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Prior to the war with Spain Ameri
cans know little about the Island of
Porto Rico, and the island knew little
about its noar neighbor, America
But now that has all boon changed. It
la only ten years since the island
came under the control of the United
iltates, and In that time Americana
Ijiave settled in Use island and are now
do be found in almost every industry
tliere. In fact tho chief 'industries,
rauch as sugar, tobacco and fruit, are
ilniost entirely controlled by Amori
' can capitnl.
The sugar industry, which is by far
tho most important, has had a phe
nomenal growth in tho last decade.
Formerly tho plantations, scattered
throughout the Island, but more espe
cially in the coast regions, were oper
ated independently. The cane was
raised, the sugar was made and was
shipped by each estate. This method, of
course, necessitated a very primitive
and inefficient process. Tho power
was almost without exception fur
nished by oxen operating a small set
of rollers, Into which the cane was fed
by hand. Tho boiling of tho juice and
the crystallizing of the sugar was done
In opon pans, with the result that a
large percentage of the sugar was not
recovered. Hence Porto Rico became
famed for her fine molasses, while lit
tle or nothing was ever heard of her
production of sugar.
To-day on nearly every cstato the
old mills havo fallen into disuse -or
have been dismantled, the rollers used
In road making and the pans for cattle
to drink from, for sugar making by in
dividuals is a thing of the past.
American companies have estab
lished what are known as "centrals"
and have made it for the Interest of
plantation owners to send their cane
there to be made into sugar. These
companies have established railroads
with branches running into all estates
to bring the cane quickly and easily to
In most cases the "central" has a
general supervision over tho estates
with inspectors who advise the latest
methods of cane culture, install irriga
tion systems, encourago the opening of
new lands, often forwarding money for
such work, and In general promote the
culture of more and better cane.
Besides owning several plantations
some of the larger "centrals" gather
and grind tho cane from GO or more
plantations extending along tho coast
sometimes for 30 or 40 miles and far
back into the mountains.
Tho advantage to the plantation
owner is very evident In that his work
and responsibility end when his cane
is raised, cut and loaded upon tho com
panies' cars which coirfb by means of
portable tracks into his very fields.
The efficiency of the modern and elab
orate method of sugar making more
than makes up for the division of
These sugar houses aro equipped
with tho latest and best machinery.
No expense is spared In this respect,
for by tho saving of even tho smnllest
percentage of additional sugar tho
amount saved In tho manufacture of
a season's crop, often 25,000 tons or
more, is enormous.
Connected with tho sugar houses aro
laboratories with a corps of chemists,
who by continued analysis at overy
stage In tho process of manufacture
control It so that the maximum amount
of sugar is obtained, and tho finished
product is kept up to the standard de
sired by tho refiners In tho "states."
This process of manufacturing tho
sugar occupies from six to eight
months In tho year, tho rest of tho
tlmo being given up to repairs and Im.
With tho exception of tho lnborers,
who aro of course natives, these places
aro operated by Americans, and d.irlng
the grinding season you find many -sol-onlea
of them situated far from tho
cities in tho midst of the cane coun
try. Somo mon holding positions which
demand their attention tho year round
have settled with their families at
these 'centrals," but lor tho most part
those required but for the busy season
go north for tho rest of tho time,
whore the social and climatic condi
tions arc moro agreeable,
The social life is of course vory lim
ited in these places, owing to the fact
T-CTOOO LLUHTJUlTlOtt OT TH.
that they aro situated so far from the
cities that, with tho very poor means
of transportation, it is very difficult to
At the largest "centrals" you find
but six or eight families living in sep
arate houses, and a clubhouse housing
30 or 40 unmarried men or men with
out their families.
Rut even among themselves some
social life would be possible were It
not for the fact that those people come
from so many social classes them
selves. Tho lack of schools for the children
has been a great drawback to men
carrying their families with them, but
there is a plan under consideration
now for the government to establish
schools at some of tho larger "cen
trals" for American children. This
will probably be the means of inducing
moro men to carry their families with
them, and eventually greatly improve
the social life.
Probably tho school-teachers form the
largest class of Americans on tho Is
land, but, of course, they are very
widely scattered. In the larger cities
of San Juan, Ponce and Mayaguez, you
find a great many American teachers,
both men and women, and probably In
these three cities are to be found as
many Americans as in the rest of the
San Juan is the center of American
civilization in Porto Rico, and has
been from the first. There are the
government ofllclals, and most of tho
men in business of a commercial na
ture. However, In traveling about tho in
terior of the island and in the smaller
coast cities, the larger part of Amer
icans you meet are teachers. In every
town largo enough to be called such,
you find a school over which floats
the American flag, and in which the
English language is being taught.
Often the only English-speaking per
son in tho whole town is the teacher,
and It may bo a long, hard trip by
coach or on horseback to tho next
Among a strange people, where the
language, food, customs, etc., aro so
hard to becomo nccustomed to, It orten
proves a hard life.
But in the larger towns the condi
tions aro much better. Hero you gen
erally find moro than one teacher, bet
tor school buildings, and a higher class
of people, with whom it is easier to
The tobacco business has already
grown to vast proportions under Amer
ican management, a3 is evidenced by
tho constantly increasing consump
tlon of Porto Rican cigars In the
United States. In every town or vll-
lago, oven among tho mountains, to
bacco Is still raised and cigars ar
still made ns they havo been for gei
erntions, but tho new tobacco ralsert
havo planted hundreds and In ono cas
over 1,000 acres in a stetch,
which may bo seen entirely covered
by choeso cloth to subdue tho light
and improve tho quality. This Indus
try has by no means reached its
hoight, and, Indeed, has tho prospect
of a vast future growth.
Tho coffee raising Is also worthy ol
montlon, although not dovolopod as yet
to any great extent. Coffee Is raised
mostly among tho mountains and
Amoricnns havo taken it up but little.
However, it haB been pronounced the
finest coffeo in tho world by President
Roosevelt, and when tho market for It
is mado it will undoubtedly offer a
broad field for American Interest.
There aro also a large number ol
minor industries which mon from the
United States havo entered nnd at
which they aro making fortunes
Among these aro the raising ot pine,
apples, cocoanuts, rice and vegetables,
which aro sent to tho United Stat js fnj
END THE ROBBERY
DEMAND OF WE8TERN FARMERS
FOR TARIFF REFORM.
Great Agricultural Section of the
Country Has Paid Taxes to Rob-
her Trusts Long Enough
"Protection" a Farce.
Tho bulk of surplus cash in the Uni
ted States Is owned by western farm
ers. They deposit it in their local
banks, whence it flows through vari
ous channels to the eastern money
markets for Investment.
At a recent national gathering of
presidents of insurance companies tho
statement was made that money is a
drug in tho market. The Insurance
men are in close touch with the finan
cial market, as they have prodigious
surpluses to Invest. Just now the
market Is flooded with tho hoards of
The insgular fact Is that while the
cast is just recovering from a money
panic the ngi (cultural west had no
panic to recover from. Tho farmers
have had no hard times for a series
of years. They were still buying au
tomobiles and luxuries when panlc
stiiekon eastern banks were Issuing
clearing house certificates.
The working capital of banks, rail
roads, factories and mines comes In
the main from tho small accumula
tions of thrift put out at interest. The
greatest ci editor of all Is tho Ameii-
can farmer. While bumper crops and
high prices for agricultural products
prevail the farmers will remain su
premo in the creditor class.
The farmer keeps up the country
banks and stores, which In turn sup
port the great marts of lndustiy in
the cities and manufacturing centers.
Wall street and tho speculators mere
ly levy toll on the teeming Industry
of the nation. The tariff barons get
their share of the spoils through in
direct tariff taxation.
Practically everything the farmer
has to buy yields a tax to some rob
ber trust. If he would improve his
buildings he must pay a tax to tho
lumber trust. If more implements are
needed tho harvester trust gets its
pound of flesh.
So it runs through the whole list of
necessities and luxuries. Tho trusts
tax tho farmers like all other con
sumers without giving anything tan
gible In return. The alleged "protec
tion" of tariff schedules Is a mockery,
as far as the farmers are concerned.
Their coinage of wealth from the soil
needs no artificial protection.
It Is to lessen plain tariff robbery
that western farmers demand genuine
"The London Standard has discov
ered that on the average American
wages aro 2& times as much as Brit
ish wages. In declaring that tho dif
ference is due to the protective policy
tho Standard shows a logical mind."
St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
Why then aro not wages higher In
Germany and France than in Eng
land? The conditions of life in all
three countries aro practically tho
same and not different as they are In
England nnd America. Yet In England
under free trade wages are far higher
than In Germany and Franco under
protection. Moreover wages in Amer
ica were higher than any in Europe in
the beginning because of natural con
ditions that still obtain, and the argu
ment for a tariff was that our "Infant
Industries," having to pay wages so
much higher than European indus
tries had to pay, ought to have protec
tion equal to the difference until they
got established. But now wo havo it
that protection is what makes high
wages. How can a thing bo both
cause and effect? First wages aro
higher and therefore we must have
protection; second, protection has
mado wages higher and therefore it
must bo maintained. Verily, such is
Tariff Taxing the Small Home.
The ambition of every thrifty wago
earner or soil tiller Is to own his
home. These modest nbodo3 aro the
fruit of solf-sacrlfico and plodding in
dustry. Tho lumber trust sits In tho gntes of
prosperity and takes toll of overy
home builder of modest means. It
taxes ovory stick of finished timber
that goes Into the dwelling. It taxes
the pluln, unpretentious furniture, it
taxes tho'fnrmer's barn where he
houses his crops, and the sheds for
Two Cents and $29,240,000.
A Michigan man is serving a 30
days' Jail sentonco for pilfering a
two-cent stamp from Uncle Sum. You
enn't got by with a thing of that valu
ation, but if it's something liko' ?29,
240,000, for instance well, that's an
Mr. Roosovolt will try to capture a
klcono-boc, a kahau nnd Nelson Morris
& Co., but so far as tho anthracite coal
trust Is concerned It may stamp and
rag? through" tho jungle at will.
PLANK8 INfENDED TO DECEIVE?
Hard to Put Other Construction on Re
Mr. Taffs position with regard to
tho equitable limitation ot nogro suf
frage in tho south, as defined In hla
nddress to the North Carolina society,
had tho support of the beat sentiment
nt tho north. His opposition to tho
"grandfather clause" of tho proposed
Maryland constitutional nmendmont
shows a "spirit of fairness and equal
ity" which has received general In
dorsement. But In view of Mr. Taft's liberal at
titude toward tho reasonable restric
tion of negro suffrage, what docs this
plank of tho Republican platform of
"Wo declare once more and with
out reservation for the enforcement in
spirit and letter of tho thirteenth,
fourteenth and fifteenth amendments
to the constitution, which wero de
signed for the protection and advance
ment of tho negro, and we condemn
all devices that have for their real aim
his disfranchisement for reasons of
color alone as unfair, un-American and
repugnant to the supreme law of tho
Mr. Roosevelt on October 27 last
wrote to the president of the Virginia
"I do not believe that there is a sin
gle individual of any consequence who
seriously dreams of cutting down
southern representation, aud I should
have no hesitation in stating anywhero
and at any time that as long as the
election laws are constitutionally en
forced without discrimination as to
color, tho fear that southern repre
sentation in congress will bo cut down
is both Idle and absurd."
Yet your Republican national plat
form of 1901 declared:
we lavor sucn congressional ac
tion as shall determine whether by
special discriminations tho elective
franchise in any stato has been un
constitutionally limited, and, if such
is the case, we demaud that repre
sentation in congress and in the elec
toral college shall be proportionately
reduced, as directed by the constitu
tion of the United States."
The virtual repudiation of the Re
publican platform declarations of 1904
and 1908 by the president and the
president-elect raises an Interesting
question of party honesty. Were these
planks embodied in tho platforms
merely to humbug negro voters In tho
The President and the Courts.
in his statement the president truth
fully says that he has no power what
ever to do anything in regard to tho
recent dpcislon of Justice Wright in
the contempt cases. In order to show
his entire impartiality, ho refers to the
fact that he took no action In the mat
ter of tho $29,000,000 Standard Oil
fine. This reference rather weakens
tho fore of his statement, for It will
be remembered that he severely criti
cised tho judges who reversed the de
cision of Judge Landls, while for Jus
tice Wright he has no criticism. The
president took no action in the Stand
ard Oil case while It was, as It is now,
in the courts. He took no action, for
the very good reason that there was
nothing that he could do. But he
gave the judges a rather fierce lecture.
In the present case he says:
"Whether tho president does or does
not think tho sentence of Mr. Gom
pers and his associates excessive is
not at present of consequence, because
he cannot take any action or express
any opinion while the case Is pending
before the courts."
That is true. He can do nothing,
and he ought not to criticise. We are
glad to know that tho educational
process to which he has been sub
jected is having its effect. Indianap
No Longer "Infant Industries."
The news from Washington that Re
publican congressmen are seeing a
great light on tariff reform la gratify
ing. Extensive revision downward as
a result of the tariff hearings and ad
vices from the country Is now antici
pated. Certainly the predictions of
free lumber, free wood-pulp and paper,
free hides and leather products, with
heavy cuts in tho wool aud steel
schedules, point to genuine revision.
Tho infnnt Industries can no longer
conceal their adult proportions.
From His Throne of Money Bags.
Andrew Carnegie, mado colossally
rich by iniquitous tariff schedules, is
sued a Christmas message to the
world. It is worded in truly regal
stylo, nnd the bumptious nnlveto with
which this citizen tells all his follow
citizens why they should bo thankful
nnd contented beats oven tho record
of tho Nino Tailors of Tooley street
who on a celebrated occasion issued a
proclamation beginning: "We, the
people of England."
Tho real cost (or steel) this yoar Is
tho highest In years because so fow
rails aro mado. Charlos Schwab to
tho Ways und Means Committee.
Cut tho tariff, drop tho price, then,
and it will bo cheaper to make thorn;
for demaud will double
"I'll give you a penny it you can
"That ain't fish."
"What Is it, then?"
MIX FOR RHEUMATISM
The following is a never falling rem
edy for rheumatism, and If followed
up it will effect a complete cure or
the very worst cases: "Mix one-half
pint of good whiskey with one ounco
of Toris Compound and add ono ounco
Syrup Sarsaparilla Compound. Tako
in tnblespoonful doses before each
meal and at bedtime." Tho ingre
dients can br procured at any drus
store and easily mixed at home.
A Running Broad Jump.
"One day," related Denny to his
friend Jerry, "when Oi had wandered
too far inland on me shore leave OI
suddenly found thot there was a great
big haythen, tin feet tall, chasin' mo
wld a knife as long as yer ar-rm. Ol
took to me heels an' for 50 miles along
tho road we had it nip an' tuck. Thin
Oi turned into the woods an' we run
for one hundred an' twlnty miles more,
wid him gainin' on me steadily, owln
to, his knowledge of the counthry.
Finally, just as OI could feel his hot
breath burnln' on tho back of me neck,
we came to a big lake Wid one great
leap Oi landed safe on the opposite
shore, leavin' me pursuer confounded
and impotent wid rage."
"Faith an' thot was no great jump,"
commented Jerry, "considerln' tho
runnin' start ye had." Everybody's
Stern Officer (on German frontier)
Gentle Graduate of Yale Jerushy
John! Forgot all about that is, I did
not know I had to show it here. I
well hold on! Here! (Produces a be
ribboned and be-sealed document)
Here you are at last. Excuse me, I did
not know you were the proper officer.
Officer (tries to read the Latin) Ha
Dlictum Ha Ills Emporium Ha!
(Returns sacred parchment.) YIs, sare!
It is sufficient! Axcuse mi! It is of tho
high royal household. Special envoy.
Much apolige. Houury! Go at once.
Graduate (relieved) Great Scott!
That was a close shave! That's the best
thing a Yale diploma ever did for me.
From the Bohemian.
Mice on the Pillow.
"I'm not so much afraid of mice as
some women," said she, "but I don't
like them In my hair. The other
night I finished a biscuit I was eating
after I went to bed and naturally left
some crumbs about, not meaning to,
never thinking of mice.
"Well, about the middle of the night
I heard scampering, and there were
the mice all over my hair, trying to
get at those crumbs.
"1 tell you, I gavo ono shriek, sprang
up, lighted all the gas in the room
and sat up tho rest of the night watch
ing that pillow."
Proved a Wise, Good Friend.
A young woman out In la. found a
wise, good friend in her mother-in-law,
jokes notwithstanding. She writes:
"It Is two years since we began us
ing Postum In our house. I was great
ly tioubled with my stomach, complex
ion was blotchy and yellow. After
meals I often suffered sharp pains and
would havo to He down. My mother
often told me It was the coffeo I drank
at meals. But when I'd quit coffee I'd
havo a severe headache.
"While visiting my mother-in-law I
remarked that she always made such,
good coffeo, and asked her to tell mo
how. She laughed and told mo It was
easy to make good 'coffee' when you
"I began to use Postum as soon as I
got home, nnd now wo havo tho aamo
good 'coffee' (Postum) every dny. and
I havo no moro trouble. Indigestion is
a thing of tho past, and my complex
Ion has cleared up beautifully.
"My grandmothor suffered a groat
deal with her stomach. Her doctor
told her to leavo oft coffee. Sho theu
took tea but that was just as bad.
"Sho finally was Induced to try
Postum which sho has used for over a
year. Sho traveled during tho winter
over tho greater part of Iowa, visiting,
something sho had not been able to do
for years. Sho says she owc3 her
present good health to Postum."
Namo given by Postum Co., Battlo
Creok, Mich, Read, "Tho Road to Well
vllle," in pkgs. "Thero's a Reason."
i:er rrnil Hie nbove letter t A nc4
one uppenrx (rum lime to lliur. Ttrrl
urc m-uiilnc, tt'ui-i nnd lull of liuiuna