Newspaper Page Text
MINNESOTA IN1)1AN#' EXHIBIT AT
St. Paul, Minn., Sept. 10.Chippewa In
dian handiwork, useful and ornamental,
comprising the largest collection ever as
sembled in the northwest, are displayed in
two booths in the Agricultural building- at
the state fair under the direct patronage of
the United States Indian department. It is
an official exhibit as Walter F. Dickens,
superintendent of the Red Lake reservation,
is at the fair under direct orders of his
Here are found birchbark canoes without
a bit of metal in them, rabbitskin blankets
woven from strips of hide, all manner of
buckskin articles from hides tanned in In
dian camps, and beadwork in plenty. Mr.
Dickens believes the bead work to be the
largest display of its kind that has ever been
The Minnesota Indians, it is estimated,
obtain $50,000 and $00,000 a year by sale
of beadwork, and on that account the gov
ernment entourages the red women to do the
work and the white women to purchase their
products. Most of the articles also are use
ful. The collection includes rush mats,
cedar bark mats and bags, sweet grass
baskets and bags.
Canoe Construction Puzzles.
The construction of a birchbark canoe,
always a puzzle to a white man, is plainly
revealed by having the finished boat and raw
material displayed side by side. White
cedar splints, light but tough, form the
frame work, ribs and all large sheets of
birchbark, whooly impervious to water, com
poses the outer covering. Then with the
tough ropy roots of the balsam to bind the
frame and to attach the cover to the frame
and pitch from the spruce for the seams
the Chippewa fashions a light serviceable
boat equally useful in a grassy lake, a for
est stream or Lake Superior.
One booth is devoted to the Indian schools
of which there are several, notably at Red
Lake, Leech Lake and White Earth. The
boys are taught farming, carpentry, tailor
ing, harnessmaking and blacksmithing in a
\\i\y that makes them practical workmen.
The girls are taught weaving, basketry, sew
ing and other domestic arts and all are
taught penmanship and drawing.
f)') Per Cent Industrious.
"radians can be taught to work and be
come selfsupporting,'' declared Superintend
ent Dickens today. "This does not mean
that a man of 30 who has spent his life in
1he woods and has learned to subsist by
hunting and fishing, will become a modern
progressive farmer, but if we ca get the
boys and girls young enough and keep them
until they are skilled in various occupa
tions, we find that 9." per cent of them can
be counted upon to engage in these occu
pations and remain industrious citizens.
"We have at Red Lake a full-blooded
Chippewa who draws $100 a month as a
forester. Another full-blood, who never has
been off the reservation, is in charge of the
RE LAK E NEWS
"Keep Your Face Toward the Sunshine and the Shadows Will Fall Behind You"
VOLUME 4. RED LAKE, MINNESOTA, SEPTEMBER 15, 1915. NUMBER 2
steam plant. Other Indians are sawyers
in the agency sawmill and some are farm
"Then there are many who are farming
for themselves and doing so intelligently.
They are clearing their lands, plowing and
handling the soil properly, purchasing stock
and are wholly independent.
"The patience of the Indian women in
their beadwork ought to be convincing as to
their industry. A patchwork quilt, made
by Elizabeth Wells, a full-blood, contains
4,389 pieces, all beautifully stitched. All
that is needed is to give them a fair start
and a fair chance." Exchange.
Why, I didn't know there were any Indi
ans in Minnesota! Is this work done by
Minnesota Indians? *Fhere are no Indians
in Minnesota, are there? Aren't they
splendid penmen? Isn't that lace work
lovely? Just see the lovely butter. Did
the Indians really do this? etc., etc. Such
were the remarks fairly rained at the In
dian Exhibit, Minnesota State Fair, Sep
tember 6th to 11th.
Approximately 300,000 people attended
the Fair during the week. The Indian ex
hibit was housed in the Agricultural build
ing, just across from one of the four large
halls or wings of the building and opposite
Uncle Sam's Parcel Post display. Tp say
that our booth attracted a great deal 'of at
tention is expressing it in quite modest
terms. Visitors fairly swarmed in and out,
and many came back the second and third
day to examine the work and ask ever and
ever so many questions. Hundreds of peo
ple complimented the penmanship exer
cises of Joseph Green and Joseph Needham.
The free hand drawing from the various
schools came in for its share of praise.
The tall corn stalks from Leech Lake, the
canoe from Red Lake, the splendid vegeta
bles from Vermillion Lake School, the beau
tiful sewing from Cross Lake, the cakes,
bread, butter, etc., from Pipestone School,
the domestic art and science display from
White Earth, and in fact all exhibits were
highly praised. The birch bark canoe, with
its display of raw materials, the reed and
rush mats, sweet grass and birch bark
baskets, and bead work excited many favor
able remarks and no booth was quite so
popular as, "Minnesota Indians' Exhibit."
'A number of Indian visitors registered
at the booth, among them being (Mrrie
Heaulieu of Red Lake, OUR H. Reaulieu of
White Earth, C. R. Reaulieu, also of White
Earth, Nathan J. Head of Red Lake, Rebec
ca Williams and Lye Williams, former
Flandreau students, Lizzie Wells of Pipe
stone school, Rebecca Wells, who attended
day school at Eggleston, Minn., Johnson
Williams, aged 84 years, and his wife, Jane
Williams, full bloods, John W. Carl of Mah
nomen, a former Haskell student, and Hon.
Theo. H. Beaulieu of White Earth.
The booth was also visited and graciously
complimented by the Honorable W. J.
Rryan, who kindly registered. Senator
Moses E. Clapp also registered and was
pleased with the Indian display.
^Continued on Page 2.)
The introduction of intoxicating liquors
into this reservation or its sale to non
citizen Indians is forbidden by law under
a penalty of imprisonment for not less
than sixty days.
See Act of January 30, 1897 (29 State
WHY WE CULTIVATE.
In order to raise good crops, we must
plant good seed, and have rich soil, but
without the proper cultivation the crop
can not amount to very much.
To know what kind of cultivation is best
suited for the different kinds of crops and
soils, and when we should cultivate requires
experience and a study of the soil and
We cultivate to pulverize the soil, con
serve the moisture, make plant food avail
able and kill the weeds.
Good cultivation should begin with the
proper kind of plowing and by this is meant
a thorough pulverizing of the soil. It is
impossible to make a good seed bed onpoorly
plowed land, because tihe harrow cannot
accomplish what the plow has left undone.
Proper cultivation regulates to a certain
degree the water and food supply of the
plants, from the surface down. Soils which
have the same degree of firmness from the
surface down are full of minute pores, which
act as capillary tubes, these tubes or pores
tend to bring the water in the soil to the
surface when it is rapidly evaporated.
Plowing and harrowing breaks up these
tubes and thus save and store the mois
ture in the seed bed for the use of the plants.
Soil that is not sandy has a tendency to
bake after the water which has stood on
it soaks in the ground or evaporates. Thus
if the soil is not cultivated the plants will
turn yellow for want of air in the soil, the
ground will crack and the plants soon die.
When there is a great deal of moisture
as there is this year the roots will grow
close to the surface of the soil, -if we culti
vate deep we will cut off the roots and ex
pose them to the sun, roots grow for mois
ture and if there is not plenty near the sur
face they grow deep in the ground.
If ground is well cultivated and a dust
mulch formed about four inches deep, mois
ture can be held all summer. In the dry
farming belt where it does not rain from
April to Sept. this is the only way crops
can be raised.
Good cultivation hastens those physi
cal and chemical changes which are neces
sary to render the plant food in the soil
available for use by growing crops. Stir
ring and pulverizing the land changes the
mineral elements like polassium, calcium
and phorphous from insoluble to more solu
ble and available forms. The air admitted
into the soil renders the inactive nitrogen
available as nitrates. Decaying or organic
matter is also necessary to promote ferti
lity, but its effect is greatly increased by
good cultivation. Each particle of soil is
brought in contact with a particle of ferti
lizing material and is encircled thereby.
Plowing and harrowing are the best ways
to keep weeds out of the soil. Poor plowing
and lack of proper cultivation have caused
(Continued on Page 2.)