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PERIODICAL CICADA OR SEVENTEEN-YEAR
LOCUST IN STATE OF CONNECTICUT IN 1911
Pupae Produce No Appreciable Damage to Tree Except Splinter
ing of Twigs Caused by Females in Laying Their
Eggs Peach Trees Suffer Most.
Periodical Cicada, Adults and Pupa Shell on Leaf. Natural Size.
i,.. ' v. rtniTTON,
Init' Agricultural Kxpcriment
Hrood No. H. of the periodical rl
sarla or 17-year locust, Ttblcen sept en
drflm Mnn., was scheduled to appear
In the central portion of Connecticut
In 1911, so we were on the watch for
It. The station collection contains
samples of this brood collected In
Pranford In 1894, by Dr. W. C. Stur
ta, then botanist of this station. Hut
In S94 no attempt was mado to ob
tain records or to study the distribu
tion of the Insect In the state. In
1903, Hrood XI. was expected, and
though we made many observations
nd inquiries, we did not obtain a
Consequently, 1911 seemed to afford
an excellent opportunity to collect
data, and In addition to the observa
tions made by the office force, much
information waa gathered from other
Though the pupae come out of the
Kround and crawl upon the trunks,
branches and foliage of trees and
shrubs, and the adults emerge, leav
ing the old shells hanging there,
:hey produce no appreciable Injury to
the trees except the splintering of
the twigs caused by the females In
laying their eggs. Several correspond
ents wrote to this office that the clca
jas were eating up their trees.
Hut as the adults are sucking Insects,
they could at most only suck out a
Utile of the sap, and could not devour
ny of the tissues. In laying eggs,
tiowever, by means of the sharp, tough
ir.d horny parts of the ovipositor, the
female Is able to puncture the bard
wood and lay eggs in it. The ovipos
itor consists of three spear-shaped
pieces or blades, the lateral gnes hav
lug serrated edges for cutting. These
pieces slide lengthwise upon each oth
er, and are effective In mutilating the
"" The egga are laid In longitudinal
rows of punctures along the under Bide
of the twigs of the previous season's
growth, having a diameter of between
one-fourth and one-half Inch. Where
there are many punctures In a twig
It Is often so weakened that It breaks
In the wind, and though Bomctimes
falling to the ground. It usually hangs,
and tho leaves dry and turn brown.
There Is damage to the trees, no
doubt, from the effects of great num
bers of the larvae sucking at the
roots, but this Injury is difficult to
observe or estimate, and probably Is
usually attributed to other causes.
The greatest damage noticed by
the writer was where peach trees had
being used for egg laying. The weight
of tho fruit caused the twigs to break
and hang down, and tho fruit as well
as the leaves withered. In portions
of the orchards mentioned nearly all
the fruit was destroyed. Some twigs
had live or six peaches each, and
broko very readily from their own
weight. Nearly all hung, however,
until tho wood became dry and brittle
before separating entirely from the
tree. In addition to the loss of the
crop for the season, about a Beason'B
wood growth was destroyed, leaving
little or no chance for the formation
of fruit buda for tho following year.,
On npplo and other fruit trees the re
sults were similar, though apparently
much lesB serious than with peacn
On rapidly growing trees the Bears
soon heal, but on trees mailing
slow growth they do not heal for sev
eral years. Ordinarily, however, mere
Is little or no permanent Injury to me
tree, and soon after the insects disap
pear the orchardlst thinks little about
them. The accounta of serious injury
which one reads in newspapers are
generally based upon tho imagination
or upon other causes, and are not the
verdict of men who have given carerui
study to the subject.
Some six or seven weeks after the
eggs are laid In the twigs, the young
cicadas hatch from them, drop to the
ground, and work their way into it,
going 12 to 18 inches beneath the Bur
face. Here they live a subterranean
life for 17 years, where it is difficult
to follow their movements and devel
opment. Yet this has been done In
three or" four cases by the bureau of
entomology, and It was found that the
larvae molted four times, tho fourth
molt usually occurring about the
tenth year. They burrow chiefly with
their forelejs. suck the Juices from the
small tree roots from one-eighth to
three-sixteenths of an inch in diame
ter, and upon such food they subsist
for the full period of 17 years, when
the pupae crawl out of the ground,
leaving round exit holes about three
eighths of an inch in diameter.
No parasites were reared rrom ci
cada eggs In Connecticut In iu.
though four species of dipterous i two
winged files) larvae are known to
feed upon them In the United States.
Four specieB of hymonoptcrouB (four
winged files) insect are known to
parasitize the eggs, though only one
of these, Lathromerls cicadae How., Is
at all abundant This has been found
sufficiently abundant in some parts of
the country to considerably check tne
periodical cicada. Several species of
mites are also known to reea upon ci
This insect has predaceous enemies,
one of the most important of which is
the large digger wasp or cicada Kill
er, Spheclus specloBus Dru., which
stings the adult cicada and carries It
away to its underground nest to serve
as food for the young wasps. The
sting paralyzes but does not kill the
cicada, and the wasp lays an egg on
the body of the cicada, upon which the
young wasp larva feeds. No doubt pre
daceous ground beetles devour some
of the newly hatched young, as well
as the emerging pupae.
It is probably true that birds de
vour large numbers of cicadas.
MISSOURI CURE FOR GAPES
Disease Most Prevalent in Damp
Weather, Caused by Worm In
(By MRS. JOHN J. MOO HE, Missouri.)
A most common disease among
:hlckens and one which causes great
toss In the summer Is gapes. This
llseaae, which la most prevalent In
;ool, damp weather, la caused by
worms, which get In the young chlck'a
windpipe, causing It to gasp for breath
tnd if not dislodged, shutting off Its
supply of air.
Sometimes the worm can be twisted
tut with " horsehair, but this is a
levere remedy and other worms may
lake its place.
The following la a preventative and
will check the trouble at once:
Obtain the leaves of the common
woodworm, Bometlmes called Jerusa
em oak, a plant which grows wild in
most places, having an erect shrub
bery stem and small, yellowish flow
ers. Its leaves when crushed have
w unpleasant odor and are used in
(he manufacture of vermifuge and to
protect clothing and furniture from
moths and other insects.
Mash the leaves and mix In a small
Quantity with the chicken' feed or
put In the drinking fountains.
Or, after tho seeds have ripened,
they may bo used Instead of the
leaves and a quantity gathered for
NOT A DISEASE
But a Symptom, a Danger Sig
nal Which Every Woman
SIMPLE FEEDER FOR POULTRY
Automatic Device, Shown in Illustra
tion, aa Practical as More Ex
An automatic feeder for poultry, slm
pie In design, yet apparently as prac
tical as similar devices of more com'
Dllcated and expensive design. Is
shown In the Illustration. The feeder,
which is hung from any convenient
support, comprises a grain container
provided with a discharge opening at
CERTAINLY ANIMALS THINK.
Backache is a symptom of organic
weakness or derangement If you have
backache don't neglect it. To Ret per
manent relief you must reach the root
of the trouble. Read about Mrs. Wood
Morton's Gap.Kentucky. "I suffered
two years with female disorders, my
nealln was very tiaa
and I had a continual
backache which was
simply awful. I could
not stand on my feet
long enough to cook
a meal, victual '
without my back
nearly killincr mo,
and I would have
such dragging sensa
tions I could hardly
bear it I had sore
ness in each side, cou'.d not stand tight
clothing, and was irreirular. I was com
pletely run down. On advico I took
Lyilia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Com
pound Bnd am enjoying good health. It
is now more than two years and I have
rot had an ache or pain since. I do all
my own work, washing and everything,
and never have backache any more. I
think your medicine is grand and I praise
it to all myneighbors. If you think my
testimony will help others you may pub
lish it" Mrs. OiJJE Woodall, Mor
ton's Gap, Kentucky.
If you bare the altfrhteKt donM
that Lydla 12. 1'inkliaiu's Vegeta
ble Componnd will help you, writ
to Lydla K.Ptnkhntn Medicine Oex
(confidential) I,ynn, Mass., for ad
vice. Your letter will be opened,
read and answered by a woman,
and held In strict confidence.
Dinks Do you believe that milmnls
Winks Certainly. loi-sn"t tin- cur
hog via takes up ull the Beat think
ho owns the car?
A While for a Time.
A Cleveland school teacher writes
that she asked her class what waa
the difference between the expres
sions, "a while," and "a time," Bays
the Cleveland l'lain Dealer. Nobody
seemed to have any ideas on the sub
Jeet. Finally the light of Intelligence
was seen to shine In the eyes of one
little boy, and tho teacher called upon
him to save the Intellectual honor of
"I know, teacher!" he cried eager
ly. "When papa says he's going out
for a while, mamma says she knows
he's going out for a time!"
That's one way of looking at It.
SHE COULD ANSWER FOR HIM
the bottom; a scoop pivoted under
neath the opening, and a pendulum
like arrangement with a ball at its
end. The chickens peck at this ball,
thus causing the pendulum to swing.
which tilts the scoop and allows a
certain amount of grain to fall to the
EXTENSION WHEELBARROW FOR APIARY
The illuBtratlon "Bhows my "bee au
tomobile," which I made myself. It
In long enough to hold Ove hives. Mine
is made of 12x2 oak, but I believe the
same size of pine would be strong
ei.ough, and would be much lighter,
writes A. T. Dockham of Eagle llend.
Minn., in the Gleanings In Bee Cul
ture. The handles should be wide
BANNER CORN CROP
DESIRED BY FARMER
Immediate Attention to the Culti
vation of Seed Bed Is the
Most Important Factor.
"Every farmer wishes to produce a
banner corn crop," BoyB Prof. R. A.
Moore, head of the agronomy depart
ment of the College of Agriculture of
the University of Wisconsin. "No one
factor will be more Instrumental In
producing such a crep than Immediate
attention to the cultivation of the
seed. bed. On large fields the cultiva
tion should be constant from the
time the corn appears above the
Kround until It Is laid by In July. This
la absolutely necessary for the eradl-1 assured.
apart, as then It handles much easier.
For a spring I use one from a lum
ber wagon seat It should be a good
stiff one. This is very handy In put
ting bees In and out of the cellar, as
it carries them very easily. It is
also very handy In carrying empty
supers to the yard, also In returning
filled supers to the shop.
cation of weeds and the conservation
of soil moisture. The timely culture
of corn not only helps the corn crop
but also materially aids succeeding
crops. Hy paying proper attention to
cultivation, corn can be easily made
to average 10 to 15 bushels more per
acre than It would yield as a result
of Improper methods of Boll culture
"The Initial cultivation should be
quite deep, from three to four Inches,
as there Is no danger at this time of
Injurylng the corn by pruning the
roots," continued Prof. Moore. "Sub
sequent cultivation should be Jus
deep enough to create a i;ood soil
mulch on the surface of the ground
nnd at the same time to eradicate
the young weeds as they appear above
the surface. fly rigid attention to
weed eradication and moisture con
servation a bumper corn crop will be
Little Comfort for Candidate In Rea
son Assigned by Wife for Her
Mr. Williams, one of five candidates
for the office of sheriff in one of the
northern counties of Wisconsin, was
muklng a house-to-houHe canvass of
rural districts soliciting votes. Com
ing t othe house of Farmer Thompson,
he was met at the door by the good
housewife, and the following dialogue
"Is Mr. Thompson at home?"
"No. he has gone to town."
"I am very sorry, as I would have
liked to talk to him."
"Ib there anything 1 can tell him for
"My name Is Williams, candidate for
sheriff, and I wanted to exact a prom
ise from him to vote for me at the
"Oh. that will be all right. I know
he will promise, for he has already
promised four other candidates the
same thing." Norman E. Macks Na
A college professor noted for bis
concentration of thought, returned
home from a scientific meeting ono
Ight. still pondering deeply upon the
subject that had been discussed. As
e entered his room he heard a noise
that seemed to come from under tho
Is there someone there?" ho asked,
"No, professor," answered the In
truder, who knew his peculiarities.
"That's strange," muttered the pro
fessor. "I was almost sure I heard
someone under tho bid."
If it 1b possible, do not keep laying
hens or raise young chicks without
this very necessary article, even on
tho farm. Place your coops for the
little ones near some shady place and
there scatter coarse strawy manure
about three inches deep, then keep It
moist at the bottom, if there la no
rain, and watch the little fellows go
down after the angleworms that
flourish at the bottom, and you will
see your chicks flourish also. The
currant brush 1b a good place.
Eggs Clotworthy Ate.
Harry Clotworthy, who Is an expert
on military affairs, entered the
dining room of the National Press
club one morning and carried with
him a ravenous appetite. Having
eaten one breakfast, which consisted
largely of eggs, be ordered another
breakfast, which consisted even more
largely of egs- After his repast he
went to the writing room to get off
eome letters. Half an hour later the
steward of the. club found the colored
waiter loafing about the entrance of
tho writing room and asked him what
he meant by being nbr.cnt from his
"I got a good excuse, exclaimed the
waiter, exhibiting the check for th
egg breakfast. "Mr. Clotworthy don
eat $2 worth of eggs and I ain't goin
to let him git away from here without
payin' for them, high as eggs
One of the best ways to start is to
get six hens, and grow.
To successfully preserve eggs, per
fectly fresh ones must be selected.
Remember that it la the profit per
hon that counts, not the profit per
Milk is an excellent food tor grow
ing chicks and. In fact, for any class
It does not require much hard work
to keep a flock in good condition In
Tho simplest form of intestinal dis
order to which chickens are subject Is
Better that tho cblcka roost In tba
tree than that they be confined In a
There can b no question that a lot
of fowls die yearly from no other
cause than a lack of food.
Tho reputation of giving a squure
deal to every customer Is as necessary
as that of breeding birds of good quality.
Sklni-mtlk Is not a dear commodity
In the poultry yard whea its ben
ficlal effects upon the stock are con
sidered. Body lice will worry a flock to
death, or so nearly so as to destroy
Its usefulness. These can be killed,
but not easily.
Every Boy and Girl
Vants a Watch!
BOY'S FACE A MASS
OF SCABBY SORES
Awful to Look At, Resinol Cured
Less Than Two Weeks.
St Louis, Mo. "At about 11 years
of age my face was covered with a
mass of scabby sores, awful to look at.
and my sleep was broken up by the In
tense itching, and then after scratch
ing, the sores would pain me Just
eomethlng awful. My mother got
salves and soaps to use, but all to no
purpose. A friend of mine who was
Physical Director at the Y. M. C. A.
at that time, told me it waa a bad
case, and would spread all over the
bodv if something were not done. He
gave me some Resinol Soap and Res
inol Ointment, and in less than two
weeks I was cured, without leaving
any marks or scars whatever.'
(Signed) Ernest Lo Pique, Jr., 30Z1
njalnnl Onen and Ointment .too Itching Instantly
and quickly beat ecwuia, rAbes. ringworm and
facial eruptions, aa wen aa soroa, win.,
k.n,. n,lHi. .nnndi. and IVnlng. Inriamod and
bleeding pile. Your drnniim iwiimnjends and sella
them (Hoap, e: Ointment, sue, nwi rnavina nnc,
Jiel. or aunt b mall, on rerelptof price, by Ho. i Do I
Cbemlcal Company, Baltimore, nn. Ja.
Call to Arms.
"Hung:" went tho rifles at the ma
"Oo-oo," screamed tho pretty girl
a nice, decorous, surprised little
scream. She stepped backward into
the surprised arms of a young man.
"Oh," said she, bluBhliig, "I was fright
ened by the ritles. 1 beg ycur par
"Not at all." said the young man.
"Let's go over and watch the artillery."
Wo want every pipe and cigarette smoker
in this country to know ltow gaud Duke's
We want vou to know that every grrtin In that big
one and a half ounce 5c sack is I'tire, t lr.in tuliarco
a delightful smoke.
And you should know, too, that wil'i each sack you
now get a book of cigarette (wpcrs and
A Free Present Coupon
These coupons are good for hundreds of v.iluaMe pres
ents, such as watches, toilet articles, bilverwure, furni
ture, and dozens of other articles suitable fur every member
of the family.
You will surely like Duke's Mixture, made by Uggrlt
d Myers at Durham, N. C, and the presents cannot fail
to please you and yours.
jgSS-, As a special offer.
and November only
we will tend yon
our new illustrated
catalog of present
FREE. Just send us
your name and address
on a postal.
CfiPol trfim fhtkr'i Afirtur mnv V
a'lK'Ird r.irr I'xm HONSE
LEAF, GRANGKR TWIST, copt
horn FOUR ROSES UOc-ttn rf..uA
mH. PICK PLUG CUT, PIED
MONT CIGARETTES. CliX C1GA
FETTES. and oimr taf or caufum
jdt VyMUt Jumo (Sn.
ST. LOUIS, MO.
TRUE TO HER SEX.
Protected Both Ways.
Two conservative ladles of old-
fashioned uotlonB were traveling In
the west and. becoming Interested In
a young girl on the train, finally asked
why she was making so long a Jour
ney alone. They were greatly shocked
at her blithe explanation:
"Well, you see, my mother and step
father live at one end of the Journey,
and my father and stepmother live at
the other. They send me to each
other twice a year, so there Isn't a
bit of danger with four parents all
on the lookout!"
"Miss Comeup is now In tho swim."
"She ought to take naturully to It.
Her father was a milkman."
Every time you tell your troublea
you are wasting the other fellow's
Mr. Monkey Ves, my dear; I or
dered the latest thing In iig leavos
Imported direct from Vjljl for bath
ing suits for you and Jocko.
Mrs. Monkey Oh, you dear, sweet
thing! How lovely! Oh, won't I cut
a figure on the Congo thin season!
Goitre, Swollen Glands,
Cysts. Varicose Veins.
It allays pain and takes
out inflammation promptly. A.
safe, healing, soothing, antiseptic.
Pleasant to use quickly absothed
into skin. Powerfully penetrating
but does not Mister under bandage
nor cause any unpleasantness.
Few drops onlv required at each
application. ABSOKBINE, JR.,
Jti.oo and $2.00 a bottle at drug
gists or delivered. Book 2 G free.
ir YOU "AVr .nrrrT
Malaria or Pllea, Kith lldth, Coatlva
ttowcla, Dumb Aiur. Sour Stomach, and
Itrlchlng; II your lood doea not aialmUato aa
you have no appetite,
Will remedy theio troublea. Price, 2S cent a.
IntfUm, l.i:. .luuL.fr. Uitfli
mwtuxm urn 1
"Should lllueher get the credit for
No: that victory is properly cred- i.r.--i"hMiiio..Ar.,liotoWi.r:maT.ra-a
,. 1 . ti- 111.., 1,1. ,!,,.. jij.i. Ui bu a. hlmrt winter f..r hNk-H. 12 tin. . nf -l Ivi-l
ited to Wellington. l!luch-r dldn t re- ! kf , n, u!rin.wriif.irii.i. u .i.i.ii.iuia,u.
lleve him until about tho eighth In- j r - -
ning" ' W. N. U., ST. LOUIS, NO. 42-1912.
Wise Young Man.
That wbb a very wlBe Cambridge
student of whom the London Btory
teller were talking some, time ago.
One of bis college friends finding him
self without funds, went to this Sol
omon of students to borrow. He found
him In bed. Seizing him by the shoul
der, be shook him.
"I say," be said, "are you asleep?"
"Why do you ask?" queried the
"I want to borrow a sovereign."
"VeB," said the other, turning over
and olosing his eyes. "I'm asleep."
. ,.wji,,..j.rf,rn1onilhananvotherdye. One 10c packaue colors all fihera. Theydyelncolrf wntrr better thnn any otherdy. Ynuraav
CrmoTeKOodabrignterandisstei c MONMOfc UKtlG COMHNf. Oalocy. IU.
dye any garment without ripping npart.
Reason Was Plain.
"II y husband has deserted me and
I want a warrant," announced tho
"What reason did he give for de
Bertlng you?" auked the prosecutor
"I don't want any lip from you. I
want a warrant. I don't know what
reason he had."
"I thick I understand his reason,"
said the oinclal feebly, as he proceed
ed to draw up a warrant.
"Did you have any osculatory enter
tainment at your party?"
"No: culy some kissing games."
No Such Aspersion.
"Do you get a stipend for your
"Nothln' like that. I git reg:iar
A CURE FOR PILES.
Rnte'a CarholiBolve atupa itching ami pata
and curi i piiea. AUdruKKi'ts. 2SamiUJc. Adv.
"Tho piece was very raw."
"Then It deserved a roasting.'
3.00 '3.50 '4.00 '4.50 AND '5.00
FOR MEN AND WOMEN
Boy mm W. L. Oottglmm 02.OO, 02.BO $8.00 Bntmoi I
Mhotm, aeteawM mnm mmir mill mtomlllwmly ouiwju two
jaalra of ordutmry fAoti, mamm mm tho m'm anoaa.
W.LDougUa makaa and aella mora $3.00,$3.S0 A (4.00 shoe j
than any other manufacturer in tha world.
THE STANDARD OF QUALITY FOR OVER 30 YEARS.
The workmanahip which has mad W. I Douglas shoes famous the world
over ia maintained in every pair.
Ask your dealer to ahow you W. L. Douglas lateat faahiona for fall and winter
wear, notice the thort vamps which make the foot look smaller, points in m
shoe particularly deaired by young men. Alao tha conservative styles which
have made W. L. Douglas ahoea a houaehold word everywhere.
If you could viait W. L. Douglas large factories at Brockton, Mail., and sea
for yourself how carefully W. l Doug laa ahoea are made, you would then un
derstand why they are warranted to fit better, look better, hold their shape and
wear longer than any other make for the price. fail Color Cyltti.
CAUTION. To protact you against inferior shoea. W. L Doualaa atampa bis nam. on tha boa.
torn. Look lor tho stamp, baware of substitutes. W. L. Duuvlas shoos are sold in 7ft osvai
stores and shoe deaiore oyery where. No matter whero you live, they am within yourroaxb.
If your dealer cannot supply you, write direct to factory for catalog- showing how to ordea-
by mail. Snooaaent every where, delivery chargea prepaid. W .L-Uouglas, Brockton. Maaa.
paj) mfmmiuvtim 1 iagiauia 1 1 yaiiai si mil unman, ii iiieiN
Beooutoot tho ugly, grlxzly. gray hairs. Uao "LA CREOLE" HAIR DRESSING.. PRICE, Sl.OO, retail.