Newspaper Page Text
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HS ? UNIVERSITY MISSOUBIAN, MONDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1912. y
MT ' :
NEWS AND VIEWS
Written by Members of the Class in Agricultural Journalism, School of Journalism.
m "issm ss&jvsrajs A PAGE OF FARM
Hf UAItY H. UY - Managing Editor. B1 ,
fc Uiilerxlty Mlssourinu Associauou i inci
Ht J- Ilarritiou Broun, president ; Itoliert
K? S. Miiiin, Serretary ; James (J. May. Ward
mk A. XetT, I'aul J. Thompson. II. J. McKayr
r W. i:. Hall. T. S. Hudson, Ivan II.
O litre : In Virginia Illtls.. Down Stairs.
E Entered at the I'ostoHJce of Columbia, Mo.
Hg as Mfwiiil-cl.ixx mall nutter.
TWO Dollars u Year by Carrier or Mall.
Aililrris ull culiiliiuilimtions to
WEDNESDAY AND A WOMAN.
Of course we residents of Columbia
wish good entertainments brought to
town. We wish Columbia to have the
best. That's one reason Gadski will
have a record-breaking audience
Wednesday night. If she does not
hae such an audience there will be
no more encouragement for the bring'
ing of singers of the Gadski type 'to
Columbia. And we residents of Col
umbia wish our town to be taken out
of the rag-time clase and kept out.
And we will hear Gadski because
when she has come and gone we will
be sorry personally if we did not do
Tht-res' a reason and there are
"Big appropriations for the .Mis
souri and Mississippi Uiers" was the
slogan of the .Missouri delegation at
tending the National Rivers and Har
bors Congress in Washington. The
Kansas City and St. Louis people are
especially desirous of seeing the .Mis
souri River improved between those
two points so a river-boat line can bo
established. The farmers cultivating
the fertile bottom lands, too, want the
channel deepened in order to lessen
the number of disastrous floods.
Just now some improvements are
being made along the rier in the
form of dikes and rip-rap work. This
plan is only a waste of money, for
to improve small stretches here and
there will not prevent floods or
deepen the channel. Again, beacon
lights were put along the river bank
to guide the steamboat pilots and thus
enccura'ge night travel on the river.
This is decidedly a good thing, but
it is hardly needed until the channel
of the river is made deeper.
Government aid is needed. And it
seems as if this aid is not far off.
MORE THE GIVER THAN GIFT.
To give because you want to, not
because you think you ought to, is a
good rule to follow in making Christ
mas gifts. It is the mtive behind the
gift that determines the happiness of
the giver. If one makes a purchase
that is within the means of his pock
etbook and gives it with the desire
to show his appreciation of the
friendship of another, there will be
happiness in the giving thereof. But
too many of us find the giving of
presents a source of worry rather
than pleasure, for we feel that we
must do to others as they have done
to us, arid because some one of our
friends made us a gift last Chritsmas,
we have reason to believe he will do
the same thing this year. We worry
our brain trying to think of some
thing to get for him until we find
ourselves wishing there were no
Is this the right spirit to hac on
this occasion? Xo doubt our friend
who made us the gift, gave it to us
with a free heart, never expecting a
gift in return. If he knew that his
gift was going to cause so much trou
ble and discomfort, in all probability
he would have refrained from giving
Let us remember that it is not so
much the gift that makes onehappy
as the good intertions and thoughtful
ness of the giver.
In placing Columbia in the list of
Gadskl-towns every citizen who s
really interested in promoting a
Greater Columbia should have a part.
The list of lnivers nf tickets will be a
,in rivin "n f i,nnnr. not
Iv a music roll.
His Sermon in German.
Prof. William H. T. Dau conducted
Luthern services in the Y. M. C. A.
Auditorium at 7:30 o'clock last night.
Professor Dau's address on "Right
eousness" was spoken in German. The
next esrvices will be conducted the
second Sunday in January, the morn
ing address to be delivered In English
and the evening address in German.
TO RAISE ALFALFA
Bacteria Must Be Present to
Supply Nitrogen to
A few pounds of soil from an old
alfalfa field and scattered over the
surface of the ground will often make
a poor, sickly-looking alfalfa field
look green and become thrifty. This
is because the ground has been inoc
ulated with bacteria which are able
to take free nitrogen from the air and
supply it to the alfalfa plant. These
bacteria have to be present for the
successful growing of alfalfa.
On the average Missouri upland,
where alfalfa has never been grown,
these bacteria are not present and
the soil lias to be inoculated that is.
the bacteria have to be supplied.
There are sceral methods of doing
this inoculating, but the surest way
is by scattering on the ground some
of the soil dug from an old alfalfa
field. About 100 pounds to the acre
is the right amount to put on.
Soil Should He Dried. j
The best way to get this soil scat
tered over the ground is to dry it,
then drill or scatter it by hand on
some cloudy day and harrow in.
While the soil is drying, it must be
away from the direct effect of sun
light. If sunlight strikes it a great
many of the bacteria are killed. The
floor of an old barn is a very good
place to dry the soil. After it is dry
it may be placed in sacks for con
venience in handling.
Another method of inoculating is
by means of artificial cultures of al
falfa bacteria. These cultures are
preparations containing myriads of
the bacteria grown from bacteria
taken from the alfalfa root nodules.
This preparation is usually diluted
with water and the solution sprink
led over the seed until they are mois
tened; then they are dried in a shady
place and are ready for sowing. Only
fair success has been secured from
this method of inoculation, so in gen
eral it is best to use the soil. How
ever, where the soil is not available,
this method may be used with some
degree of success.
Sweet ("lover Bacteria.
On the uplands where sweet clover
grows, it is usually not necessary to
inoculate. The bacteria of sweet
clover are the same as those of al
falfa. Sweet clover grows along the
roadside and railroad right of ways
in almost every part of Missouri.
When using soil from sweet clover
fields, from :.00 to 1000 pounds of
soil per acre is required for inocula
tion, depending on the manner of ap
plication. When scattered by a shov
el the larger amount should be used,
but when scattered with an endgate
seeder or other machine, ?00 pounds
is enough. For convenience in hand
ling it should be dried in subdued
Usually in the bottom lands in Mis
souri, the alfalfa bacteria are present
in sufficient quantities to make inocu
lation unnecessary, but in experi
ments carried on by the Experiment
Station on the upland, 62 per cent of
the trials have indicated the advisa
bility of inoculation.
A WORD ON THE BEEF STEER
-More Care Needed in the Selection of
Cattle feeding in the past has been
a hazardous business. Men have
ron wealthy at it and men hate
"gone broke" at it. We must be
more careful in the selection of
The broad, blocky low-down kind
are the best those with large, roomy
middles and plenty of constitution. It'ic js that they harbor orchard di
is true that they consume large quan
tities of feed, but they turn it into
high-priced cuts of juicy steak.
We waste nearly as much good feed
as we sae Take our corn crop, for
instance. Millions pf tons of the best
cattle feed are lost every year in the
mere-!stalks which are destroyed. However.
the silo is coming to the rescue and '
what was once a total loss will be j
turned into feed for the people and
wealth for the farmer.
ThV beef steer will always hold an
important place on the farms of the
Mississippi Valley. In the future,
with our better system of farming and
feed conservation, we will produce
high quality beef far cheaper than
heretofore. This means more profit
to the feeder and cheaper food for
WATCH FOR MICE AND BABBITS
How the Orchard Can Be Froteeted
From Winter Pests.
Orchards have winter as well as
summer pests." Rabbits and mice are
two of the worst.
The young orchard is especially lia
ble to be attacked by rabbits, as the
bark is tender and readily eaten. Some
nurserymen report losses of from 20
to 30 per cent of their stock in a sin
gle winter. This large loss is due
largely to lack of attention.
Rabbits attack" the trees from 8 to
1C inches above the ground, some
times girdling the trees. As a pre
ventive, all the old fence rows and
brush piles should be cleared away
so that there will be no hiding places.
After this, if the injury warrants it,
the trees should be protected by wire
netting or some kind of wash.
The wire net is used successfully,
but care should be taken to pile dirt
around the bottom to prevent crawl
ing under. It should be high enough
to come above the deepest snows.
THE FIELD OF THE FARM PAPER.
.More than 430 monthly, semi-monthly, weekly and daily journals
devoted to agriculture are published in the United States. As a whole
they are an important factor in the progress of practical farming.
Most of them have ideas and ideals. Men who were reared on farms
are editing them. Every farming state supports an agricultural jour
nal circulating almost exclusively within its bounds. In recent years
the journals of this class have made notable progress. This is re
ferable to the fact that while the science of agriculture is the same
the world over, the art represents an infinite variation. In years
to come we shall have hundreds of country weeklies edited by men
who will devote special attention to local agricultural affairs. In
fact, dozens of papers of this group already are doing admirable
work in this inviting by-field. neWitt C. Wing, of the Breeder's
Gazette, Chicago. '
One objection to the netting is that
it catches rubbish and makes a hid
ing place for insects.
Again, the trees may be wrapped
with corn stalks or paper with good
results. If tarred paper is used it
should be removed early in the spring
to prevent bark injury. Washes are
used and have given satisfaction, but
probably are not so generally em
ployed as the other methods.
.Mice attack the trees in the same
way, but lower on the trunk, some
times below the surface of the
ground. The work of the mice can
be easily distinguished from that of
rabbit, as the scars made by the teeth
are smaller. Mice are most trouble
some when the orchard is in sod. In
this case the grass or litter should
be removed or tramped down under
the tree, so no place for a nest will
Tramping snow about the trunk is
one of the best methods of dealing
with mice. Also the same methods
can be used as with rabbits, but of
course the netting must have a
TREES FOR THE .FARM HOME
Unshaded Sit Can Re Beuutitied With
Quick-Grow Ins Specie.
What is a home without trees?
Such a home sends forth no idea of
good cheer or beauty. You feel sorry
for its occupants when you think of
the winter winds and the summer
heat they are exposed to.
In the cornbelt it is sometimes
necessary to build where there is no
shade. In such cases it is best to
first plant quickly growing trees.
Siher leaf poplar is one of the pret
tiest trees. It grows fast and is sym
metrical. The maple is often broken
bv sleet and storm, but its quick
growth and many leaves soon hide
the injury. The ash, walnut and elm i
grow slowly. ,,t they make the best
nnue irci-b h..u ..o...u u ,.,., ,
n reiilnco the shorter
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Pv-nrrromis mill Pllnrill in n
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home in winter, but one great draw -
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Nowadays the thoughtful are select
ing home-sites that are already shad
ed, but there is always room for a few
to Boone County.
the Hoone County
Poultry Association took a good share
of the premiums at me central .mis
souri Poultry Show held in Centralia
last week. R. I Hill exhibited the
first prize White Rock cockerel. J.
E. Bedford showed Black Langshans
and F. G. Prather Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds. Miss Elizabeth Hodge
took several premiums on Rose Comb
Reds and Mrs. W. T. Anderson on
Single Comb Reds. About 300 birds
FARM WIFE'S WORK
College of Agriculture to
Compare Her Lot With
That of City Sister.
How much manual labor does the
farm wife do? What are her work
ing hours as compared with those
of the city wife? These are ques
tions that the farm management de
partment of the College of Agricul
ture, University of Missouri, proposes
to answer by a system of farm home
records. The earnings of the farmer
and his expenses as compared with
those of the city man will also be
O. R. Johnson has charge of the
work. Mr. Johnson intends to follow,
in a general way, the plan that was
adopted last spring, but he does not
expect to have labor statistics from
the farm wife during the first year.
He will lead gradually up to that by
obtaining records of farmers' living
The farmer, according to Mr. John
son, receives a much larger salary
than he himself will admit. The
farmer, he says. Is accustomed to re
gard all the produce used on his table
as expense. .Mr. Johnson proposes to
compare the farmer's living expenses
with those of the city man. When
the farmer has had due compensation
for producing the meat, butter, milk,
eggs, poultry, vegetables and all other
produce he uses, the profits from this
produce should be added to his net
earnings. In short, only the cost of
production should be regarded as ex
pense. At the Farm Table.
"The farmer gets his living- prac
tically free," said Mr. Johnson. "I
have sat at tables in the country
where the meals, if duplicated in the
city, would cost at least $1200 a year.
"The meats, vegetables, dairy and
poultry products and fruits are used I
without making any record of them;
or if a record is kept, they are re
garded as expense. The living ex
penses of the salary earner in the
city come from the man's salary.
That is clearly expense. The farmer's
living expenses do not come from his
apart from them, nor does he credit
any part of them to his salary, be
cause the produce he uses does not
"It is plain to every one that the
living expenses of the farmer are not I crol' includes only hay, while it is
as great as those of city people. it!"ndo"tedly true that the pasture
Is the difference of these expenses cron Is more valuable by a large mar
that I wish to add to the farmer's sal-!15'11 than t,,e na-v croP. because of the
ary. To determine just how much Mu,,llcnse area in pasture. Add these
should he added to his net gain will values and the cash value of the grass
be my first concern."
, . ... ,
Record,. Mutt Be Mi e.
The records that were started last
.ng wcr(J (00 John8on ,
beiievcs. The farm wives were asked
i to keep account of their daily labor
" KeeI account ot meir uany lauor
I . . . . ....
"" " """"" v.w, ,.v.,..... , I...
i. . ., . ,. , ovllf,n5f. Th..'
t iiousenoiii anu UMiig c.penses. inc.
nnii in mill tinn tn L'nan 'iKpminf nf I h.
average farm wife, he says, has not growing of other crops. Leguminous
time to keep a detailed account or plants always leave the ground richer
her work. After a year's recording' in nitrogen, than (hey found it, and
household expenses she will gain an ' nitrogen is the costly element of fer
idea of the work and will be able to tility.
keep a record of her work more eas- Without the grass crop, weeds could
ily. It is then that Mr. Johnson in- not be so easily kept under control,
tends to begin compiling statistics of nor could the diseases that affect
the farm wife's work. j grain crops be so readily checked. In
Most country women do a large,
part of the work that rationally be
longs to their husbands. They run
the home dairy, take care of the
chickens, work the garden, and in
many cases care for the hogs. Farm
home record work was established to
find out just how much of this work
the women really do. It will also
show how much the work done. by
the city woman is lessened by con
veniences in the home.
WINTER TIME ON THE FARM
This Is the Season for Study and
Making Needed Repairs.
Winter Is the farmer's recuperative
period. It gives time for study and
for outlining the coming year's work.
In the summer the farmer is kept
busy carrying out the work planned
the previous winter; he even has
work for the rainy day and does well
to get a few minutes with his farm
In the long winter evenings little,
if anything, can be done in the fields
and the time can be spent in reading
and study that will enable him to
carry on the farm operations more
efficiently. After the plans are made,
the next thing is to see that every
thing is In readiness before the com
ing of spring.
Is the machinery in good condition?
If not, time can profitably be spent
in the repair shop. When the ma
chinery is run under the shed in the
fall it should be examined carefully,
and a note made of the repairs need
ed. Time will be saved if a tag is
put on the piece needing repairs, so
it can be found readily.
Again, as the machinery is gone
over it should be oiled well to pro-
tect it from rust. The life of the ma -
chinery will not only be lengthened
but it will be much easier to manipu
late when next wanted.
PRUNING THE PEACH TREE
t stored with little cost and labor. It
Treatment Should Be Ghen Nurery may be dug in a circular or a rectan
Stock Before Plantimr. I glular form. The commonest is a cir-
Many think that peach trees re
ceived from the nursery are, in condi
tion' to plant withoutpruning. This
is an erroneous idea and must he cor
rected before best results can be ob
tained. Usually the pruning for planting is
the most severe. The trees are cut
back to from 24 to 30 inches, while
the side shoots need not be left over 8
inches. A better growth will be ob
tained when four or five spurs, well
distributed about the stem, are left.
They should be high enough for :i
disc harrow or other orchard cultiva
tor to pass 'under. Of course pruning
at this time depends largely upon the
size and nature of the tree. The fig
ures given here are for the normal
tree, which should be from 3 1-2 to
C feet high.
There are two methods of pruning
the open head and the round head.
The former offers advantages and it
more commonly practiced.
In the open head the aim should be
to prune so that an open funnel
shaped head will be formed. Prun
ing for planting should be done with
this idea in view. If the tree has
been given proper space in the nurs
ery this is easily done, as the "limbs
are strong and make a well balanced
GRASS IS THE KING OF CROPS
lis Value to the Farmer, Direct and
Indirect, Exceeds That of Corn.
Grass, not corn, is king among the
farm crops of the United States and
may continue to be so through all
The value of the corn crop in 1910
was $I,523,3r,S.00O. The hay crop
conies second, with a value of $747,
709,000 ; and wheat ranks third, with
a value of $021,443,000. But observe
that the estimated value of the grass
LI wi" exceed mat or corn.
, The full value of hay to the farmer
',8 not shown by ,tg C0lnniercia, va,ue
, in tim iiturn.i v.,v. wi.:i. n..
RraMC9 ave ,)ec "
cr0und thnv bnve nln i. H,M,.
the soil with their roots
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the soil with their roots, which along
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,vll UiL. siiiuiiics. wuen me meadows
i i , ,
are broken up. furnish humus for the
its absence, live stock could not be
maintained on the farm without un
due expense, and consequently mixed
farming would be impossible.
Strive to stop the leaks on the
farm. Silo3 should be built, machin
ery taken care of properly, crops har
vested at the proper time and stored
in the right manner, stop the waste
of fertility, and don't burn the corn
stalks and straw stacks.
DIG PIT TO KEEP '
At Small Cost You Can Pre-
serve Flavor That Old
Timers Talk About.
A cold apple with a firm, smooth
skin and a high juicy flavor, tastea
much better than an apple with a soft
shriveled skin and poor meat One
often hears old people say that the
apples on the farm today do not taste
like the apples when they were young.
Imagination may have something to
do with this, but there Is an element
of truth in it.
Nowadays on most farms the ap
ples are stored in the "cellar," or any
where to keep them from freezing.
In most "cellars" they soon begin to
shrivel and decay. If these apples
were buried in a jiit, as the old peo
ple used to bury them, they wonld
taste better. Almost anyone who has
tasted an apple from temporary stor-
age pit in the winter time will testi-
1 fy to this. They seem to have a tasta
that is better than when first takea.J
off the tree.
How to Make the Pit.
A pit for the storage of apples is
easy to make, and the apples can be
cular excavation from 6 inches to a
foot deep and from 6 to 8 feet across.
The'apples, or any kind of vegetables
or fruit to be stored, are then to be
piled in the pit in the shape of a
Straw or hay or almost any kind
of dry litter is thrown over the pile
to protect it from the early frosts.
As winter approaches, an inch or two
of dirt is thrown on this straw, and
finally when winter threatens to close
in, the pile is covered deep enough to
give protection. The straw under the
earth should be from 4 to 6 inches
thick when pressed down. Ten to
12 inches of dirt is sufficient covering
over this straw.
Provide for Drainage.
Sometimes when the winters are
very severe it is necessary to cover
the dirt with a foot or two of horse
manure. A board covering over the
earth to drain off the water is usually
necessary. It is well to choose warm
and well-drained soil.
For the apples to keep well, it is
essential that only "a very thin covering-
be made at first and more cover
ing added as cold weather comes on.
If the full amount of covering is put
on at first the apples are likely to
heat and decay will set in.
In the storage of almost any fruit
and vegetable product three essential
features should be borne in mind:
protection against freezing, a temper
ature so low that the activities of the
plant may not be incited and that the
growth of fungi may be discouraged,
and proper protection against exces
The Saddle Horse.
This is one animal that will never
be supplanted by a machine the
American saddle horse, most beauti
ful and lovable animal In the world.
Gifts you will
those who mean
much to you will
ry is liked hy
many. You will
he pleased with
our new stock:
Then there are
books the latest best
fiction, also Every
man's Library. Mag
too, make thouj;htfuI
C o - O p .
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