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Published every Saturday Morning:
FREMONT SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO.
: Office Opposite Kendall & Nims' Store.
. - J. S. rciKE, Editor and Publisher.
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papers discontinued. - ,
" - 4. ; If subscribers remove to other places, without in
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direction, they are held repoieille. -"
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sion ut tniua. - i
-. First see that cu have puid "r U up to the time yon
Wish it to atop; notify the Poi Muster of yonr desire,
and ask hira o notify the puMUher, onder his frmis, as
he ia authorized to do of yonr wish to discontinue.
SOS OF TEMPERAXCE.
.1 Fort Stcvenn Ifivision. No 43t2 Sro-
ied ieetigs, ever) Tueeday evening at the Division
-Rooinin theold Jf-rtheru Exchange.
" CADETS OF TEMPEHAXCE.
" Fort Steveu Section, No, 109'"'rU
averyTharsdHyeveuiiig in the Hall of the Sous of I etn
rroon l-otljfe, So. ?t at the Odd
Fellows Hall, in Morehouse's building, every Saturday
evuiug. ' "
- r; . KOBERTS, HUBBARD & CO., ,
v.:-;-.;-A:vi; :: MttvriCTvnyft or' -f " - - ';.-"
CopuerV Tia ml Sheet-Iron Ware,
Stoves, W ool, Hides, Slicep-pclts, Kegs
- , Old Copper, Our Stoves, tc, &c. Also,
ALL SORTS OF GE.NUINE YANKEE -NOTIONS.
-i l'casc'SL Briclt lllocls, 3s p. 1.
Fremont. Sanc'u-ky C. Ohio. ' :"-' '' ' y 32
- V ; C. K, Mc CILLOCII, v -
- '' " - ' DEALER IN
drugs; medicines, paints, dyestiffs,
- books. stationary, ac.
r, - FREMONT, OHIO,
IJALMI V. BCCKLAXD,.
TTOttNEY and Counsellor at law and Sn'tcilor
J in Chancery, will attend to professional busueec in
Sar.ttniv and Adjoining couutiee.
- O" OrriCK Second story of t yler'a mora.
- Irorax li. GREENE,
A TTORNEYAT LAW mid Prosecutinj Attorney
X. for aanduskv countv. Uluo, win auenu wai pi
smonai iMwiues entrusted to his care, with yrouiplnese
ST- Orric at the Oojrt Hone. - :
- CHESTER EOGERTCN,
. - Attorney aud Counsellor at Law,
- . ASD SOLICITOB IS. CHASCKUT. .
' Office At the Court Uime. - v - . .
v Fremont, Sandut-kv Co. O. No 1-
.. It. JT. BAUTLKTT,
ATTORNEY AND C0UNSELL011 AT LAW,
. rnEHOKI, 8ASO0SST, CO., o., -
WILliV1? hia nndiTided attention to profesi-ionnl
bcaiuess in Sanduaky and theailj.!niiig eoniitree.
. Fremont. Feb. 27. '49. ' "
PIERRE BEAUGBAND, .
" C PIirSICIAJ? AKD SURGEON, '.
RESPECTFULLYteiiile! his professional services
to the citizens ol Fremont, and vicinity.
Orrm-On diur sou'h of SfcCulluch's Druo store.
LA Q. RAWSCN, '
v PHYSICIAS AXISCKGEOX, .
. FaEMONT, SANDUSKY CO., O.
May 2fi, -b49. .;. : ,.' ...... U
r r O T A C V ' f IT V T V
" Wrttviot ITii-n lacnr9Bi Cnmnsnr.
-V-r CREOKT, BASDU8KV CO...OIIIO. .
BELJa & SHEETS, - - -
fhyieiuns mi Aif- ."M., , .
FREMONT. SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO.,
-OFFICE Second Storv of Kuapp'' Building.
. July , .: ' 21
: - Fost-Of flee IIonr. "
f I HE repaler Post-Office hours, until farther notice,
m win Deiiiunuwti". r
. From ? to 12 A. M. and from I to 8 T.M.
' Saudavafrom 8 to 9 A. -M. and from 4 to 5 P. M. .
-; ;.; ; - ; W. M. STARK, P.M.
-r - .- Kcw and Fastoionalile-
Bool n n l S U oe JS It o p. .
frSHE undersigned, has opened a BOOT and SHOE
ahop on' , ,
, Jtfala tlreet, two doors north of tie Post Office,
in Lover Sauduky. and is now manufaeturiDr to okdkh
nverv ttinz in the above line with uentiirsa and despatch.
Ilia ioaterhls are of the best quality, his workmen are ex
perieneed, and all work ia waktkd .
' He intends ta supply this ui.traet with beaqtifolaad
laanioaaoio. . . - 1-
GENTLEMEN'S BOOTS, '
Men's, Boys', and Children's Boots Shoes and Brnffatia,
Cowhide and Kirxkin, as well as pumps, atippera, ite
Wlso, Ladies' and Misses' slippers Buskins, Gaiters iS c,
!l done u; in Beat and fashionable style, and delivered
BthpanptBee and despatch.- 't heaobeeriber request"
K liberal share of the public patronage, and is determined
so enerii voc same. - - -
, - , GEORGE WIGSTEIN.-.
L. jane 23. 'J9. U , -JC i l u . - ; 18:6m.,.,'"
& - i - NEW ARRANGEMENT. '
D R S. SIIEE TS & BELL,
HAVING entered into a partnerehipin the Drog Store
- ewned by Or: Sheets, in Tyler's Building, where
.hey now offer afoll aesortment of . . .
. Druja, Medicines, Dye Stuffe,,Oik, Paints,
and a trrest variety of fancf articles, such aa cologne,
fcaw ail, indelible ink, pen Knives, combs, brushes of all
kinds, with fuJI assortment of - y , : ,
PATE N T-W EDI CINE S, "
for every 4ieaa that afflicts mankind: which we offer
t vervlow paiceaforCaah, Baesnrax. Ginselip. Sassafras
Barn from the root and Paper Rage. Low Prices, and
Ready Pay in fometliing, , u - . - , - .
is oar mollo forever. - SHEETS & BELL.
Fremont, Jo'ly 14, 1849." - "21
P o e trji.
- ' ' For the Freeman.
r A LAY OF THE SEASON.
- .- .v..-'- BY I. -
Gentle Spring! I loug f.ir thee.
For thy eiinshine mid thy showers.
'Warbling bird und huinmin? hee, " .
And thy 'odor-breathiiig fl iwera.""' ;
Winter, O! I'm weary ffroivn, -Of
his frost and wind and anow, .
Bid the churl be quickly cone,
While thy milder reeiel blow.
Let thy warm, 'inspiring breath, '"
Thionti this nervelesa being thrill,
' LifelefS almost, e'en as deuih,
" Every pulse hath rendered chill. -
Come! and let thy robe of ereen.
Quick displace this iimiltlMig white,
, Let thy loveliness be seen, ' :
Haste thee, to resume thy rifrht.
-" Bring. O! bring the wniliiijj wood, .
Its heuty and its shade uguiu;
Then through all its solitude.
Shall resound a gladsome strain.
Gurgling streams will tell how plrased.
Nature osiia again thy sway;
. -As from h y b mda released, . -. -
They resume their onward way.
Ye, I Iwiijj sweet Spring for thee," ; '
Tut thy unhiiie nd ttiy showers,
Wsrhlinj bird and liuiiimini hee,
' And thy "odor-breathing; flowers."
Fremont, February, 1850. - ;
ill i s r c 1 1 a n c o n s .
' ;,:Tii3 Angel? Misioa.
-' B7M.G. SLEEPER. '
Cnid'.eil by'a cloud whereon rested the radiance
of the settinsj sun, nn angei awaited a commission
from the Father. His face wore the tender gen
tie expression that we are wont to ascribe to the be
loved disciple, and his eye as it wandeied over the
earth lost its gladness and was dimed by the mist
of sorrow. . - I . u ,
Below him w;.s a monarch's pleasures palace.
Planned by most skillfal architects and fashioned
by hands that wrouirlit for posterity, it was a rem
of art. The lover of -luxurious easa,- fwmd nil its
appliances in , its marble balls, the student of the
pencil sought its galleries of rare pictures, the pleasure-seeker
w?.s allured by.i's splendid revels, while
for the timid and silent, there were green alleys
and secluded bowers. And grouped around each
fluted column, paoint; each lofty portico, by each
gleaming fountain.filling each gilded and cushioned
targe which floated on the stream, were the gay,
the graceful, the highly born, witli the lisjht laugh,
the careless jest, the merriment of the thoughtless
rather than the joyful heart. Regal in port, and
proud in mien was the lord of that courtly throng.
He slow! apart with his queen, abeautifal and state
ly woman, and tno lovely children gambolled at
their feet- The angel looked earnestly upon theta
and thought of the churches they might build, and
schools they might establish, the poor they might
benelil, but, at length, he turned mournfully away,
for none of these things held they in remember
ance. Willi tremT!ing eacrerness, n scholar finished hts
di35cu!t experiment. Years of long study lvtd made
him an adVpt in many sciences. He traced the
motions of the stars; lie interpreted the rnystii
movements of the mighty deep, he. went down in
to earth's hidden -chambers and proclaimed her
treasures. He had visited all climes, and learned
the habits of every people. .. He called the birds hy
nsme, from the lordly eagle to the tiny wren. lie
was familiar with the insect tribe," whether thev
flitted over the scanty Iwrbage of the northern hills
or gathered in myriads upon tropic plains. The
wish of his boyhood, the pttssion of his manhood
was gratified. His name, interwoven with human
knowledge, should be forgolten only when that
knowledge should pass from ifeen. The anel bent
forward ns if to lift him heavenward, but he drew
back .sadly, for the ' sage, wise in his own eyes,
deemed he had need of nothing.
The ringing plaudits of thousands, once and a-
gain repeated, answered the tones of a poet's lyre.
I erteet in swell and cadence, uusntng fresh xm
in overflow ini fount, they reached the ear of the
seraph. "He listened, if perchance some regenet
aled soul were pouring out the thanksgiving to Je-
hovidi, if tl were not indeed a prehide to the an
them it should sine in heaven. He lilsened vainly.
The melodv, earthly born; breathed of earth only.
Lowly contrition, cheerful self-sacrifice, hi;h faith.
bright hope, and glowing love had therein no phfe.
The dream of a day had filled the vision of the
singer and occupied his heart: and theanifei sigh
ed deeply for the bitterness that should spring from
that wasted talent. -
He. looked abroad where the blue sea rolled its
restless waves, and beheld two ships with every
sail swelled by the rapid breeze pressing on over
the waters. He querried if they did bear light
unto' darkened nations, if they would not uplift the
fearful veil that lay on the distant orient He
watched eagerly to join in the evening hymn, but,
lo! when he thought to hear the voice of suppli
cation and the song of praise.a fierce, blinding light
flashed along the deep, followed bv the roar of can
non in thunder peals, and, even while he gazed,
the lesser of the two lay a wreck on the mighty
The Father called, and . the anirel looking, back
shudderingly for an instant wondered if he should
be commissioned to the haughty monarch, the self
complacent sage, to the poet, or the world styled
hero of the conquering ship. - -
Shut from human eye, a friendless woman alone
amidst her sickness and poverty, called upon her
God. There was" no hre on the hearth, no lamp
on the tottering table, and the falling snow drifted
in through the shattered door, and rattling case
ment. Meekly borne had been her deep and ma
ny trials, but, now, that she stood on the brink of
the dead river, she trembled and would fnm have
strengthened herself in the fervor of another's faith.
Thither sped the ministering spirit. . Gently he
folded his pinion, around the pleader, and softly
he whispered in her . heart .the. message : ' f ear
not; fr I am with thee ;be not dismayed for f am
thy God. As he said so. the darkness vanished
and the cold, and pain. Doubt gave: place to joy
and, in her brightened vision, she deemed she saw
the throne of th Eternal, and heard the songs of
the redeemed. Reward for the whole life of toil
seemed given in those blissful moments. . She sank
baek, at last exhausted. . There was a prolonged
struggle another, and another, and then the spirit
freed itself from the clay, and the angel bore it up
ward to the bosom of the Father.
FREMONT, SANDUSKY COUNTY, FEBRUARY 23, 1850.
The Infant's Cordial System in Manchester,
I have already alluded to the practice, too com
mon in the cotton districts, of dosing infants with
narcotic medicine to keep them quiet while their
mothers are at their daily work in the factories.
In my former communication, I stated that the
druggists were exceedingly shy of giving any infor
mation upon the point ; but it is one of such great in
terest 'and importance, that I resolved covte qui
coute, to obtain a body of evidence upon the subject.
With this view I have waited upon many medical
men, examined a great many elderly factory hands,
male and femtle.and called at no fewer than thirty
live druggists' shops. ' -.
The information given to me by medical men
was general in ils character, and nay be summed
up in the evidence elicited from Mr. John Greg
Harrison, one of tho factory medical inspectors, and
a gentleman canying on a very- krge practice
amongst the operative classes: "The system of
drugging children is exceedingly common, and one
of the prevailing causes of infant mortality.
Mothers and nurses both administer narcotics; the
former, however, principally with the view of' ob
taining an undisturbed night's rest. The conse
quences produced nn imbecility, cansed by suffu
sion on the brain, and an extensive train of mesen
teric. an"d glandular diseases. The child sinks in
to a low torpid state, wastes away, to a skeleton
except the stomach, which swells producing what
is called pot-belly. If the children survive the
treatment, they are often weakly and stunted for
life. To this drugging "system and to defective
nursing its certain concomitant, not to "any fatal
effect inherent in factory labor the iirent infant
mortality m the cotton towns is to be ascribed."
Dr. Harrison remarks that the practice of procur
ing abortion was sadly common, particularly amonsr
unmarried women, and among married women liv
ing seperated from their husbands. A person in
Stockport is notriotts for the extent of his practice
in this way, instruments, and not drugs being the
usual means employed.
To return to the narcotic part of the subject
From evidence iriven me by mill hands themselves,
I select the followinur cases, observing that they
merely serve as samples of the ordinary sttries told
me by those who were sufficiently candid to speak
out upon the suhject
An intelligent maleoperattve.tn the Messrs. Mor
ris's mill, in Salford, stated that he and his wife put
out their first child to he. nursed. The nurse gave
the baby 'slecpinsr stuff.' and it died in nine weeks.
The neighbors told his wife how the baby w as dosed,
but the nurse denied that the child had ever got
anything of the kind. They never sent a child out
to be nurse atram. For that one they paid 3s. (id.
a week, and the weeks that nurse wnshed font, 4s.
The mother had to get un at four o'clock and car
ry it to the nurse's every morning; but the distance
was too far fur her to suckle it at noon, so the
child had no milk until tho-nurse brought it home
at mailt. The nurses are often old women, who
take in washing, and sometimes they have three or
four children to take care of. The mother can
often smell laudanum in the child's hrenth, when it
comes home. As for mothers themselves, they
give the sleeping stu.T principally at night, to secure
their own rest. : .
Another operative in the same mill gave the fol
lowing evidence: He had put out one child to
nnrsi, and he and his 'missus had sorely rued it
ever since. The child, a trirl, had never been heal
thy and stron'r, and the doctors told them, when
she was 14 months old. that she had been doed.
and how it would be with her. They paid ."5s a
week fM-he nprse. His wife then earned 15s a
week in the mill. At present he tlioimM. that 4s
about was the average price for nursing children.
The nurses very often take in washing and put the
infants to sleep bv drugging them. - He "had six
children, and they were all hearty except the first.
A femnlfl weaver, in a mill in Chorlton, stati-d
the case of a little srirl who was nursed by a neio-h.-hor
of hers, and who got "sleeping stuff." The
child seemed to be always asleep, and lay with its
eyes half open. t hearf got terribly big. and its
fingernails blue. The mother took the chill from
tlie nurse and carried it to the doctor, who sni l it
was poisoned. The mother -went on her knees
crying and said she had never sriven the child any
thing but it died very soon after, . The witness
was a maried women but had never had any family.
She had often henrd tell of the effect, of 'sleeping
stuff,' and how it killed the poor children.
Another woman, employed in the weav'nr room
of the same mill, had put out their-children to
nurse, and had lost none of them. '.But she hai a
good kind nurse a married woman not one of
the regul-ir old nurses who makes a trade of it
She had often heard of children getting 'sleeping
stuff." It made them that they were always dos
ing and never cared for food. They pined away
their head got big and they died. She carried her
own child every morning to the nurse.rjsinsr for this
purpose a full hour before she went to the mill
because the nurse lived some .way off. The nurse
did not rise at the same time, but (the mother
put the baby into bed to her, and left it there till
evening. She did not suckle it in the course of the
day because the distance was too far to go. All
her children were thriving.
1 now come to the druggist. With one or two
honorable exceptions.these individuals either point
bank denied that the drugging sj-stem existed, or
declined giving any information whatever. . More
than one of the proprietors of the most noted "God
frey shops" in Manchester were amongst the latter
class, whilst with others, who repudiated the traffic
entirely, several of them had their windows crowd
ed with announcements of different forms of the
medicine which they were cool enough to declare
they did not sell.
My inquiries extended to tho use of laudanum in
different forms by people of all axes, and I trans
cribe the evidence of those druggiists from whom I
received any information worthy of the name.
A highly respectable druggist in Salford states a
follows: "The use of laudanum ns a stimulus by
male and female adults is not at all uncommon.
His sales in this way are, however small. He dis
poses of about a shilling's worth weekly in penny
worths. Some of his customers will take a tea-spoonful
or tea-spoonful and a half of laudanum; and
in bad t!mes,when thev have no money, they come
and beg for a dose. The sale of the crude opium
has, he thinks, diminished in his part of the town.
When people come for laudanum, to use it as , a
stimulant he sells it mixed with tincture of gentian
in the hope that it may do them less harm. Chil
dren are drugged either with Godfrey's Cordial
or stronger decoctions of opium. Every drurrsrist
makes his own Godfrey, and the stronger he makes
it the taster it is bought, i he medicine consists
of laudanum, sweetened by a syrup, and further
flavored by some essential oil of spice. Mothers:
sometimes dose their infants, but the nurses carry
the practice to the greatest extent The mother
takes the infant from the warm bed at five o'clock
in the morning, and carries it to the nurse's, wheru
it is left till noon, and often drugged to keep it quiet
Another druggist tola me ot a common feature
in this hoccussing system. The "women goto
shops where the "cordial is made weak, and where
i) certain quantity say half a teaspoonful is pres
cribed as a dose. Afterwards they sro to shops
where the mixture is made stronger, and without
making any further inquiry buy the drug, and give
the child the old dose.
I beg, however, to direct particular attention to
the following evidence, given by a most intelligent
druggist,carrying on a very large business in a poor
neighborhood surrounded by mills and a gentleman
in whose perfect candor and good faith I have cer
tain knowledge : "Laudanum, in various forms, is
used to some extent ty the adult population, male
and ternale, and to a terrible extent tor yonng chil
dren. 1 sell about 2s worth a week of laudanum,
of pennorths, for adults. Some use raw opium
instead. Thev either chew it, or make itinto pills
and swallow it, The country people use laudanum
a stimulant as well as the town people. On mark
ed (fays they come in from L3,mm and Warrington
and buy the pure drug for themselves, and God
frey, or "Quietness," for the children. Habitual
drunkards often give up spirits and take to lauda
num, as being cheaper and more intensely stimulat
ing. Another class of customers are middle-aged
prostitutes. They take it when they get low and
melancholy. Three of them came together- into
my shop last night foropium to relieve pains in their
limbs. These women swallow the drug in great
quantities. As regards children, they are common
ly dosed either with.'Gvidfrey or Infant's Quietness.'
The first is an old-fashioned preparation, and has
been more or less in vogue for near a century.
It is made differently by diffeaent venders, but
generally speaking it contains an ounce and a-half
of pure laudanum to the quart, Tho dose is from
half tot wo teaspoonfuls. Infant's Cordial.or Mixture,
is stronger, containing on the average two' ounces
of laudanum to a quart Occasionally paregoric,
which is one-fourth part as strong as laudanum, is
used. Mothers sometimes give narcotics to . their
children, but most commonly the nurses are . in
fault. ; The stuff is frequently administered by the
mother's knowledge, but is occasionally given by
mother's without the father's knowledge. I be
lieve that women frequently drug their children
through pure ignorance of the effect of the practice,
and because, having been brought up in the mills,
they know nothing about the litst duties of mothers.
The nurses sometimes take children lor Is. 6d a
week. They are very often laundresses. Haifa-crown
a week may be the average charge of the
nurse, and the 'nursing commonly consists of lay
ing the infant in a cradle to doze all day in a stupi
fied state produced by a teaspoonful of 'Godfrey'
or 'Quietness. Bad as the practice is it would not
be so fatal if the nurses and parents would obey
he druggists instructions in administering the me
dicine. But this is what often takes place. . A wo
men comes pennorths of 'Godfrey.' Well, all is
right for five or six weeks. Then she begins to
complain that we don't make the 'Godfrey" so god
as we used to do; that she has to give the child
more than it needed at first; and s nothing will
do but she has heard that that is better, i.e.
stronger. But in process of time, as the child (jets
accustomed to the drug, the dose must be made
stronger si ill. Then the nurses, and sometimes the
mothers, take to making the stuff themselves.
They .buy p:;:ii o.-tlis o;' a:i ii-!e.l, an I treacle and
sugar, "add tlu'laudrtfuira to it, and m:iko the dose
asBtrongas they like. Tho miJw fes teach them
how to brew it, and if the quantity of laudanum
comes expensive, they use crude opium instead. Of
course numherles children are carried na tins way.
I know a child that has been so treated at once; it
looks like a little old man or woman. I can tell
one in an instant Often and often a mother comes
here with a child that lias been out t nurse, to
know what can bo the matter with it. I know but
frequent!' I dare hardly tell fir if I say what I
am sure of, the mother will go to the nurse , and
charge her with fcie'eening the child; the nurse will
deny, point blank, that she did anything of the
sort, and will come and make a disturbance here,
daring me to prove what, of course, I can't prove
legallv.and abusing me for taking away her charac
ter. The children also suffer from the period
which elapses between the times of their being
suckled. The mothers often live on vegetables,
and drink quantities of thin ale, and the consequen
ce is that tho children are terribly subject to
weakening attacks of diarrhoea."
Hearing in several quarters of the 'little shops'
which retailed 'Godfrey'' I looked out for such an
establishment, and in a Dactt street in jnoriton,
surrounded by mills, I hit upon what I wanted
shop in tho "-reneral line," in the window of which
amongst egn, candles, sugar, bread, soap, butter,
starch, herring, and cheese, 1 observed a placard
maiked "Childcen.s draughts a penny each.'
There was a woman behind the counter, on my
makinji inquiries as to whether she s ild 'Godfrey,'
or any similar compound, she replied that she had
not tor six months. I he draught announced in
the window was purgative. .
Then you used to sell" 'Godfrey?'."
"Oh, yes, we used to make it and sell it for chil
dren, when they were cross; but the people did not
think ours strong enough.
"What did you make it of?"
"We took a pennorlh of anniseed, a quarter of
a pound of treacle, and a pennorth ot laudanum (a
quarter of an ounce.) ' Then we-stewed down the
anniseed with water, aud mixed up tho whole in a
qu irt bottle."
"And so this stun was too weaK
"Ave, that it was. I could have sold it fist en
ough if I had made it stronger ; but I dar'nt do it, for
fear of rettinr into trouble.
"Do you ever give it to your own children ?"
there were several sprawing about the back par
'Yes. But I never put a pennorth of laudanum
into the bottle that I give it In them out nif
"But very strong stiitf in genernlly need?"
'Indeed il Is; yon rnty know the children that get It
at once if vnn have any experienre ;n them thi'lgs
tlieyr en si'-hlr, Bnd pniiv. and ill-look ing. It's a
shocking thing that pnir people f h. u!d lie obliged to give
their children t-uh stuff to keep them quiet."
Abstain from a't appearance of evi'
MR. C'IiAY?S COMPROMISE.
Remarks of Mr. Clav on the Compromise Resolutions
in the United States Senate, -February 5:h and 6th
From the Washington Republic. '
Is Senate, February 5. Mr. Mangum moved
that the Senate proceed to the consideration of the
resolution submitted by Mr. .Clay. on Wednesday
last . "
- Mr. Clay said he never rose to address the Sen
ate with more intense feeling than-on the present
occasion, tie had witnessed many seasons of srreat
peril and danger in the history of the country, but
he never before rose to" address tire. Senate when
there was such an extreme solicitude, fear and anx
iety felt by -the country in the issue of the great
events now transpiring, lie did not think it would
be out of place to do that in the Senate which he
had never ceased to do :n his own chamber that
is, to invoke the Supreme Arbiter who holds in his
hand the destinies of nations to calm the passions of
men and the violence of party ; to ftllow reason to
resume her empire; and to bestow on him Mis
smiles of approval, and the strength and ability to
perform the task before him. He had witnessed
other periods when the events of the day caused
the greatest anxiety throughout the country; and
in all these,. as well as the present, he had no doubt,
were he to trace the cause of the danger, peril and
alarm to its true source, he would find it party
spirit He appealed to Senators if this were not
true. .Parties, in order to gam a triumph for them
selves over their opponents, seized upon every sub
jectthat presented itself to make capital of, and to
increase their own numbers. . I wo Senators had
told them that both of the two political parties of
the country at the north, actuated by such spirit,
had endeavored and were endeavoring to outdo
each other to obtain the votes of a small, third par
ty, called Abolitionists, in order lo swell their re
spective numbers. Jior was this conlined to the
people at large. . In the legislative - halls of the
country the same party spirit overrides all other
considerations. 1 he House of Kepresentatives had
spent one whole week in a fruitless attempt to elect
a door-keeper. And what was the question whicl
prevented the election of a door-keeper? It was
not the fitness or the qualifications of the men ;
but the question was, whether the door-keeper to
be chosen belonged to this or that party, or wheth
er his views and sentiments of political questions
were of one or of another school. He did not ai
lude to this subject by way of reproaching any for
what had been done, but by way o! illustrating to
what lengths and extremes this party spirit is car
ried, and he. hoped that something would be done
to check it in its onward progress.
What vicissitudes we pass through in this shot-
career of life ! Eight years ajro he took leave of
the benate as he thought, forever. -And, if his own
inclinations, his own desires, hopes and anticipa
tions to be allowed toeniov the few remaminsr years
of life, in the quiet scenes of retired life, hal been
consulted, that would have been his last appear
ance in the Senate. But the Legislature of his
State, unsolicited by him, had thought prope
confer upon him again the honor of being their
Representative here, and he did not feel at liberty
to refuse it. He came however lo the Senate to
serve no' party, nor with any personal or private
ends, now or hereafter, to accomplish. And, if
there was in the Senate, or out of the Senate, an
man enjracred in the race after high honors or posi
tion, let that man rest assured that he would never
be jostled bv him (Mr. C.V in that race. When his
term of service in the Senate was ended, his mis
sion in this life, so far as relates to public affairs,
would be closed, and closed forever.
.It was impossible for any candid observer of
passing events not to see that the spirit ot party,
and the promotion and elevation ot particular mat
vidttals to Jiigh places and distinction,' were- now
the absorbing principles of men. At this time,
when the White House is in danger of being wrapt
in the flames of destruction and ruin, men were en
erased in talking about who shall be its next occu
pant When an alarming crevasse has taken place,
and the waters of destruction are fast pouring upon
us, we are talking about who shall rule over the
country to be inundated. The whole subject that
seemed to attract the attention of men was party,
party, passion, passion, mid intemperance of spirit
Was this 'the way to save the country from im
pending danger ? Within the Capitol there were
twenty furnaces all burning, and sending forth the
heat of passion and party spirit A' few months
ago there was peace in the country, and every thing
was'quiet and tranquil. Now there was danger
and peril and even menaces against the Union.
He implored Senators to luoi-t those things; to
quell the fires f passion now raging, and to listen
to the voice of reason. He did not suppose what
he could say would produce such an effect, but he
begged them to listen to the voice of their own rea
son, judgment and good sense, as to what can be
done for the good of the country.
To this object he had directed all his efforts;
with such a view he had in a manner cut himself
off from all social enjoyment since his arrival in
this city, and devoted all his time labor and abili
ties, to the formation of -some plan whereby, once
more, peace, concord and harmony, could be re
stored to the country. He had submitted that
plan to the Senate. He did not hope that it could
be successful, but he trusted that if Senators found
in it any thing objectionable, or that could or
ought to be amended, they would endeavor to im
prove, alter and amend it, and not pronounce
a.jainst it or attempt to destroy it Let them ex
amine it carefully, and calmly, and if they discov
ered any thing in it susceptiple of improvement, let
them improve it, and restore peace, barmony, and
happiness to the country. .
In forming this plan, he had thousrhf it should
embrace all the subjects upon which there was dif
ficulty, thinking that there could be no use in set-r
tling one part, and leaving others open, but that all
should be se.tled at one time. He also thought that
he should prepare a schema that both classes of j
States free St ites and slave States could adopt j
without any sacrifice of principle. These series of
resolutions propose a plan whereby all this is done.
He saw one section of the States of the country
pushing their measures to an alarming and danger
ous extreme; he saw the other section preparing
to extend their measures to another and equally
dangerous extremity; and ho thought that he
should prepare a plan that would stop this peril.
svnd afford a ground on which both sections could
unite without the sacrifice of any principle, but at
the saci ilice of a little feelinar only. - Ho believed
that his resolutions accomplished thiser.d. He be -
lieved that, in all concessions by one section, they
should receive a compensation : and bv a careful
and calm consideration of the resolutions, this
would appear to be carried out
In the first resolution it was said that California
snouia be admitted into the Union without any
provision either prohibiting or admitting slavery,
But gentlemen from the south say, that m this the
north get all they want that slavery is already pro
hibited there, and the ends and purposes of the
free States have been accomplished. Hiis is-true.
uut by whom has it been done ? Has it been done
by Congress, or by any act of the Government?
No, but by the people of California themselves;
and is it not the doctrine of all parties that the peo
ple of every State should be left free either to ad
mit or prohibit slavery, as their should deem prop
er? ihe question involved in the admission. or
Missouri was whether, after a state had formed
constitution, and was organized as a State of "the
Union, Congress had the power to control the oc- "
tion ot that State orr the subject ot slavery. . jtnosa
of the south who favored her admission into the
Union held the doctrine that once a State, she
stood among her peers equal ia all respecU to thf tn,
and that her rights and powers over that subject
were as clear and unquestionable as those of any
ope of the thirteen origin! States, and that Cong- ..
ress has no authority or' power to control her action
in the least respect ..,"'.':
tjiu iuuuiii inc. il initio it mc i' nuiu, a. i3i ntr
should be well satisfied with his declaration, and
with what had taken place in California. "' They
enacted, its operation would cease when the State
was 'formed. There was now no one who would
contend for a moment that if the States formed out
of the Northwest Territory, and to whom had been
applied the ordinance ot 1787 Illinois, Ohio, In
diana, and others -chose to alter their constitutions,
and permitted slavery" to exist within their limits.
they had, as much right and power to do 60 as had
Viiginia within her limits.- - . - - s"
No one would contend that tho exclusion of sla
very by the people of California was the act of
Congress, or of the Government of the United
States, but il whs a decision of the question by the
people of Cahf-irma, by California herself, who
alone had the right to decide it "
The second resolution, of the series was "an im
portant one, and he begged gentlemen to look at
it calmly. He was aware, when he prepared it, of
the perseverence with which the 'Wilmot Proviso
was pressed by the north; he was aware that ev
ery tree estate had expressed an opinion in itsiovor,
and had instructed its Representatives iri Congress
to secure its adoptietr; he' was aware" that the
northern people considered it as a favorite measure,
and had set their hearts on it He was aware that,
by asking them to vote for this resolution, he. call
ed upon them to abandon the Wilmot Proviso.'lo
give it up; to open their eyes to the danger to the
country in pressing it when there was no necessity
whatever for it. ' : ' - ; - -- ---. ;
In thus calling upon them to abandon" their fa
vorite measure, he offered them the assertion, in bis
resolution of two clear and indisputable truths. -i-They
were: First -That slavery does not exist 4u
anv part of the territories acquired from Mexico;
and, secondly, that, in our opinion, slavery, nerer
will exist in any portiun of it : ' '- ' i
He had heard it stated that the assertion of theso
truths by Congress was equal to tho enaptment
of the Wilmot I'roviso. He did not think it was.
If the Wilmot Proviso be passed by Congress, there
is a solemn enactment, and it is a positive interdic
tion of slavery there ; but, by this assertion, we say
nothing more than that alTthe present time it does
not exist there, and that, in our opinion, it never
will . " : ' ;
He hoped that the free States would be satisfied
with this expression of opinion, and not require any
enactment On the subject
This resolution would have been more accepta
ble to him without the assertion of these two truths
than with them, but he bad thought, that some
thing should be given as a compensation for the
surrender and compromise of feeling on this point
" lie had no desire to make a speech on each of
the resolutions, but would detain the Senate for a
while in the examination of the truths set forth in
those resolutions. As to the first, that Slavery
does not exist in any of the territories acquired by
the supreme government of Mexico,, whereby sla
very was abolished in that, nation, and the general '
acquiescence of all the States of Mexico in that ab
olition of slavery, down to the time of the treaty
ceding those territories to the United States. This
act of the government of Mexico was said to have
been irregular, and not binding ; but il was not
our province a foreign power-to inquire into the
validity of the municipal sets of any government,
particularly w hen the people of Muxico bad acqui
esced in it "
Mr. C. also read an extract from the corres
pondence of Mr. Trist with the goTerptnent on this
point The discussions on a former occasion, when
t'iis territory was first ceded, had left the general
impression that slavery was not in existence in
Mexico or those territories prior to their cession to
the United States. Nor could he account for its
existence there now, unless at the moment , the
treaty cession was concluded the constitution, was
extended over every part of the territory and. took
slavery with it- --' - -
Such doctrine was irreconcilable Vnh his views
and feelings. There were at the time of that treaty
fifteen free and fifteen slave States in the Union;
the institutions of both were recognized by the coa
stitution. How could it be possible that the con
stitution, in extending over these territories could
carry the principle of slavery, and could not carry
the principles of freedom established in one half of
the Union "? By the laws of Mexico, there was no.
slavery in these territories at the time of the cess
ion; and as no action had been taken to introduce"
it there, he thought he had sufficient reason forjBay
ing it did not exist there now. . 5 ...
The question of slavery was divisible into two
branches: slavery in the States, and slavery with
out the States. Congress has no powers over sla
very in the States, except in the three particulars
mentioned in the Constitution. -. That is. the power
to recriiliite renresentation.lhe nower to lew a tar.
and the powers relative to the fugitive, slaves.. Be
yond this, Congrets has no power over slavery in
the States. ' . ' . , . ;
If Congress were called upon to overturn the in
stitution of slavery in the states, a4 sucba meas
ure, was seriously thought of, then his votee would
be for war. . Then a case would be presented where
it would be justifiable in the sight of God and f
nations, to resist the oppression. They would then
be acting in "self-defence; and the slave States
would then be justifiable in resisting the act by ev
ery means in their power; and in a civil war in
such a case, they would have the sympathies and
support of every man who loved jusice and light.
France had engaged in. a war to propagate the
rights of man, and her fate was well known. ' If we
feU,,.l.t nn.,ra in n rii-il uroe afiniit tl,A inf rjvtitrV
itton ot slavery into territories where it does not ex-
ist, what a spectacle would oe presented lo-iue
world 1 It would not. be a war to propagate the
' rights of man, but a war to propagate the wrongs