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THE DAILY MISS0UBIA5, WBPSBg PAT EYEinXO, PECEMBEB 7, 1916.
THE DAILY MISSOURIAN
Published tnrjr erenlnc (except Saturday
sad Sunday) and Bandar morning; by
Tbe Mltsonrlan Association. Incorporat
ed, Colombia. - Frank It. King-,
President and Edllori Jesse L. GroTes,
Plrecfors; Charles G. Rotter, Miss Gladys
Baker, Don D. Patterson, Ira B. Hyde,
Bake S. I'arry, Ellis II. Jones, Russel II.
Address all communications to
THE DAILY MISSOURIAN
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Probably the most debated and cer
tainly the most important question to
come before the peace conference if
there is one wil be that of disarma
ment and the security of future peace.
Problems of territory and demands
for reparation can and will be com
promised, but on the question of lim
iting future armament and making
peace more sure there should be no
Hoth Great Britain and Germany
have indicated their willingness, in
deed, anxiety, to consider this ques
tion in their peace proposals and it
seems reasonably certain that any
terms of peace must include provisions
for limiting future war preparations.
Peace terms without this provision
would be a misnomer, for peace would,
only amount to an armed armistice.
UNIONS ARE SUPREME IN AUSTRALIA
However, Strikes Are Numerous and Country
Suffers Because of Under-Development, Says
M. U. Professor, on Leave of Absence.
The following Is from a special ar
ticle written by Charles G. Itoss of the
faculty of the School of Journalism
for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Mr.
Ross is studying Australian journal
ism while on a year's leave of ab
sence from the University. He Is on
the editorial staff of the Melbourne
1916 IX 1I1ST0KY
International relations and prob
lems arising from the great world war
overshadowed all other events of the
closing year. Political, social and
economic changes in every civilized
country, immense and far-reaching
enough to hae caused world-wide
comment in ordinary times, took place
in 191G almost without notice, owing
to the more urgent demands of the
Forms, powers and modes of govern
ments have been shifting daily. In
Russia, the people through the Duma
have gained wider power; in Germany
the demands of democracy have open
ed up the imperial government; in
France, Austria and England whole
governments have been shifted and
changed; in the United States the
quadrennial change in governments
took place without bloodshed; in the
smaller countries crises calling for
immediate and strong action have oc
curred in unprecedented number.
Placing further restrictions on the
demon rum, taking fuller charge of
the food supply, putting recreation
under better control, public ownership
of the means of production and dis
tribution these are some more of the
greater activities and larger changes
which have been going on in the civ
ilized world. Indirectly, by showing
the need for national efficiency, the
war has been a great boon to social
and material progress.
In this country inflated prosperity
has brought on its due of industrial
troubles, which have been ably han
dled by an efficient government. Bet
ter labor laws and much progressive
economic legislation have resulted.
The usual troubles of neutral coun
tries have upset equilibrium at times,
but a strong, definite foreign policy is
rapidly being evolved by a better ex
Governmental and economic ques
tions have been of such immediate im
portance during the past year that
the larger movements of science, lit
erature, art, religion and philosophy
have been largely lost sight of. That
progress in these subjects has been
hindered by the war admits of no
doubt, but it seems probable that the
increased seriousness of mind growing
out of the grave problems of the war
will mean a wider and more detailed
attention to these fundamentals of
progress after peace is declared.
Many will be inclined to look upon
1916 as one of the darkest years in the
world's history, because of the slaugh
ter and hatred going on every day on
the European battlefields, but the loss
in human lives and in material ob
jects may mean more to the next gen
eration than would now be indicated.
Adversity and misfortune are great
teachers and, if the nations learn well
their lesson of 191C, the people of 194G
may be the gainers.
MELBOURNE, Australia, Nov. 20.
Much has been said in America of
Australia's advanced labor legislation.
Whenever a great industrial dispute
arises, and there is public demand for
a speedy settlement, Australia is al
most invariably cited as a country in
which arbitration laws are in success
ful operation. Intercollegiate debates
arguing for the minimum wage are
almost certain to point to Australia as
a Utopia in which legislation has for
ever settled the age-old differences of
capital find labor.
What are the practical workings of
Doubtless they have ameliorated the
condition of labor, which, at one time
in the history of the country, so the
labor leaders say, was cruelly exploit
ed. Doubtless they have been the main
factor in making this, as it is fre
quently called, "the paradise of the
Criticism of tiio System.
Comparative figures show that
wages have been raised and that Aus
tralia, perhaps more than any other
nation, is tending toward an equal
distribution of wealth. There are few
very rich people in Australia and few
very poor. Slum conditions in the
cities are comparatively unknown. So
also is the lavish display of wealth
comparatively unknown. This sums
up the case for Australia's labor legis
lation. On the other hand, critics of the
system point to the undeveloped con
dition of the country; to the fact that
the ast majority of Australia's 5,000.
000 people are settled In a thin fringe
around the sea coast, the astounding
proportion of 40 percent of the total
being concentrated in the six capital
cities; to industrial inefficiency and
waste in many lines; to the fact that
Australia, so few are her manufac
turers, Is utterly dependent for her
existence on the outside vorld.
There are charges, too, that the
unions stand for "slowing down" in
dustry, that their tendency is to put
a premium on mediocrity and discour
age capital from embarking on new
There is one outstanding fact, at
tested by observation, by a reading of
the newspapers and by reference to
the Official Year Book of the Com
monwealth. The fact is that Aus
tralia's laws, whatever may be their
other merits or demerits, most cer
tainly do not prevent strikes. Aus
tralia Is as far from being a strike
less paradise as is America, as wit
ness the following figures from the
Australia Has Many Strikes.
In 1915 there were 358 industrial
disputes (Including strikes and lock
outs) in the Commonwealth, involving
81,292 work people, a loss of 583,225
working days and a loss of, roughly,
$1,500,000 in wages. In 1914 there
were 337 disputes, inolving 71,049
work people, a loss of 1,090,395 work
ing days, and a loss of $2,750,000.
The apparent disparity between the
1914 and the 1915 figures is accounted
for by the fact that in 1914 there was
a protracted dispute in the Northern
collier' area of New South Wales.
The employes demanded the abolition
of the afternoon shift, and the dispute
involved 2,930 workers, a loss of 522,
967 working days and an estimated
loss of $1,250,000 In wages.
Employers Wake Report.
Figures substantially the same as
those of the official statistician are'
given in a report which has just been
issued by the Employers' Federation
of New South Wales, in which there
is more industrial trouble than in the
nve otner states combined. According
to this report there were 321 strikes
in Australia in 1913, 415 in 1914, and
400 in 1915. In the first quarter of
191C there .were 139 strikes. It was
shown that the record of strikes and
industrial disputes during the period
of the war had eclipsed all previous
Accepting the number of strikes in
Australia in 1915 as 400. and calculat
ing on the basis of population (Aus
tralia's 5,000,000 as against America's
100.000,000), America would have to
have 8,000 strikes in the course of a
year to equal this record.
At this writing there are two indus
trial disputes In Australia that affect
the whole Commonwealth. Because
of a crisis in the important sugar
growing industry of Queensland,
housewives all over the country may
find it difficult to get sugar next year.
As a result
court award, increasing wages, em
ployers assert that they are unable to
carry on the sugar industry without
loss. Though this is the time for
planting, work has been stopped In
many of the fields, and the Industry is
threatened with ruin unless a settle
ment is reached. Many efforts have
been made to effect an adjustment,
but without avail. The Federal Gov
ernment took a hand and tried to get
the State to enact a law that would
have put the sugar industry under
the control of the Commonwealth au
thorities. The State upper House re
fused to pass the measure, and there
the matter stands at present.
The Queensland trouble is serious,
but it is not nearly so fraught with
grave possibilities as the coal strike,
which has been in progress since the
end of October. No coal is being
mined now in any part of Australia.
The trouble began in New South
Wales, where the principal coal fields
are situated, ami quickly spread to
Victoria. In the latter State arc the
Wonthaggi mines, owned "by the State
and operated by it to furnish sup
plies to the Government-owned rail
ways. The Wonthaggi miners, though State
employes, are members of the same
union as the New South Wales work
ersthe Australian Coal and Shale
Employes' Federation. Though the
State miners had already received the
concession for which the others are
contending, they walked out in sym
pathy. Consequently the State is now get
ting no coal with which to operate its
Electric Light Shut Off.
Luckily, when the strike was de
clared, it had a supply on hand suf
ficient for several months. As this
becomes depleted, train service will
have to be curtailed unless there is an
early settlement. Already a revised
time card has been issued to be ef
fective if the present attempt to end
the strike proves fruitless.
The strike threatens to paralyze
the whole industrial life of the Com
monwealth. Within a few days after
its beginning the Federal Government
commandeered all the coal in sight,
to guarantee supplies for troop ships
and the maintenance of industries
connected with the war. Scores of
factories throughout the country, un
able to get fuel, have been closed, and
others will follow suit, as their pres
ent supplies are exhausted. It is es
timated that 35,000 workingmen are
now idle as direct result of the strike,
and this number will be greatly aug
mented if the trouble continues.
Train SerTice Curtailed.
In Melbourne, the electric light and
power department of the city has ob
tained a sufficient allowance from the
government to keep running, but in
Sydney the current has been shut off
off from all private houses.
Train service in New South Wales
has also been cut down, with the re
sult country race meetings had to be
deferred. To most Australians, this
postponement is the best possible evi
dence of the seriousness of the situa
tion of the situatian, for hardly any
thing short of a cahaclysm is allowed
to interfere with a race program.
Sydney and its suburbs are suffer
ing severe inconvenience from the cur
tailment of the ferry service; inter
state shipping has tteen disorganized,
affected and a beer famine and other
minor ills are threatened.
Some factories counted on using
coke, but the Government has now
taken over the available supplies of
that fuel. Restaurants and house
holders are laying in stocks of wood,
and a few of the factories will prob
ably be able to keep going at least
part time with this fuel.
A strong effort is now being made by
a section of the coal miners to have all
coal declared "black" by the union.
This means that no unionist in any
trade would be permitted to handle the
coal that is now available. Such ac
tion would be the final blow needed to
demoralize the whole industrial struc
ture. The coal strike was called while the
case of the men was pending before
the Commonwealth Court of Concilia
tion and Arbitration. The chief de
mand is for what is known as an eight
hour bank-to-bank-work day eight
hours, that is, from the time the first
miner in a shift enters the shaft until
the last man returns to the top.
In New South Wales, most of the
mines are worked at deep levels, and
in some cases as at Newcastle in that
state, they extend two miles under the
sea. A miner may walk half an hour
from the bottom of the shaft before
he gets to his work place. An eight
hour shift means, therefore, when half
an hour is allowed for lunch, that a
miner may be actually at work only
shift shall be
insist that only one
worked in 24 hours.
Prime Minister Acts.
The reason for this latter conten
tion has not been made plain, and in
fact the merits of the whole dispute
are clouded. The employers contend
that there is a deliberate effort on the
part of the workmen to curtail produc
tion, and weight is lent to this view
by statistics, which show that coal
production in New South Wales has
increased not at all in the last three
years, though new mines have been
opened and new and up-to-date ma
chinery has been installed.
All other measures having failed,
and the Government being faced with
a shortage of coal for its transports,
Prime Minister W. M. Hughes at the
end of last week acting under the
highest flexible War Precautions Act,
called In Melbourne a compulsory con
ference of employers and miners rep
resentatives. The Prime Minister
himself presided, and pleaded with
both parties, in the national interest,
to come to terms. It was finally
agreed, after a two-day conference,
that a ballot of all the strikers should
be taken, to decide whether or not
they would go to work, under the
terms existing before the stoppage,
pending a decision by a court.
Hughes guaranteed that on the day
they returned to work, a hearing of
the case would begin, either in a court
already constituted or one which he
would set especially for the purpose,
and that tho hearing would proceed
without interruption till a decision
This is the status at present. It is
possible that by the time this is print
ed the miners will have voted in fav
or of Mr. Hughes proposal and the
strike will have been settled. Wheth
er or not it is settled is not the point
here; the fact of chief interest to
Americans, examining the laws of
Australia for possible light on their
own industrial problems, is that such
a strike has been possible in this coun
try, and that in any event, it will have
dragged on for at least three weeks,
causing incalculable loss. If settled,
it will have been settled not by the
ordinary machinery of the courts, but
by special intercession on the part of
the chief officer of the Commonwealth.
Power of the Union.
How great is the power wielded
by the unions in Australia may be
gathered from the fact that there are
713 separate unions with a total mem
bership of 528,031. Unionism has had
a remarkable development in this
country. In 1890 an important trade
union crisis a maritime strike that
evolved into a general strike practi
cally throughout Australia gave im
petus to what has been called the
"new unionism," a unionism taking an
active and aggressive part in politics.
The men were defeated, and they
strongly resented the action of the
isY bVbYsSb) IsT
TXHEN a dog bites me once,
I'm through with it. Same
way with a tobacco. r
VELVET is aged In the
wood for two years to
make it the smoothest
MRS. J. F. MURRY
306 S. Ninth St.
Will take your measure for a Genuine LOMBARD Tailored life
Suit, Blonse or Separate Skirt
Made of U. S. Government approved Serge, Flannel, LIbm or
lected Cotton goods.
Made by HARRY S. LOMBARD, Jfaval Tailor, Boston, Ms. ;
Samples of materials for your consideration.
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a recent arbitration
six and a half hours.
me miners also