 the
cession to tho United States of New Mexf
co and the Upper California, Constituted
an ultimatum which our commissioner Was,
under no circumstances, io yield;' 'that' 'it
might be manifest, not only to Mexicoj but
to all other nations, that the UnitetT Sites'
were not dispored to take advantage "m a
feeble power, by insisting npon wrestirg
from her all her other provinces, ineffidin'
many ol nor principal towns and cities,
which we had connnered and held in our
military' occupation, but were willing "t6
conclude tlie treaty in a 'spirit of liberality.
Our commissioner was also authorized to
stipulate for the restoration to 'Mexico- of
ail our other conquests " '' "7r
As tho territory to be acquired" by the
boundary proposed might be estimated ; to
be of greater "value than a fair equivalent
for onr just demands, our commissioner wai
aut'iorized to stipulate for the payment of
such additional pecuniary consideration at
was deemed reasonable " -
Tho terms of a treaty proposed by thef
commissioners on the part of the Mexican
Government, were, wholly inadmissible.
They negotiated as if Mexico were the vic
torious, and not the vanquished ' party,- oY
they must have known their ultimatum!
could never have been accepted. It Ve
quired the United States to dismember"
lexas, by surrendering to Mexico ' that
part of the Territory of that State lyifigbe-!
tween the Nueces and the Rio Grande, in
eluded within her limits, by her laws, -when
she was an independent Republic, and
when she was annexed to the United States
and admitted by Congress, as ''one of the
States of our Union. It contained no propv
osition for the payment, by Mexico, of the.
just claims of our citizens - It required in-o
deinmly to Alexican citizens for injuries'
they may have sustained by our troops in
the prosecution of the war. It demanded'
the right for Mexico, to levy and collect the
Mexican duties levied oa goods imported,
into her ports while in our military occupa-:
tion, and tlie owners of which had paid tor
officers of the United States the contribu
tions which had been levied npon them; and
it o He red to cede to the United States, as a'
pecuniary consideration, that part of Up'
per California lying north of latitude 37 de
crees. Such were the unreasonable terms:
proposed by the Mexican commissioners. - .
Hie cession to the United . States by'
Mexico, of the province of New 'Mexico,
and the Californians, proposed by the. com
missioner of the United States, it was. be
lieved, would be more in accordance with
the convenience, and interests of both nar.
lions, than any other cession, of territory -wvhicli
it was probable. Mexico cpuld be in- ;
ducedto make. It id manifest .to alj ,who -
h ivo observed the actual condition of thQ i
government for some years past,.
the present, that if these provinces
be retained by her, she could not
continue to hold and govern them.-
then,: events have proved, there is too rcnchlation was made to enable the President to ; v :" T a ? Ii
' . .. ' . . .1 1.-.1- r 1:...:.- ...1 these provinces, lying as they do, -at; a dis-.
reason to believe, they were insincere, and. - ' , """'V tance of more than a thousand Uos : from .
that in agreeing to go through the forms of
negotiation, the object was to give time in
strengthen the defences of the capital and
prepare for fresh resistance.
. The 3eneral io command of the army
deemed it expedient to suspend hostilities,
,these provinces, lying as they do, at a dis-
;! -c .1 .1 . 1 :i e
boundaries, with the Republic ol Mexico,. ., , .... ... . ... j
. , tit- .1 . ,,i , -, .her capital, and it attempted to b reUintjd..
to be used by nun in the event that said . u .1 11 . t. j-
- J . a- J '.j'x,
gents of tl.e two governments, and duly
ratified by Mexico', shall call for the ' ex
penditure of the same, or any part thereof.
Tlie u'oject of asking this Appropriation ws
distinctly stated, in the several inessagfs
short time, even nominallj',.a part ofj ber;
dominions.' litis would be especially 1 tile
case with. Upper CaUfornia. c'i'he, sagacity t
of powerful European.vnations, Las ,12 s
since directed their attention tp, the oom-s
temporarily entering into an armistice, withj,,;; lIlB ct wllicl Y CMmmwelie jnjarMal .luyortauce rf that froQaM.IHd :
of negotiations-oiKl , Similar" appropriations; made in 1803 and' V,"5". "J w 'T'n - V-
n. n;n tl.. IftAlt. whJ.Wter referred Ir,: Un,ted Sutcs, aball re kk.'
of Mexico to meet th
: appointed on the part 186B, which' were referred to.ere aptnicdj8 U",ted l 'W w '
CommiioneoJin pa'rt roniiderati.n for the 2 TSiTlV