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title: 'The Saint Paul globe. (St. Paul, Minn.) 1896-1905, November 22, 1896, Page 8, Image 8',
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PPARTANBURG, S. C Nov. 19.— 1
write this letter in one of the great
cotton manufacturing cities of the
South. This county has seventeen cot
ton factories now working and a num
ber of others are being built. Here at
Bpartanburg there is an enormous cot
ton mill and one which is to cost $500,
--000 is being erected just beside It. The
company which owns these two mills
has other factories at Pacolet, within
a few miles of here, and when the new
mill is completed their pay roll will
be about $30,000 per month. At pacolet
they have built a town for their fac
tory employes. It is much like Pull
man, near Chicago, and is managed
much the same way. The president
tells me that their laborers are as good
a= any you can find in the Union, and
says that his workmen are equal to
any of ihe North.
Now that licKlnley is elected there
will be an enormous increase in cotton
manufacture in the South. New mills
have been going up steadily during the
hard times Within the past five years
more than $60,000,000 have been invest
ed in Southern factories for the mak
ing of cotton goods. This is an average
of more than a million dollars a month.
In coming South over the Southern
railway I struck a big cotton factory
at Lynchburg, Va., and from there to
Atlanta. Ga., along the line of this
road there Is an almost continuous line
of cotton factories, and they dot the
cotton belt now as far south as New
Orleans. There is a big cotton mill at
Richmond, Va., 1 found several fac
tories at Atlanta, and Georgia has mills
which are making all kinds of cotton
floods. These Southern mills are sur
rounded by the cotton fields, and the
cotton is brought almost directly from
the plants to the factory. The mills
here are shipping goods to China, and
the output of manufactured cotton is
steadily increasing. I find, in fact,
that times are not at all bad in the
South. This section of our country is
growing as a manufacturing center,
and I am told that its output of manu
facturing of different kinds amounts
to more than $100,000,000 every month. !
A large part of this product is made I
up of cotton, and disinterested parties
tell me that the business is still in its
HIS MONET IN COTTON.
I find it very hard to get the mill men
to give any information about the cot
ton business. They don't seem to want
the rest of the United States to know
how much money they are making,
and they do what they can to keep
other factories from coming South.
The truth is. there are few businesses
In the United States which are paying
so well as that of the cotton factories.
Such mills as are ordinarily well man
aged are making all the way from 6
tc 35 per cent a year on their capital !
stock. The average dividend paid is j
about 10 per cent, and a large amount I
Is put aside every year for improve
ments and surplus. Take the Pacolet
mills, which are located within twelve
miles of here. They have now a plant
which experts say is worth more than ,
one million dollars. They have a sur
plus of about $500,000, and they have for
years been paying semi-annual dlvi- I
dends of 5 per cent. These mills were
organized in 1883, with a capital of j
$800,000, which has since been Increased
to $700,000. The mills made $26,000 profit
the first year they were in existence,
and since then they have paid out more
than $380,000 in dividends. They start
ed with one mill, but this has since
been increased to three, and the sur- j
plus is nearly twice the amount of its
original capital stock. These mills eat
up about eighty bales of cotton every
day, and they make every year more
than 80,000,000 yards of cotton cloth.
I met the president of the Pacolet mills
here. His name is Capt. John H. Mont
gomery. He is also the prisident of the
Spartan mills, which are located in thie
city, and which have a capital of $500.
--000. He began life on a farm, and his
first work was as a clerk in a store, at
$5 a month.
At the end of one year his employer
concluded that he was not worth his
386-388 Wabasha Street, Opp. Postoi ice.
Ladies" Fine Vici Kid Button and Lace Boot 6,
All 6izes; worth Ji.oo and $3.50. This week
$2. 00 and $3.00.
Men's Up-to-Date Lace Boots. In the new toes:
eqmltoany of the so-called bargains ottered
bj others at $3.50 aud $4.01. Our special price,
$2.50 and $3.00.
Children's Shoes in Box Calf, Kangaroo Calf
and Dongola, in button and lace; fitted by our
correct method. Our special price,
$1.35 and $1.50.
Men's Patent Leather and Enamel Shoes,
•mail sizes: worth Ji.oo, SS.OO and 87.00. Choice,
Can you wear I, IV2, 2 or 2Vfc 5n A. B or C
wi'Hh? If so, you can have your choice of
about UK) pairs of High-Grade Shoes, Oxfords
aud Slippers for
25c, 50c and $(.00.
OVERSHOES AND KIBBBRS, Cloth
and Leather Leggings, Overgaiters and Warm
■hoes of all kinds at
The New Factories
of the South and
wages and let him go. Montgomery
then went back to farming. He soon
left the plantation, however, and start
ed a little store. He sold fertilizers and
took pay in cotton. About seventeen
years ago he had saved enough to buy
the water power which runs the Paco
let mills. He organized the company to
build these mills. It is safe to say he
is now very close to being a millionaire,
and his salary as president of the
works is. I am told, greater than that
of the chief justice of the United States.
He very kindly had me shown through
his mills, stipulating first that I should
not ask questions of the operators
about wages, etc. He told me that the
China trade was becoming a great one
for our cotton mills, and if our Chinese
exports were entirely cut off, some of
the mills would not be working. He
complained about the low freight rates
which were awarded to the New Eng
land mills, by the ships which carry
the Texas cotton from Galveston, and
gave me to understand that the com
petition in making cotton goods was be
coming so great that it would hardly
pay to build new mills. As he said
this 1 looked out of the window and saw
the new $500. 000 plant which he was
himself constructing, and it seemed to
me that his new investment was at
variance with his statement.
SOME GEORGIA MILLS.
I have found the same condition ex
isting in Georgia. At the town of
CVlumbus there are five cotton mills,
which make colored goods. They turn
out millions of yards of shirtings, tow-
els and- other goods every year, and
they give employment to thousands of
people. The Eagle and Phoenix faoto
ries there have 1,800 hands, and they
use fifty bales of cotton every day.
These mills paid good dividends for
years, and since their organization they
have doubled their capital stock. They
ship tickings to Canada and other parts
of the North, and they compete with J
the New England mills, I am told, in j
the different markets. It is said that !
the Swift mills, of Columbus, made !
more than 11 per cent above the divi- |
dends of 8 per which they declared last j
year, or a profit of about 19 per cent
on their investment. These mills make
cheviots, denims, hickory stripes, fancy
skirtings and other goods of like nature.
They make Turkish towels and other
fine goods. They do beautiful coloring,
and this, notwithstanding that the cot
ton men of New England used to claim
the South could never do fine work, be- i
c-fiuse the Southern streams were mud
dy and would not bleach the goods
properly. This is the case with many
of the streams, but the- Swift mills
got over this by bleaching their water.
Columbus is on the Chattahooehee riv
er, the water of "which Is something i
like pea soup. This is the water used
for bleaching the goods. It is clarified
by running it into an enormous tank
and then putting a little alum in it.
The tank contains 20,000 gallons of water,
and it is filled every afternoon. Into j
it at intervals every week is dropped !
about forty pounds of alum. This pre- |
cipitates the dirt, and makes the water j
as clear as crystal, and the cost, all
told, Is not more than 50 cents per
Another great cotton-making center
in Georgia is the city of Augusta. It
has twelve factories, with a capital
stock of more than $7,000,000. It pays
out more than $1,000,000 a year to its
employes, and during the hardest of i
times its mills have been running at j
full speed and paying full wages. They
have all along paid dividends of 6 per
cent and upward, and they are mak
ing big money today. Some of these
mills make sheetings and different
kinds of colored goods. Some of the
Augusta cotton goods go to England,
and a part of their output Is sold in
THE WALKING DELEGATE.
One of the reasons the South can
make money in manufacturing is that
there are practically no labor organi
zations here. There is, so far, no
chance for the walking delegate in
South Carolina, and trades unions are
practically unknown. There are but
few strikes, and you hear no talk of
the eight-hour law. The laborers work
I from eleven to twelve hours. They
work hard, too, and they are glad to
get a chance to work. They are almost
altogether white people. The negroes
| are not employed in the cotton mills.
I I have been told again and again that
! they do well on the plantations and
for rough work, but they are of no
value in hamdling machinery. The fac
tory labor of the South comes from the
I farms. It is largely made up of what
used to be called the poor white trash,
of people who are accustomed to liv
ing off of little, and who did not see a
$10 bill from one year's end to the
other. It was like the millennium for
these persons to get their wages regu
! larly twice a month, and they are hap
py in their work, although their pay is
much less than that of the Northern
laborer, who works fewer hours. They
live much better now than they did
when working on their farms.
Their log cabins have been changed
to pretty little cottages such as you
may see by the hundreds, scattered
around every big cotton mill center of
the South. They are, it seems to me,
more happy and better situated than
the factory operatives of the North.
They are equally intelligent, and the
mill men tell me that the supply of
labor is practically unlimited.
GROWTH OF THE SOUTH.
In some places the factory employes
are saving money. Some of the mills
have savings banks connected with
them, and business has generally im
proved in the cotton milling centers.
It will, I believe, continue to improve,
! and today there is no part of the
j United States in a better financial con
! dition than that through which I have
been traveling. The increase in the
money thrown into circulation by such
means is enormous. In 1880 the South
had, in round numbers, $257,000,000 in
vested In different kinds of manufac
turing. By 1890 the capital stock had
increased to $659,000,000. The gain dur
ing this time was 36 per cent greater in
the South than in the rest of the coun
try, and the increase in the wages paid
was greater than the increase In the
capital stock. In 1880 the factory
hands of the South got about $76,000,
--000 in wages, and in 1890 they received
more than $222,000,000, or just about
three times as much. At the present
time the South has in round numbers
about 500 cotton millß and the amount
of money invested in cotton manufac
turing is, I am told, in the neighbor
hood of $120,000,000.
VISIT TO A BIG MILL.
The cotton factories of the south are
fitted out with the finest of machinery.
They are equipped with the latest in-
THE SAINT PAUL GLOBRi .SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1896.
ventions, and everything that will save,.!
a cent is bought without regard to
cost. I went through the big mill at
Spartanburg today. The plant cost
about $500,000, and it covers se\eral
acres of ground. It has three stories,
and every" bit of it hums with ma
chinery. Much of the cotton is brought
directly from the gin to the mill, and
in this ease there is no freight to pay.
Other cotton is shipped in from the
]>lantations near by, and today a great
part of the cotton used in the factories |
of this company has to be imported. |
L»et us follow one of the cotton bales
through the factory and see it turned !
from lint into cloth. The bale is first I
broken open, and the cotton is thrown j
upon an endless chain or belt, wtych
carries it up through the mill, breaks
it up and picks it to pieces. It Is pass
ed through machines which take out !
the dirt, run through great rollers,
which separate the little strands of the
lint, put them together agatn and final
ly leave them joined almost into yarn.
The cotton finally comes from th«ae
machines in a continuous web, which
looks like cotton batting. Handle it
now and you will find that it is much
finer and whiter than when it was in |
the bale. It next goes to the carding
machine, where it is run through
wheels, or cylinders, covered with wire
teeth. These teeth are so fine that ;
there are thousands of them on a j
square foot of surface. They brush \
and comb the cotton as it goes through
them, and it comes out finally in the ;
shape of a seemingly endless strand, or j
rope, of soft yarn. This rope at the
beginning is bigger around than a
man's thumb. It is almost an inch in
thickness, but it is as soft as down.
It passes- from these machines on
through other twisting machines, being
gradually twisted finer and growing
smaller and smaller, until it at last
is of about the size of a fishing line.
Feel it now. It is still soft. Another
strand of the same size, which has
been reduced from another rope, is uni
ted with it, and the two are twisted
and retwisted by machinery until they
are of the size of the finest cotton
The rope of an inch in thickness is
now so small that it would thread a
needle. The fibers have been doubled
several hundred times, and they are
now down to the strength and slz»?
needed for the making of cloth. As
they come from the machine they are
rolled upon spindles or long spools
and are ready for the weaving room.
Another set of threads are wound upon
rollers of the width of the cloth. These j
arc to make the long threads of the
cloth. The spindles are to move in and j
nut between the long threads and make
the short threads which go across the
piece of cloth. In the weaving room
there are thousands on thousands of
these spindles flying to and fro, back
and forth, through the cloth. Kach
horn is attended by a girl or man, and
a great factory-like din fills the room.
Thread by thread the great rolls of
cloth are turned out, but the spindles,
work so fast that thousands of yards
are woven every day, and the shuttle
flies from one side of the room to the
other about 150 times every .minute.
The cloth has to be cleaned and
smoothed up after it is finished. It is
then packed up in bales, much like cot
ton bales, and is shipped to South
Africa, and even to Europe.
It is important in preparing cotton
for the foreign market that it be put
in certain kinds of packages. Some of
that which goes to South America has
to be shipped so that it can be carried |
over the mountains on the backs of !
mules, and the factories find that each
country has its own special kinds of
cloth and special bundles. We study \
the foreign markets less than any
other nation, and I am told that our
raw cotton goes to Europe in worse
shape than that of any other country.
The covering of the bales is so coarse
that the cotton often comes in full of j
dust, and a percentage has often to be j
deducted for loss. The Indian cotton
is shipped in well-packed bales, and !
Egypt sends its product out in. beautl- |
ful shape. Our consul at Trieste lately
sent to the state department pictures
of the different cotton bales as they
come to the markets of Germany.
These pictures show that the Ameri
can cotton is the worst packed of all.
There are cottonseed oil mills now to
be found in all parts of the South.
There Is one here at Spartanburg run !
in connection with a large cotton gin. j
Until a few years ago the cottonseed i
went to waste. It was burned up or j
thrown away as uselss. Now it Is one
of the most valuable products of the I
country, and it is estimated that the j
product is worth more than $100,000,000 '
a j'ear. Much of it is used in making i
oil. The seeds are ground up and the j
oil squeezed out of them. After this it
is refined, and Is used for all sorts of
manufactures. Some of it goes into
soap. A large amount is used In mak
ing oleomargarine and different kinds
of patent butters, and a large part of
the salad oil which is sold under the
name of olive oil Is in reality made of j
cotton seeds. Experts testified before j
the tariff commission in 1881 that 90 :
per cent of the oil sold in the United
States was really cotton seed oil, and the j
use of such oil for salads and cooking I
is increasing every day. It is said to j
be better than lard for cooking, and, j
when properly made, it is- hard to dis
tinguish it from the best olive oil. The !
oil mills are often run by companies
with a large capital, and there is al
ready, I am told, a cottonseed oil trust.
At first the oil was shipped in barrels,
but now there are tank cars, whcih
carry it from one part of the country
to another, and not a bit of it is allowed
to go to waste.
The refined cotton seed oil is worth
from 26 to 28 cents a gallon, while the
crude oil is worth only about 20 cents.
I am told that the people who use this
oil like it fully as* well as the olive oil,
and that the laborers who are employed
in the oil mills grow fat upon it. They
no longer bring meat with them for
their dinners, but put their dry bread
under the oil press, where the sweet,
warm, fresh oil is trickling out, and
eat it with a relish. Cotton seed oil
costs only about half as much as olive
oil, and it is cheaper than lard or bacon.
After the oil is pressed out of the seeds
the ground refuse, or cottonseed meal,
is pressed into cakes, to be used for
feeding stock, and the hulls of the seed
are of value for manure. Today the
South is getting more out of its cotton
crop than ever before. Inventors are
now w r orking on machines which will
take the cotton stalks and grind- them
up into fibers, to be used in the making
of coarse cloth, and the day will soon
come when every atom of a cotton
plant, from the bark to the seed, will
be turned into money.
— Frank G. Carpenter.
"Why not take a winter trip through
the Southwest to the Pacific Coast? Get
out of the latitude of snow and ice and
prolong your health and add to your
knowledge and experience by visiting
California. If you have never been
there it will be a revelation to you. and
will furnish you with pleasant memories
enough to last the balance of your life.
The proper winter route Is via New
Orleans and the magnificent service of
j its special Sunset Limited through train
i on the Southern Pacific. This magnifl
! cent train leaves New Orleans every
j Monday and Thursday morning, and
I takes you. without change of cars, right
! through to San Francisco. It is a solid,
Pullman-built train, vestibuled
throughout, steam heated, and lighted
by Pintsch gas. It comprises, in its
equipment, a drawing room for ladies,
the first car of its kind ever built for
any railway, smoking room for gentle
men, bath-room, buffet, barber shop,
drawing room cars and an unexcelled
dinner: a library of well-selected books
and all the current periodicals, which
are at the disposal of the passengers.
A ladies' maid accompanies the train,
whese services are at the disposition of
the lady passengers. If you are con
templating a trip to California, or have
any friends who think of going there,
write W. G. Neimyer, General Western
Agent, Southern Pacifio Co., 238 Clark
St., Chicago, who will cheerfully send
you literature descriptive of the scenic
and romantic features of the line and
CIVILIZATION 2 For Nippur
V^ V . IL^ I^ /^ * l^ 1 * ? Antedated Christ
iq a\ n »#« ' by Nine
l4 *J oV/L^W, V_j7 £ Thousand Years.
On Aug. 30 last, some details were
published of the. Remarkable archaeo
logical discovereriaa of a commission
that the University of Pennsylvania
sent to make pfceavations on the site
of the old Nippur, the oldest city of
the world. This commission, of which
Rev. John P. Peters, D. D-, was the
first director, fandu Prof. Herman V.
Hilprecht the permanent Assyriologi-st,
discovered the and scien
tifically sensational fact that the an
cient Babylonian mound contained not
enly the old cities known collectively
as Nippur, but also a still more an
cient city, in which were found cunei
form inscriptions, dating back to the
year (estimated) 5,250 B. C.
This showed with conclusiven^ss
that civilization is centuries older than
we believed, for the beginning of the
world has, until these discoveries, been
REV. HKKMAX V. HILPRECHfT, LX.. ».
placed at 4,004 B. C, and this date ap
pears in all our modern editions of the
But greater things have developed
since Prof. Hilprecht has returned
fresh from the scene with further in
formation of a most interesting nature.
Prof. Hilprecht's first announcement,
was that he can now positively and
authoritatively add 2,000 years more to
the age of the world. Dr. Peters' com
putation on the information at HTind,
in August, placed the probable date of
the beginning of civilization at 7,000
B. C. Prof. Hilprecht now declares that
his knowledge of the development of
cuneiform writing 'justifies him in say
ing that the earliest -writing found could
not have been developed in less than
This places the beginning of civiliza
tion at about the year 9,000 B. C. !
Prof. Hilprecht is one of the half dozen
men in the Avorld who have so mastered
all the developments of cuneiform in
scriptions that he can at a glance de
termine the age of the writing. It was
he who three years ago enunciated the
principle of the development of the
cuneiform writings from pictures and
of their gradual change from the sem
blance of the pictured things to the
signs of the later forms. The truth of
his theory is admitted now by all stu
dents of archaeology. It forms an im
portant part in the proof that he brings
to support his announcement.
The discoveries were made in the uni
versity's excavations at Nippur. Eight
years ago, when it was decided to send
out an expedition for Babylonian re
search, Prof. Hilprecht and the Rev.
Dr. John P. Peters, then professor of
archaeology at the university, decided
upon Nippur as the spot that offered
promise of the most ancient finds.
They were not thistaken. The Eng
lish, German and French scientists at
work in Babylon and Tello have little
chance of finding anything nearly so
ancient as the' bits of vases that the
American excavators dug up under the
Temple of Bell' ■■
THEORY OF.'.THE EXPEDITION.
From the beginning of religion in
the East, there has; been a firm belief,
•which thousands of years have not been
able to shake, ; that nothing about a
temple must ever be destroyed. The
vases on which were written the tem
ple archives were kept for thousands
of years, and were broken only by ac
cident. The worshippers believed that
never could any temple prosper or bring
peace and happiness to its people that
did not stand on the outline of the
first temple that had been built there.
If the old temple Avas in ruins, they did
not remove the fallen walls, but built
The same practice is still adhered to
in Consta-ntinople nnd other modern
cities, which are continually rising on
their old walls. The spectacle of a
house being torn down and taken away
is seldom offered in the East.
In the days when Noah built his
ark the kings and high priests of Baby
lonia had the same belief, and some of
them in making alterations in the tem
ple, left such inscriptions on clay as
"But previous kings have not kept
the boundary of the temple: they have
not searched out its foundation stone,
and gathered their architects to lay
out the lines on the true places of the
former temple; and the gods were not
in favor, and did not look kindly on
And so they built their own temples
with a care and precision that they
thought would. ineej, with the approval
of their deities'.'
All this may not seem at first to
have very much to- do with the work
of the Pennsyyvafnfif expedition, but it
has. It it had jiot been for this belief
of the worshippers pf Bel there would
have been no such rich veins of the
strata of civilization as the scientist
unearthed there, uncovering their finds
with more pri.de fthd Joy than they
would have ha^d iri a gold
mine. From seven-thousand years be
fore Christ the inscription of the
world's hietoryt scratched in clay and
baked to a hardwss against which
time and weather have had no effect,
had been placed here, as If a treasure
were being slbwly 1 deposited by the
human race for th> enlightenment of
races that should Qpme afterward.
It was this spot" which, of all- the
other places in the world, promised the
richest return for the enthusiasts'
money and labor, that the two arch
aeologists of the University of Pennsyl
i vania decided upon in their council be
fore the first party was sent out, eight
years ago. Fortune placed the enter
prise in the right place; and Hilprecht
and his sturdy assistants saw the
work done properly. They fell to and
began to pick and pull the temple to
pieces In one place and another to see
now it was built, and who had built It,
They hafl guessed pretty definitely that
they would unearth "strata of clviliza-
tion," and they found the idea truer
than they had hoped.
And here enters the reasoning on
which Hilprecht's claim that there
were civilized men seven thousand
years B. C. must stand or fall.
High outer and inner walls surround
ed the temple, and in parts, are still
standing. The hilltop, over the tower,
is nenety-seven feet above the desert
level and fifty feet above the surround
ing debris. The Arabs call the hill
"Daughter of the Prince."
On the exterior the temple gives little
Indication of its real antiquity. The
walls, as they were found at first,
seemed to have been built by Kada
shunran-Durgu, who lived only 1,200
years before Christ.
It took very little work, however, to '
show that the bricks bearing his name
formed only a thick veneer, or extra i
wall, on the real body of the temple.
They were put there by the pious king
to prevent the wearing effects of wind
and rain and sand, as were also the
canals that carried the water away
and the bitumen, a foot thick, that kept
it from getting through and wearing
away the lower end of the wall and the
The temple proper had been built,
they found, by King Ur-Gur, who flour
ished 2,800 B. C. over that part of Ken
gi—"the land of canals and bulrushes"
—later called Babylonia, for a younger
but greater city than Nippur.
SAROON'S EXISTENCE PROVED.
The Pennsylvanians dug- away until
they had reached Ur-Gur's foundation
and he had made it well. It was or
baked brick, like the walls, and eight
feet thick. Directly under it was Sar
gon's platform — two courses of Im
mense baked bricks of a size and shape
like nothing ever before found in Baby
lonia or anywhere else in the world, a
foot and a half square and four inches
thick. Each had a convex top, being
shaped like a loaf of bread half risen
from the pan. In addition to King Sar
gon's name in cuneiform figures, the
brick bore the deliberate imprint of the
thumb of the slave who made it.
The scientists were dumbfounded
Sargon, archaeologists had taught, was
a myth, for there had never been any
thing found in the East to corroborate
the Biblical mention of his name. Nar
amsin, they said, by the most liberal
count, was the oldest in the line of
known monarohs. History could trace
the succession no further.
But here in hard brick were the
works of both Sargon and of Naramsin
the son of Sargon. The truth of the
list of kings was settled beyond ques
tion, and, by it, the date of the build
ing of the platform, for the scientists
knew from their unbroken line of kings
that if Sargon lived at all It was thirty
eight hundred years before Christ.
They had reached the latest remains
that they could have expected but they
went still lower.
Under the two courses of great brlfks
laid by Sargon they found strata about
thirty feet thick, containig vases and
inscribed fragments that had gradu
ally been deposited there by centuries
of inhabitants. As they went further
down, proving with each spadeful the
history of a kingdom and a people that
had for thousands of years been wrap
ped in impenertable darkness, they
found broken pieces of the tablets or
vases on which temple records had
The cuneiform inscriptions grew
more primitive at every foot
Hilprecht, who knew that at one time
the cuneiform writing had h«.d its
origin in picturev'. felt sure that before
the bottom of the vein was reached
the pictures would be found. The pits,
two of them, side by side, and having
a total area of about one hundred
square yards, were sunk until they
were thirty feet below the platform
which formed such an important mile
post in computing the passage of ages.
The broken clay came to an end and
all traces of human life disappeared.
The excavators were now cutting
into the virgin clay of Babylonia, and
carrying out earth that since the cre
ation of the world had lain undisturbed
by man. They had not yet unearthed
writings in which the pictures were
whole, nor even the form in which
round objects were pictured in curved
lines, a stage that must have preceded
the time when the straight strokes
were used for all characters.
They found that the present, desert
level was not the one that had existed
in the early days of Nippur. There
was an older desert thirty feet or so
below the present line, and on this
plain Nippur had been founded.
But they found that the oldect of
these fragments, those taken from the
bottom of the pit were scratched with
cuneiform characters, dating 6,000 years
before Christ. Professor Hilprecht has
no hesitation in stating this, and adds
that it is based on a very conservative
calculation. Sargon lived 3,800 B. C,
and high above his platform of bricks
the gradual action of the busy life of
Nippur, the industry of the inhabi
tants, the accidents of building
changes, and the annual sand storms
had heaped forty feet of dirt and de
bris before the opening of the Chris
tian era. Four thousand years, the
Professor counts, was required to pile
those forty feet of earth. On that com
putation he thinks it fair to suppose
that the thirty feet of gradual deposit
found under the platform was 3,000
years in piling itself from the original
soil. Nippur was not always as busy
and as great as she was in S^argon's
day and in the days of his successors.
Her beginning may have been small,
and the process of the deposit thus
much slower than it was in later y&ars.
CONFIRMED BY EXPERTS.
So Hilprecht satisfied himself with
stating that the lower layers of the
strata were thrown there two thousand
years before Sargon, and nearly six
thousand years before Christ. It may
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BETWEEN FIFTH A\D SIXTH STREETS.
have been very much earlier than that.
It certainly was not later.
The world was not an Infant even in
those days. The earliest of the writ
ings found represent a development
that could not have been reached in
less than three thousand years. How
long men lived without writing may
never be known, but there is proof
enough in the results of the expedition
to show that the worshippers of Bel
wrote on clay six thousand years be
fore Christ. Professor Hilprecht
makes the statement advisedly. It Is
based on his knowledge of cuneiform
development, and asthere are barely
half a dozen men in tho world today
who can compare with him in that sci
ence, there will be few to dispute his
He stated hig belief in this compu
tation a few days ago, and it is pub
lished now for the first time.
Hilprecht believed it firmly when he
wrote the first volumes of the report,
but he held it back until, after another
year's study, his belief became a posi
The deciphering of the lncriptions
and the piecing of the fragmentary
text will be the work of years. After
poring over thousands of fragments of
vases, marked by him as the product
of a single century, the professor be
came convinced that each vase had
borne the same inscription — a temple
history — and he set about restoring it.
The text, when completed, was
formed of eighty-seven fragments, and
had 132 lines of cuneiform writing.
Its translation occupied nearly a year.
"Hilprecht may well be proud," said
Professor Sayce. of Oxford, "of the
magnificent results he has achieved,'
and the other European archaeologist,
who, with Sayce is considered a leader
in the scienoe, Hummel, of Munich,
added that "no other living Assyriol
ogist could equal such a contribution |
As it is, Hilprecht has added to his
tory about thirty new kings, previous
ly unknown to us, and has cleared up
by his reconstruction of Babylonian
history the exact relations of the early
Semitic dynasties to the old Sumeriau
kings of Babylonia.
The expedition is admitted to be one
of the most important scientific under
takings in the history of Western Asia.
It was organized and sent out in the
summer of 1888, a number of promi
nent Phlladelphians organizing a Bab
ylonian exploration fund, of which the
officers were Provost Charles C. Harri- i
son. Dr. William Pepper, president of •
the department of archaeology and j
palaeontology; Edward W. Clark, |
chairman of the Babylonian section, i
and Clarence H. Clark, treasurer of the
department. Rev. John P. Peters, who
now has a ministerial charge in New
York, was director; H. V. Hilprecht
and R. F. Harper were Assyriologis>ts,
and J. H. Haynes, of Robert college, |
Constantinople, the general executive
Since IS9S Haynes has been a director j
of the work, while Hilprecht continued
to be the student and translator of all :
the inscriptions discovered. To the
present time $75,000 or $SO,OOO have been
spent on the work.
The explorers found many interesting
stories bound up in the mute objects
of their search.
King Sargon, for all his piety, pract- j
ised an enterprise that would be frown- (
ed upon in these days. Centuries be- :
fore he lived one of the kings of Nip
pur, Lugal Kigub-Nidudu, gave to the
temple a door socket, of stone, a round
block on which the lower corner of the
door turned. Stones were rare in Bab
ylonia, for the land was alluvial. The
old king wanted all the credit for his
gift, so he had his name carved on it
with a votive inscription that the gods
might make no mistake.
Sargon also wanted to present a door
socket to the temple, but he could find
no stone, and so appropriated the stone
given by his predecessor. He turned it
over, set his slaves to work, and had
Ms name and presentation sentiments
nicely cut on its face. For 5,600 years
Sargon slept in the comfort that his
pious gift gave him, and Bel doubtless
has wondered what had become of the
other socket, until the Pennsylvania
expedition found the stone under the
debris and turned it over.
CUNIEFORMS OF VAST VALUE.
Professor Hilprecht's summer work
for the last three years has been the
cataloguing and organization of the j
Semitic and Hittlte sections of the Im- I
perial Ottoman Museum, as an officer
of the Turkish government. The re
sult of his work has been of incalcul
able advantage to the University of j
Pennsylvania. The Turkish law now
forbids the removal of any archaeo
logical material from the country, all
antiquities being deposited in the
museum In Constantinople, but in rec
ognition of his work the sultan pres
ented him with more than sixty boxes
of the antiquities that he chose as most
valuable in the expedition's find.
The university now has three times as many
cuneiform writings as ail other European
museums put together. None of the tablet*
are from the latest expedition, the results of
which have not yet reached Constantinople,
being now en route from Bassorah by way of
Arabia and the Red sea. These In turn will
have to bo arranged and catalogued, like all
the other" pieces in the museum, In two lan
guages, French and Turkish.
Hilprecht has found time to hunt through"
the East for many other antiquities, and has
brought home with him objects which are
worth thousands, and which were bone« ot
contention between the earnest representatives
or the greatest universities in Europe. Some
came by devious ways, as Turks are even
devious in matters of trade, and the most
valuable pieces, therefore, must not be
photographed for fear of the jealous meas
ures that German and French collectors
might take. One of the finds, among the
most important, is a marble vase, the only
vase in existence dated in the time of
Artaxerxas. It Is valued at $3,000, and is In
scribed in Median, in Babylonian cuneiform
and in Egyptian hieroglyphic*. It was in
private possession, and thrifty German buy
ers had for two years been leisurely tryine
to lower its price.
Prof. Hilprecht also bought for a sons',
comparatively, the oldest cuneiform tablet in
existence, bearing the name Enkhegal, one of
the oldest kings of . the city and land of
Tello. Six rivals were working for the same
tablet, and the utmost delicacy had to be
used. It is worth at least $5,000.
For six years Prof. Hilprecht's special
secret aim has been to find out the ex
act spot in Asia Minor where the famous
Capipadoclan tablets came from. To find the
place he made a special tour in Asia Minor,
using the two brancho"? of railroad as far
as they went, some 800 miles. Baron Voa
Kuehlman. chief of the railroad, gave him
a special car and placed every facility of the
road at his disposal. By this means he was
able to examine carefully all places from
Scutari to Kutahia and Koniah, and at last
found where the tablets came from.
The Turkish government has given him
permission to excavate there for four weeks
in order to identify the ancient city buried
there. Prof. Hilprecht means to avail him
self of this permission on his next visit to
He has fixed the date of the Cappadotian
tablets definitely as 2400 B. C. No other sci
entist knows where the tablets are to be
Prof. Hilprecht, while at work in Constan
tinople, was an officer of the Turkish govern
ment. Before he left Constantinople he waa
banqueted by Turkish officers, diplomatic
friends and scientists. He wears in his
scarfpin a garnet carved with the ple.ige:
"We are true to you while you are true to
The gem was given to him by the sultan.
Many were the adventures, some of them
highly exciting, which the American yarty
met in the course of their explorations" In
the book he is preparing Prof. Hilprecht re
lates a few of them. He «ays:
"On the journey from Smyrna to Alexan
dretta the large French steamship which
carried half the staff of the expedition was
wrecked on the rocky promontory Kerketevs,
on the Island of Samoa. Prince Alexander,
of Samoas, vying in hospitality with his pre
decessor. Polycrates. liberated the distressed
travelers, after a day and a half, from their
unhappy plight, and brought them saf6 and
sound to his capital, Vathy. But hardly had
they landed on the marshy haven at the foot
of the Amanus chain, a few weeks later, to
begin their Journey inland, when there be
gan that series of illnesses and adventures
which are never wanting to the larger expe
"Not far from Aleppo our architect waa
saved from the hands of a highway robber
only by the timely arrival of two of his" as
sociates. Below Der, the well known horse
market of the Anazeh tribe, while trying to
find a watering place, another member broke
through the eteep underwashed bank of the
Euphrates, and with difficulty escaped drown
The member was Hilprecht himself.
An Economical Daughter.
The old gentleman went into the parlor
the other night at the witching hour of 11:45
and found the lights out. and his daughter
and a dear friend enjoying a tete-a-tete in a
corner of the window. "Evangeline." said
the old man, sternly, "this is scandalous."
"Yes, papa," E'he answered sweetly, "it is
candleless because times are hard. Tights
cost so much that Ferdinand and I said wo
would try to get along with the starlight."
And patpa turned about in speechless anutseV
ment and tried to walk out of the room
through a panel in the wall paper.
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The Price your pocketbook.
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the big bottle of cough syrup that you
have to leave at home and dip out
with a. spoon, and can only take aa
Dr. Iluranhreys' Homeopathic Mamml of Dis
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Small bottles of pleasant pellets, attheve«t
pocket. Sold by druggists, or sent on receipt of J5
cents or five for $1.00 Humphreys' Med. Co.,
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