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FROM THE SPEECH OF MIL BAY ONI
THE SLAVERY QUESTION.
I will now, Mr. Chairman, call the atten
tion of the committee to a abject which, in
my opinion, ia paramount to every thing
else, and demand! at oar audi that calm
and mature reflection which should charac
terize every deliberative body; a subject
which has been a fruitful theme of discus
sion, not only in this halL bat throughout
(he length and breadth of this land; in, fine,
sir, a subject, the very agitation of which is,
well calculated to excite the rears and a
larm the apprehensions of every patriot In
the laid. I find here the North . arrayedJ
against the South, end the South against!
the North, the public basin ess retarded, and
the -wheels of government almost stopped.
To us the people look, and have a right to
look for its speedy and final adjustment. At
oar hands they demand, aad have a light
to demand that a check be put to this
scene of strife and contention.
. Eat who is responsible for this agitation
of the slavery question? not toe slaveuold-
ing States, for they bar always acted, and
continue to act, upon the defensive. The
North has made war poa one of our do
mestic institutions, and we axe simply re
polling your acts of aggressioa. ion say
that slavery is an evu. aad should be eater
initiated. 1 am not prepared to go as far
. as tha gentleman from Mississippi, Mr.
Eaowa, 1 and ssy that 1 regard it as a social,
moral, and political blessing; not am I pre-;
pared to admit that it is aa evil; bat if it is,
- we alone suffer its consequences, aad you
have so right to interfere.
y Slavery is purely a domestic institution,
and of no recent origin. It existed ia this
country brag prior to the adoption of the
Federal Constitution, and continued to ex
1st in the Ststes that are mow free as lone
as it wu profitable. When it ceand to be
a source of profit, you abolished it ' The
Sooth did not complain. -; She conceded to
you the right to regulate your own institu
ttont. 'Daring Hs prevalence amony yon.
it was not retarded as a crime, nor was it
apposed to reflect upon tha character or
morals of toot oeovle: it wu a mere ones
tion to profit, of calculation, of doQsrs and
cents. Slaves were regarded as property,
aad abject to the same laws wet eh gov
eraed and controlled property.' ,The first
attempt at the restriction of slavery wu in
the passage of tbe ordinance of 1787, prior
hi1 - a e s ii . a " tsif :
ca us aa option oi me present vonsuiuuon.
That erdiaenca aoolied to the territory
worthwest of tha Ohio river, ceded by Vir
ginia to -the United States in 1784, and out
at wnian tne estate oi irnio, inaiaua, uia
oil. aad afJehisraa have been since organ
ized. -T The pert applicable to slavery is in
the foilowtn words: : -.'
:. Tar shall be neither slavery Bor in-1
aUu tn eanisnmenf wr cnmei wnereoi we
- . - m a a ..zs.
p arnasi n ava asmawaw nniwnniiwinteu: jto
x jr jbcsbT. savivrv sr. - nil any ratal sun ncaninir
'i Loo the same, trom wnom laaor or service
- mrawf!y Maimed, ia any one of tbeorigi-
- stataa,'atrebfogativeBaC be lawfully ,
tiLUmed. aad conveyed - to tne person
' aklaing fail or fcar labor or service u a-
lament aware that the passage, of this
TSai6ce alicited at tha time any particu
1ST tdxrart, U it psma oy a largo major
tvVaiid Withmxt mncb ' discussion. Tb
Eeala'reeardeditu a matter oi butMttle
- i--rtwice.'kcowiaa that the elimaU, soQ
s . i (MwtaaUaBa-wam wiiairv enaaactea to
i.bori!aadv7 aatleipatad ihtt itj
j . .. ' brought foravard u k prcesdenigrsutoiaUie Uniraia
MateX egt8iaa0B. rev ior:u.M niU escape from ' wwi
Mioeif to" fiorn2sls't3s4e?ial for aa1 cx-1
cJg tad tftBjerou tjiJatlaB. -adswori
tetmi a Irt of tha twritory of LotrfsUrsa,
'ffiftieSBl cYnteewi-fi'.lf Among
K&et fi tt wasT-errl .j r , treaty
' Utf so W Stako Dividid Sf'Fait.M . .'.
VOL. 5.1 LOUISIANA, PtltE COUNTYi MISSOURI, 'MONDAY, MAltCH 218. j fKOS. '
'incorporated ia the union of the United
'States, and admitted as soon as. possible!
'according to tbe principles of the Federal
Constitution, to the eniovment of all the
'rights, advantages, and immunities of citi-
aens oi ae uniiea oiaiea. -
Missouri then appliedifor idmiS'sion into
the Union, and contended that she had a
right to come in, as Louisiana had been
previously admitted, wunoui any restric
tion in regard to slavery. The treaty it
self, a part of which I have just read, nn-
Jiuestionably guarantied to her this right;
or I hold, if Congress imposes upon a Ter
ritory uklng admission into the Union, re
strictions in regard to her.domestic policy,
wiibout the consent of the people thereof,
other than nay be ntcettory to compel her
to adopt a republican form of government,
it is folly to conteop that sncb teraitory is
admitted upon an equality with the other
Now. sir, what course did the free States
pursue upon the occasion? In opposition
to the well-known wishes of the people of
Missouri; aad in violation or the spirit and
meaning of the treaty of 1803, they insisted
upon tie restriction, and made it a condition
rrecedent to her admission into tbe Union,
shall not undertake to describe the state
of tbe public mind upon that occasion; it is
well knowB, however, that tbe North be
came arrayed against the South in the most
deadly hostility, and evetything seemed to
protend a speedy dissolution was settled,
and ia its adjustment the hand of Provi
dence was visable warding off tbe blow
aimed at the liberties of the people. J be
compromise which gave satisfaction to all
parts of the country, and restored peace
and tranquility to the public mud, is in the
following words :
"See 8., Mnd be Vjuruter enacted, i nai
ia all the territory ceded by France to the
United States, oader the name of Louisi
ana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees
aad thirty minutes north latitude, not inclu
ded witbia the limits of tbe State Missou
ri contemplated by this act, slavery end
involutary servitude, otherwise than in
the Banishment of crimes, whereof tbe par
lies shall have been duly convicted, shall
be and is bereby, forever proiuoitea: rrc
vided always, That aay parson escaping
into tbe same, from whom labor ar service
is lawfully claimed, ia any State or Territo
ry of the United States, each fagative may
be lawfully reclaimed aad conveyed to the
person cieiming bis or ner laoor or service,
It wea hoped and believed by the South
that all aeitation upon this question had
ceased, snd ceased forever; but ia this they
were deceived, for northern politicians
sooa resumed the agitation, and have kept
nn until we are broueht a second time to
the very verge of dissolution.
. la speaking of tbe policy of the North
wish to be distinctly understood as making
no reference whatever to the Abolitionist,
for- he is a. character for whom I entertain
tha mostsovereign contempt. My remarks
are intended to apply solely to that parly
known by the name of Free Soilers, who in
their efforts to prevent the further extension
of slavery, keep the publio mind in a con.
stent state of ferment, and overlook the
jishtsef the South and the compromise of
At r . Ti , r . t. s.
ioc vonsuiuuon. xoreviaeaca oi una
is only necessary to refer to the course
pursued ia regard to fugitive slaves.
The fromers or the constitution, antici
pating the difficulties which the owner of
this tpecies of property would necessarily
encounter, and with an eye to - his protec
tion and security, very wisely provided in
the 2d section of the 4th article, that '
"No person held to service or labor in
one State, under the laws thereof, escaping
into another, shall, in conseauence or any
law or regulation therein, he discharged
from such service or labor, bat shall be de-
liverednpon claim of tha party to whom
such service or labor may be due."
I am aware that this hu been sometimes
held to refer to . arorentices. or persens
bound to labor for a limited period, but the
m. . I t Ia.
omy Gonsuwsuon oi wuicb it tm iiugcuiv
is that given to it by the Supreme Court of
the United States in the case of Prigg rs.i
tha Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 16th
Peters Sep., wherein Judge Story, inr de
livering the opinion of tha coy rt, say r.
"It is historically wall known that the
clause in the ( Ceostitutioa of tbe United
States. relstWBT to persons owing service
aad labor ia ea State escaping iatq other
States, wes to secure to tbe ctusens oi we
slavebaldigg States the complete right and
title of ownership ia their stavsa, u prop:
ikM m.m naia ia ssiiiii s m mil
' ,T," .7 .i.t. -iv4 a :- ... i-aia.
nsable to the aaaf tb speeie f
. . . ... !. .IkLl. ..r.a aT
ar wfmnr n
property au 0 - "r -
vital to the presrrvation of their domestic
interests and institutions, that it cannot bej
doubted that it is constituted a fundamental
article, without the adoption of which the
Union could not have been formed. Its
true design was to guard against the doc
trines and principles prevailing in tlienon
slaveholding States, by preventing them
from intermeddling with, or obstruction, of
abolishing the rights of the owners of sieves.
e " e . a 1 a i
"The clause in the Constitution of the
United States, relating to the fugative from.
labor, manifestly contemplates the existence
of a positive, unqualified right on the
or the owner or the slave, winch no state
law or regulation can in any way qualify,
regulate, control, or restrain.
"The owner of a fugitive sUve hu the
same right to seize, and to , take , him in a
State to which he has escaped; and it is
. . . "...
well known that this right to seize or ree
spture is universally acknowledged in ' all
the slaveholding States. The court have
not the slightest hesitation in holding, that
under and in virtue of tbe Constitution, the
owner of the slave ia clothed with autheri
ty in every State of the Union to seize and
recapture his slave, wherever be can do it
without any breach of the peace, or illegal
The right to seiz and retake fugitive
slaves, and the duly to deliver them up, in
whatever State of the Union they may- .be
found, is under the Constitution, recognis
ed as an absolute poritive right ud the du
ty, pervading the whole Union with an e-
qual and supreme force; uncontrolled and
uncontrollable by state sovereignty or
State legislation. The right and duty are
co-extensive and uniform in remedy and
operation throughout the whole Union.
The owner has the same security and the
same remedial justice, and the same ex
emption from Slate regulations and control
through however many states be may psss
with the fugitive slave in his possession, in
transitu, to his domicil,M
Here the Supreme Court emphatically
declare tbat this elsuae in the Constitution
manifestly contemplates the existence of a
positive, unauslified right on the part of
the owner of a slave, which ao State law
or regulation can control, end without
the Union could not have been formed; and,
further, that the right to seize and retake
rngative slaves, m whatever . state or the
Union they may be found, is an absolute,
positive right. But we are not left simply
with this constitutional provision, Tor Con.
Kress, in 1793, passed an act designed to
pot the provision into practial operption,
the Isst two sections of which are u for
"Sac. 3. JJni U U tl$o eiutcUd, That when a
person held to labor in any of the United States,
or in either of the Territories on the northwest,
or south of tha river Ohio, under the laws there.
of, shall escape into any other of the said States
or Territories, the person to whom such labor or
service may be due, his agent or attorney is here
by empowered to seize or arrest such fugitive
from labor, and to take bun or ner before any
judge of the circuit or district courts of the Uni
ted States, residing or being within the State, or
before any magistrate of a county, city, or town
corporate, wherein such seizure or arrest shall
be made, and upon proof to the aatisfacuon or
such judn or magistrate, either by oral tettimo
ny or affidavit taken before and certified bv a
magistrate of any such State or Territory, that
the person so seized or arrested, doth, "inner the
w oi ine owe or erruory irom wiiicn cue
or he fled, owe service or labor to the person
claiming him or her, it shall be the duty of the
judge or magistrate to give a certificate thereof
to such claimant, bis agent or attorney, which
shall be sufficient warrant for removing the said
rugilive Irom labor, to the state or Territory
from which he or she fled.
. "Sic. 4. And bt it further tutted. That any
person who shall knowingly and willingly ob
struct and hinder such claimant, his asent or at
torney, in so seizing or arresting such fugitive
from labor, or shall rescue such fugitive from
soot, claimant, bis spent or attorney, u ten so ar
rested, pursuant to theanthoritv herein siven or
declared, or shall harbor or conceal such person
after notice tbat he or she was a fugitive from la
bor as aforesaid, shall, for either of the said of
fences, forfeit and pay the tun of five hundred
dollars. Which penalty may be recovered by
and for the benefit of such claimant, by action of
debt, in any court proper to try ma ease) sav
ing, moreover, to the person claiming such la
bor or service, his right of action tor or on ac
count of the said injuries or either of them." ,
Now, sir. bow have the nonlaveholdiiig states
treated those provision; ravtetd of carrying them
out in good faith, they threw obstacles In the
way or their eniorcemeMV oy innaming ineruo
Ho mind agaitnt
oat the institution or slavery, iney
tetters aponyoor sbtutebook, and nev
" VWH JW. 1
w Bfi dsbj, hs arm w w -7
ar nave been; and sever oaa be of any netiea)
i i -
reaohea terriasrv thata free, aeoeeomee ivy awee
-! r w
. Lir -iZ j .1 kL uattttKhmiMbrftaMBM.,. ' i.."
at. If wrrauad. ia fa falen into the cafe ' sad
nar""T7JTjv' k:jw iw
Wnef sEpeala to the authorities, hs is frequent-
'J denied retires) ir he altempta to seise ms
roperty, he is subject to mob law and violence.
nut tae people or uie north aay mat tntaeaurse
of Conduct Is confined to (lie Abetltlonwm, and
that they form but an inoonsulerable pertiea of
Ua eommunilv. This. raduUMU Urueibut whv
do tbey not arrest the Abolitionist, and punish
him for this violation of law; why de they not in
terfere, and aid the owner in securing his prop
erty. If a citizen of a slave State goes into a
urea Male, and forcibly lake aad carries away
tha property of another, and the owner of such
properly pursues Mm, we aid and asaist m bis
irrest, and hold him in custody unia a requisi
tion is made upon nt Coventor, and he is then
sent to the free state, to be tried and punished
fof the offence Under laws of your own enact
ment. Puroue this policy towards us. and we
wui soon put an ena io inis asmnaoie system ci
. .". . ,. . m
wuoiesmia larceny, x on win uios near no mors
I I 1.1 .7 Ml .1 1
rer be robbed by these self-conTlUuted philan-
throni.t.. mni thrown nin tha cold charities of
tha world. But. sir. thev have not onlv render-
ed this constitutional provision nugatory and in
effectual, but ia some instances nave actually j
.... ' 1 -
adopted legislative enactment, making' it a felo
ny to pursue and retake a fugitive slave in oth
er words, legislative enactments subjecting the
citizens of slave States, who might be caught in
the act of pursuing and retaking their lost prop
erty, to fine and imprisonment. This, I know,
is a serious charge, but one nevertheless true,
and which can be established by record evidence.
I will cite for example a State which has pur.
sued towards us as mild and conciliatory a course
as any nonslaveholding State to the Union, and
whose delegation upon this floor, in point of abil
ity and high moral worth, would do honor to any
deliberative body in the world. I refer, air, to
the State of Pennsylvania, whose Legislature is
1828 passed a law, the first sectioa of which is
in aubstaoce as follows:
"That If any person or persons shall, from
and after the passage of this act, by force and
violence take and carry away, or cause to be ta
ken and earned away, and shall by rraud ar laue
pretence, seduce, or cause to be seduced, or shall
attempt to take, carry away, or seduce, any ne
gro or munuio irom any pan or tms vommon
wealth, with a design snd intention of selling and
disposing of, ar causing to be soldi or of keep
ing and detaining, ar of eausiag to be kept aad
detained, such nacre or mulatto as a slave or ser
vant for uie, or for any term whatsoever, every
such Mrsoa or nersoaa. his or their aiders ar
abettor, shall, on coavtclioa. thereof, be deemed
guilty of felony, and snail forfeit and pay a sum
not less than five hundred, bor more than one
thousand dollars. And moreover, shall be sen
tenced to undergo a servitude lor any term or
terms of years not less than seven years, nor ex
ceeding twenty-one years, and shall be confined
and kept to hard labor, So."
Mow, air, I bold that ao southern man can ap
pose the admission of California Into the Unioo
upon the ground that she has prohibited shivery,
without incurring the eharge of manifest ineoo-
. . . . . . I .. I IT
siaiency. ner consuiuuon is avwuy republi
can, and in my opinion will compare favorably
. .L .- - - .V. - - -
who any owe couauiuuoa ia uw iawwiikj
It b also manifest to mv mind that it expresses
the opinions and wishes of the people of Call-
of the Convention a Convention consisting efj
inrnia. aa 11 warn loonufl dt uw unauuaou . uiv
forty delegates, Uiirty-alx of whom had been citi
zens of the United States, sixteen from the slave:
holding States, and twenty from the non-slave-holding
I should have been better pleased If her con
stitution had been silent upon the subject of sb
very, and left it as an open question for future
spjustment; but that is a matter for the people
themselves, and not me, to determine. 1 ahall
vote to curtail her boundaries, as 1 believe they
call for too much territory, and loo much sca-
. . . .... . . .1 -L - It
ooasi; aua n we ao not umn iaaa now, a ioui
advocate aome measure providing for theirlfu-
ture curtailment. But California must come in
to the Union. Her admission is demanded by
the publio voice, and there is no moral power in
this Government that can keep her out.
an conclusion, nir. vownnan. pcnt mo w
ask, what do zenttemro of the North! who con
tinue to advocate the VTilmot proviso, expect to
t. I a .1 .V
accoramisn ov oressim? uiis outnion upou un
South? Californic, by the solemn voice of hef
people, naa aireaay aaopiea a connmiuon ex
cluding alavery, and .Is now knocking at the
door of this Caoitol for admission into the Ua-
ion' and in all oilman probability new Mexico
and our other acauisiUons will do likewise.-
What. then. Is to be accomollshed but affKaGon,
and that ef tbe most dangerous kind, threatening
the very existence of thia Republic . Do yofl
wish to force ns to the acknowledgment or a
prwetpie degrading to our people, anu suover
sive of every principle of jiustSee?
I your object to oppress the sotttn? o
let me remind van that oppression djove our
forefathers to anna end resistance; oppression'
caused Hungary to draw her sword agarnfl one
oi the most powerful nethms of arope aad
oBnression will break Ibis Government into as
many rrasmenU as there are staiea ana comna
niHes. , f jotfr jobject to exhibit, in a spirit of
vannr ana aeiasnness, your numenoi iimuim
noon thia floor? - If so.- then' vou are actuated
.'. . a. . a a r a
by duSerent feelings from uoaewmcn geverBea:
.1 . . . . . . . .
ear JoteftMiefs tn metr eany ana Miami oeiio-
eraoaoJ. ' rrnen wrj am io inna imwnuv
uonoaoer waaw w u mvj . -r-- -
eat interests, aae ft was only by oDawowaa ana
QoncsBsioii imun; wnwtt. v
mo tdtMrtitkitiJ LiriksU aa Uaisv itesf is
elevate aia aaeealaaw pai cobKot, ,
other govefameats smowBtsmtftiil
T 1 . TL - ft- ' . . . t. . . -" . J- .
i naa utm aaams lov ceccive a .eaj 7 w
defiveredaeme tisae ia FebrtairvlHtt br the dU ";
tlnrtli.Hed Jtetrffewaa rrxaa V& r.yjtt
pieami, and from Which, wi MstsjtHait
1 will UktttttitJiiUre&
twtl,7 la spMluDgof that oaaapraMaar est C)
uonsuiuuoav neremaraea ,; , hii . ,
aa. . a . mm.. ., a - ... -
Look' away, aif, from all that veil idle .of
the external history of the Ometitqdon freta
all that tou have ever read bfBe'oi2s.s "
gestian, and sfatemeals of its frasaagir; tea mat
eve inward. nbon the instrnzitat. itselir rua it
over like by line; count Up all of Us pmisjesati
ecteristie Seal ore wbieb is iadCataav&edap
on every page of It. ' - .
a i aw a aaaaa m mm -
A Graeetett OroTC A swamp -
to raise psMienlsr nnrtstort aNstt l:a
41. La.. r.1t--. L.lui.L.. . A; ,vt 1. t .
dottghter of a staid olb deaeoa. Whs) t4
frequently to invite bin to dinhefr Aha
deacaa called upon bim oaa day to ask &
customary bleaamg, aad aetwiaaisxta have
savarsi a wa aa.vjaj twmv aw mm aiwfar ., k. ja .
it understood thai there Wu any oca thiej
that he could not do, bo made tha ogr
Hastily rrrnHrrtinrall lisasiH afthe rntffal
form, be began, and made aa eteeiJaoa
. . ... . . m a-. ... , . . . .
sianM it, hui tax uw iu, num avi aaaa
bow to close it off. It was easier to go oa
IWVW .V WWV
than to stop. Finally, making a desperate
ewdonoB, my dear sir, I reman vcljm
PCCtfuIly and tluly : tOOT obedient aeft
antl' He has not dined with that i
since! Spirit of the Timet.
LOO! S1AMA TZUC TO TBI UatOBAs SCt
passed the Senate of Louisiana on the lath
alt., (and will doubtless become a law) tha
title of wbioh is u follows. "An Act td
Kovide a block of etoae for tbe Wasbtogtofl
onument, bearing the following uteri
tion:' The State of iMuiiianaevtr uya
to the Constitution and tie Union.' "
Scxrk at a DistatcT SoiooU1? Jnt
class in philosophystep oat ciose'yeu
books John Jones now many aiaaoaat
in Baturer' :"
Tour." -.i -Name
them.". " 1
"England, Ireland, Scotland, aad Wales.1
"Put to next Smith... . v :
'Four tbe animal, vegetable,' mtoeral
!, waa -
and Kingdom come." ' . , , . ... .
"Good, go dp head.
Hobbs vVhat is tneaht Jjy the animal
kiidom?n ' - - ' v
wLiooJ, flgers, elepheatt, rbiaocerote,
bippopetssausea, alligators, monkeys, jecl
asses, back-drivers, aad schoolmasters
" Very aoetf bat you'll take irCktog fat
your lut remark., ,:
Citoa What is tbe mineral sugosn7T.
"Tha hull of Califbrsey. . ; .
Walk straight np heed."
Johasou what if the veeeUbla kinr
wGsrdcB terse, potatoes. corrots.lnrToat
and all kinds of greens that's good tor cook
lug.5.., , ; a . r '-'I
"And what are pines, and aeauocza, tad
elms, ain't they vegetables?' ; r H "
"IVosir-ree you can't cook'ao uem'tf
sate logs, and framing timber :
-Boyt, gita mo a piece of apple, endyotf
caa beve aa boar's toteraission except
Hebbs. Ib. ;
Vxbt Poos A triiing tart of a fellow
in one of oor neiehboriar eaU.aot tontf
since, won the afleCtionj of tbe iadgbtof of
a bluzr. honest uotcumsft. or seme weacau
On ssking the old man for bar, be apeaedt
with a romanle speech about bit bJa
poor young man, Ac. , -
xa,ya,tayf tne oia man, i Knows au
aaoft Hi yoaisb a leette too tarn pdof ftfo
hub Bolder money nor character.
B'-vte bava beard of a man who it toolc'
ing for a wife. W leara that bit fashion
is to fall in love first, and then aad I Wo&iast
JUST RECEIVED dfret frWfiOSS.NE
YORK Is PHILADELPHIA via St. LOTJI&
aad now opemog ia LonaiAirA, Me, by
E. G. McQUlS. ?
The Launeat aad Beat Sle at it
aa ever otnereei ui on aaaaztct - :
Ilia seTeetiona have beea rnada vritb-saai asi
and are vefy sttefior ia QaaSty aad i7- . Ha
is Sa old eaperfSoeed daatar has wHytz&S&i fa
trSdefoaiy psrty.seetor sea . mstMO to cast
and eaamlDe lia Goods, and tbeed U bay sav
cash ia Mitfetrlar.
Ha mm M Aaah ar aoeda lor
Sail On his uSttal tern onlico6nf. or
THAN ANY HOL'SE IN THS CO
CASH 11 2- . pdafeh l2th, 1850.
TO tUt Grto wESS AND SHIPPERS 0
' TOBACCn m iitssomtr. :
receive Tobaaeo foe lapeetloa aad sa W aa awrecV!
fore, and eae oner to the PataferS aS aarsaer faaO-
nies in tbe rransaetioa or aay- buanmss sunswea
with their, laser e. The tmprst saaataiiiaw bok
kloaaad tMadily to be etepletea, to eaw Vasa
hoaaa.wiVstisa it advaataliaa to aotot of saoaav
HgtX, ae eotial, tf oof Superior to aay bouse isrCUar
waat. The boaae arid be awto defter se'
aoB, eaolasjveiy tet the pvpaoe mt imefsm-'trnt-storage
of Tobae-ane ear Ttitemt. of toeanwsavas
wuieovavea Taaavaee oeiongias a- naawno- w
others ageiaaf ts n ftra, araawsersiona ay
Jaaa next, earac v
their Matid isUrea1sad