Newspaper Page Text
VOL, L.JLII NO. 8"
BOCK iSLJLN D, ULL., SATUKDAT, JAJN UAliY 30, 1(U
PAGES J) TO Hi.
Causes Leading Up to
the Present Condition
In the East Charac
teristics of the Rus
sians and the Japs
N reviewing the present trouble be- i
tween Japan and Russia and its1
probable outcome it is necessary
to consider the motive actuating
each of the parties to the conflict. To
Russia a war w ith Japan or with any
other country, for that" matter would
mean territorial or other aggrandize
ment and nothing more. To Japan wSr
with Russia means national existence
almost, for Japan, right or wrong, has
constituted herself the guardian of the
east ami wishes to appear lie fore the
worid as th" urithiiiiiii" in tin mpdcrn
Izatiou of tin' orient. She lias a quar
rel with Russia not only because she
dislikes t lit? czar's methods with refer
ence to herself, but also lie ause, if she
should ern.il him to '-ro :i as he has
Iwgun in the east. Japan will he forced
forever Into the background. Thus it
is that the mikado today has the sym
pathy of practically the entire civilized
world. He is standing for the i-i trli t of
other nations besides his own, whercs
Russia stands for the rights of Put one
A New Japan.
Not that Japan likes Russia. Tar
from it. Indeed, she has gpod cause to
feel anything hut friendly toward the
"hear." She has never forgiven Russia
for the contemptible part that country
played in the settlement between China
and Japan. When the Chino-Japanese
war began, there was not one military
man out of a hundred who did not
think that China would project her
hordes Into Korea amt literally sweep
the timorous Japs into the sea. Those,
who called attention to the fact that
Japan had succeeded in getting togeth
er the nucleus of a very respectable
navy were met with the statement that
China had been doing something along
that line herself, ami that even on tin
sea she was apt to demonstrate that
numbers would -ount over the slight
additional intelligence which it was i eminent. It was to be expected that
conceded that Japan possessed. The j this should be denounced as a canard,
battle of the Yalu put to rout the sup-j but it is pretty well understood that
porters of the Chinese navy, ami the the statement was inspired and was
tight at Tort ArthurMisposcd of what- j issued as a feeler. If it was designed
ever consideration the Chinese army i 'o produce results it disappointed no
might previously have Iwen entitled to. lone. f,,r England. Japan and the I'nit
Rut. after all. it was not that China's ! 'd States immediately asked what it
prowess had leen overestimated. J.i- nil meant. Now Russia says that she
pan's simply had been underestimated, i K'"t out when she considers it safe
In short, it was the same old China . to do so. but she also declnrcd at the
which went to war. but a different, a ' close cf tHe Chinese war that she would
very different, Japan.
Strong on Land and Sea.
When Japan, flushed with vietnry
and ausious to emulate the example of
the more liberal larger nations in l,i r
peace settlement. suggested terms
winch were so generous tli.it Cnma
naturally would have ln deli-ht.-d
to accept them. Russia coolly stepped
in and practically told Japan that she
should have nothing for her trouble.
If she cared to take Formosa, all well
and good, but the smallest piece of the
Chinese mainland -never. Russia j.,o
fessd to be acting in th- interest of
the integrity of the Chinese empire,
but she deceived no cue.
Japan was mad. She was r ady to
tight and would have fought right
there and thn had it not been, that at
the bead of her government there were
men thoroughly equipped to hold-their
j own in diplomacy with the host Euro-
i pcan masters of the "art of concealing
fact-' These men decided to hide
their time, and ever since Japan has
been building ships, ships, ships, until
today her navy, vessel for vessel, is the
peer of any in the world. She has also
paid a great deal of attention to her
army, and, while she does not keep
under arms a verv Jarge .bodv of men.
CZAR OF RUSSIA.
those which she has are soldiers iii" ev
ery sense of the word.-
Russia's disinterestedness was ex
posed when on the pretext of "pacify
ing" Mamhuria she poured 'JimunhI
men into that country in I'.n and then
after the war of the allied nations
against China contrived by every arti
fice known to diplomacy to hold on to
Manchuria. She had her railroad con
necting the Russian' and Chinese vap
itals, and naturally she was anxious to
hold on to the territory it traversed.
Since then, while the local authorities
have been Chinese, they are merely
underlings of the Russian representa
tives, to whom everything must he re
ported. Pressure, however, finally became so
strong and the other nations so insist
ent for some expression of Russia's ulti
mate intentions concerning Manchuria
that Russia aipout a year ago formally
declared that she would get out Oct. X,
V.xKi. Tor that reason the recent an
nouncement that she intended to re-
! main in- Manchuria practically perma
nently "in the interest of outside enter
prises' (to say not lung or tier own rail
roads and the coal which they need and
which' is found in abundance in the
mines of Manchuria) came as a thun
derclap from a clear sky to the few
diplomatists who occasionally seriously
regard the utterances of the czar's gov-
soon cviPeuate Manchuria.
Japan knew full well that Russia
would "consider it safe" to get out of
Manchuria concurrently with the blow
ing of the horn by the angel Gabriel.
Mid Russia knew that Japan knew it.
The mikado then realize I that the czar
had practically announced that it was
Jnp.ms move. He therefore notified
Russia that as the time for the evacua
tion of Manchuria had passed it was
but right, with Korea (Japan's special
charge, which had already cost her one
wan right at the door of Manchuria,
that the zar should let the worid know
Ills' intentions with regard to the great
Chinese province. Russia's only reply
to this was to rush extra troops to b--r
l-orts in the east and incidentally to
foment small disturbances in Mai
churia.la prdcr to .demonstrate ta.at it
was not yet safe "for 'her to leave.
Meanwhile the mikado became insist
entso insistent, in fact, that the pow
ers that be at St. I'oierslrarg deemed
it necessary to create a diversion. This
"diversion" was characteristically Rus
sian. Affecting to regard the Mancbn
rian matter as a "restidjudicata," Rus
sia began to encroach uiton' Korean ter
ritory. Just what steps she took in that
direction the methods of diplomacy
will not rermit of our knowing for
some time, but it i3 certain that she
sought to break down the predominat
ing influence of Japan in the Hermit
Kingdom. Indeed, she went much fur
ther than the proper regard for the
rights of an ostensibly friendly nation
should have permitted her to go. Nat
urally Japan wanted to know what she
was about. Then began negotiations
concerning Korea. Russia actually had
the assurance to propose to Japan
terms with reference to Korea, a coun
try with which, so far as the facts are
generally understood, she has as much
right to interfere as the United States
would have, the position of "watchdog
of Korea" by common consent among
the nations of the world having long
since been accorded to Japan by reason
of her proximity and latr because of
her having fairly won the distinction in .
her war with China. Hut the purpose
of the Russian government had been
accomplished, nnd Korea Appeared to
be the Issue, while Manchuria was, at
least temporarily, forgotten.
. But.shrewd as are theczar'sdiplomabs.
the mikado has about him a few men,
like Ito and Komura, who know a bit
about diplomacy themselves. They
had permitted the Russians to go on
and on and on assuming that the Japs
had forgotten that Manchuria is still
on the map. They were merely biding
their time. Therefore when the Rus
sian statesmen, in response to one of
their notes dealing with Korea and the
"issue" there, received a communica
tion from Tokyo bodily shifjing the
whole discussion back to Manchuria,
whence it had originally begun and
where it really belonged, there was but
one thing to do assume to ignore it
This they did. and this Japan refused
to accept as being a warrantable posi
tion on the part of Russia. As Russia
could not well afford to back down
after having been checkmated in what
she had regarded as a very clever bit
of laud grabbing, a clash then became
When two nations spring at each
other's throat, figuratively speaking,
there are more things to be considered
in speculating upon the probable out
come than mere numbers of men or
ships. After all. it is the individual
who brings success. American soldiers
are regarded as being of more value
in the lield than the soldiers of any
nation, and yet from the strictly tech
nical standpoint they are probably the
poorest soldiers in the world. Except
for the handful of men who constitute
the regular army, the I'nited States
has no troops ready fo do field duty as
it is understood in Germany and Rus
sia and even in I 'ranee. The condi
tions render that unnecessary. Rut.
as has been demonstrated on several
occasions, the American in six months
is converted into the most valuable
military man the world has ever seen.
That is because he is a thinking indi
vidual. Your well drilled man is all
right so long as he has ollicers to lead
him, but the moment the head disap
pears the army becomes a disorganized
mob, not knowing what b do or how
MAP OF KOREA
1st? Mutaten ir f Japan (pf
j w 3tu sea m" my i
Kor-a Htrmt. t .-t .-n K"r-.i :im! J.',ai. i.s
twren the two cie,.utri-. ar- tl.? w.l! tortuu.l
n:'rruw- strait. J.i.oi,.i !) '" t' rts ui.il t'.- t .
ni'i!iii;itnn l..t ii-ii ..si k. on th. rwrt'i.
minus .if h:.-r Chims.- K.ist rn r-dlroa-J. whi-h c
Kvsaii. a Ja pan-s- e.-l.-ny in K.r.-:i. :s rapi'iiy
ti.ri::h the (Torts f t!V Ja ue.-.- g. . .-r: r.r.
?.-o':l nii'i its seairt "li-ni -' n th- tnm- til
between K'rea an. I M:iiich;:ria iiri.l between
ur.eomplett it raiiroa'is ar.d the ch. i k r. .1 !.i:
to on it." Witb the American the of
ficer's principal duty is to let his men
know what he wishes t-hem to do.
That is all that is necessary. The men
find a way to do it. and the otlicers
don't liothor to impure to closely into
the ir.etleds wLitJi brought Jibout the
Hut even the American soldier is in
a measure put in the shade by the Jap,
for the latter is full to bursting of en
thusiasm born of his self assumed di
rectorship of civilization in the east.
Regarded as a nation. Japan is new;
regarded as soldiers, the Japanese are
so new that the paint hasn't yet worn
off. But they have the right spirit, and
they have demonstrated to the world
that thev are in earnest. A brief re
trospect just here may serve to show
the really wonderful strides made by
From the appearance of Perry and
his fieet in Yeddo bay, July S, 1S53,
may be said to date the awakening of
Japan. Perry's mission was "to over
awe the Japanese into extending to
American ships the privileges then en
joyed by the Dutch only. History does
oot say to what lengths he was pre
pared to go should his show of force
: prove insufficient, the fact being that
j the mere sight of the warships was
enough to convince the shogun of the
! expediency of acceding to Perry's wish
es. Accordingly, much against the de
sires of the mighty daimios, American
trade was grnnted access to two ports,
i As might Lave liecn expected, the Eu
ropean powers were not slow to profit
by the example, forcing similar conces
sions until, little by little, the shogun
had surrendered the domestic trade of
the country to the control of the treaty
powers. Out of this state of affairs ul
timately grew the revolution of 18GS, in
which several of the most influential
among the daimios took charge of the
person of the young mikado. Mutsuhi
to, declared their intention of restoring
him to full power as the real ruler of
Japan, made war on the shogun's
troops and signally worsted them. Thus
dirt the young emperor find himself
placed on the throne of which his an
cestors had been deprived centuries be
fore. Birth of a Nation.
The ultimate result of the rebellion
was anything but pleasant even for
those daimios who had participated in
the restoration of the mikado. (.Jrad
ualry falling under the sway of culti
vated and liberal minded statesmen,
the youthful Mutsuhito began to exer
cise his tituiar prerogatives in a way
that was contrary to all Japanese tra
ditions. For this change tjvo men, who
have since been prominently identified
with Japanese politics, were largely re
sponsible, these two being the Marquis
llirobumi Ito and Count Inouye, the
former's lifelong friend and political
coadjutor. Chietlv as a result of their
efforts the policy of cultivating the for
eigner sprang into being, and it was
also in no small measure owing to them
that the mikado annouiicid his inten
tion of providing the J;ntry with an
up to date western parliament. Then it
was that the daimios surprised them
selves and the world by taking a step
which insured the solidarity of the em
pire and its future high position among
the nations of the world. Voluntarily
they agreed to surrender all the privi
leges hallowed in their eyes by centu
ries of custom and at the same time
promised to do their utmost to further
the interests of a united Japan.
A Factor In the Far East.
In this act can be discerned what has
since been widely recognized as one
of the most distinguishing traits of this
most remarkable people the readiness
to .yield life itself if by ilie-jleaUt of
I.;.. i" miles VM.;,.. an.) midway
T"i isiatnls. ow-tie-l by Jap;in
"t J .! ti. is Russia'sr aveni.e i
ari'i I'.irt Arthur, th.- v;t herr.
I ne is with, the Traiis;l.er:a -i ii.v
le!!iK or,; t.-(l 1 J- rail Wlltl SeC.I
Tie-re is alH i a .sjjorl IJ.ie l l.n;
1 .tte.l lines rri,rHi- ih-; bonmla r v
- s ran:
rut a iluss.a. th pu.ra.U-l hies
the iimividual good will accrue to the
commonwealth. Hut self sacriti- e alone
cannot account for the progress Japan
has made, nor, for that matter, can
the faculty for imitation which the
Japanese possess to so great a degree.
Their adaptability to western civiliza
tion, .their willingness to jacefpt the
novel in the place of The "customary,
their amenability to discipline, all of
which have become proverbial in speak
ing of Japan in a word, their liberal
iry is due to 'their innate quickness In
the direction otf mental initiative.
It was the ChLno-Japauese war of
1 SIM-OS that first aroused the civilized
world to a lively interest in the doings
of the Land of the Rising Sun. Nearly
everylMxly predicted when the war be
gan that the aggressive little bantam
would speedily be crushed by the sheer
weight of the unwieldy old rooster, but
few took into account the fact that a
nation that hay just come into its own
is much more likely to be able to take
care of itself thanare a people decay
ing under the obsolete rule of an effete
Not only are the Japanese soldiers
brave and well disciplined, "but they
are also blessed with great agility and
a physical strength that one would not
expect in such mttes of humanity.
Their strength, as may be imagined.
was time and again tested during that
trying march in the summer of liXX).
Their agility was at all times in evi
dence, but perhaps never more so than
during the storming of Tientsin.
Quiet, orderly, polite, earliest such
are some more of the qualities of these
same tiny warriors who never fail to
salute the officers of every nation, en
dure without murmur all that military
life entails, accept thankfully their sti
pend of $1.50 a month and can live and
thrive on a diet in which rice is the
prevailing staple, and little enough of
that. Yet the Japanese soldier does
not retrograde into a mere lighting ma
chine. He knows how to think, he
knows how to act as occasion demands.
In the individual, as in the race, is
found that faculty which works so
largely for the greatness of a nation
the faculty of mental initiative.
The Russian Army.
And now for a glance at the other
side of the picture. It would be futile
to contend that the Russian army is
not one of the most powerful war en
gines the world has ever seen. Equally
absurd would it be to hesitate to ad
mit that the Russian soldier, from the
old world hyperteohnical standpoint, is
not one of the best that military science
is capable of producing.
Russia has the greatest armv on
earth. It consists of over 1,UU0,(HH)
men in times of peace, which may eas
ily be increased to 4,1 pi .( 11 k i in the
event of war. Tlx? magnitude of the
czar's military establishment may be
realized if one considers the fact that
the Russian army even on a peace foot
ing contains more ollicers alone than
the American army has of both ollicers
On a peace footing, sis at present
constituted, the armies of the czar are
made up of about t! per cent infantry,
1 per cent cavalry, 14 per cent artil
lery, .'5 per cent engineers, .'I per cent
commissariat and departmental troops
and per cent Cossacks. These pro
portions give but little idea, however,
of the relative importance of the va
rious arms .of the service. Ylfile by no
means the largest numerically, the
most conspicuous and effective portion
'of the army is the cavalry, together
with the kindred though irregular
body of troops known as tin? Cossacks.
In fact, Russia places chief rcliajiee
on her war horses. Of these there are
4,HKp,ihxi in the empire that have had
actual training in the army and that
can be requisitioned in case of emer
gency for cavalry duty.
A Mighty War Engine.
And the horsemen: They have no!
equal in the world, these wild riders j
of Russia. It is probably due to the!
great plains and the vast distances to'
be traversed that the Muscovites are'
veritably reared in the saddle. Cer-
tainly there are no other people who so,
love the horse, who so cultivate him'
and who have such mastery over him.
As a result the Slavic empire has al
most half of the horses of the world.
As another result the men ride like
Kvery year a million men become eli
gible to enter the Russian army. As
enly about iJCMUMMj are required, over
two-thirds of the availables must "bo'
'exempted or excused. Kvery district
iu:s its recruiting board and makes up!
its quota for the various arms of the!
service. The soldier in the ranks re-
ceives only about $4 per year., is some
times whipped to death, must give un
questioning ol icdic nee and is inured to
a life of privations and hardships such
as are known in scarcely any other
army in the world. This, however, is
not felt so much by the Slav as- it
would be by other races, for he lias
been used to these things from his
youth up. The luass of the soldiery is
composed of the peasant or former
serf class, the memlf rs of which are
illiterate, unaspiring, stolid, slavish, but
withal hardy, courageous and singular
ly devoted. In fact, no nation on earth
lias the solidarity that marks Russia.
With all its divergent elements, it is
still the most completely knit together
of any empire now in existence. The
Muscovite is taught the submergence
of self. Obedience is the prime virtue.
It is drilled into tne citizen that he ex
ists only for the czar.
The Russian is gregarious in a mark
ed degree. The communal life has ex-ist'-d
in his villages from time imme
morial. This sort of rough, elemental
altruism is earrh-d into the army and is
in fact its distinctive spirit. It marks
the Muscovite soldier as peculiar. It
gives him a certain stolid bravery
which wj!S recognized in the famous
remark of Napoleon that "it is not
enough to. kill, a Russian soldier; you
must also push him over."
This habit of personal effacement. of
blind obedience, of almost slavishness.
is shown nowhere more plainly than in
the manner of the private soldier iu ad
dressing an otlieer. He stands rigidly
at "attention" with his hand at his cap
throughout the entire conversation. He
never presumes to answer a question
with a direct "yes" or "no." but with a
f qualified "quite so" or "not exactly so."
He invariably uses the title of "your
excellency" or "your illustriousnoss" or
"your nobility" or even "your high no
bility." Russia, the UndeFeated.
The diet of the Muscovite when
the field is simplicity itself. U
largely vegetarian. Cabbage soup.
taloes, peas, beans, macaroni and vari
ous kinds of porridges are the staple
foods. These, with the black rye bread
and occasionally a small amount of
meat, make up the army fare. Yet.
like the Roman soldier, who also lived
ou a vegetable diet, these men can en
dure hardships such as the ordinary
civilian can scarcely conceive. The
"moving kitchen" is one feature of the
Russian camp that is. unique nnd that
MUTSUHITO. EMPEROR OF JAPAN.
IS being copied hv oilier l.lli'olieail ill'
mies. It is what its name implies.
vcruaiiie Kitciicn on wneeis mat ac
companies the army on all its marches
as indispensable as iis camp equipages
its artillery a ml its a mmunition 111
fact, it supplies the ammunition for the
human war machines, furnishing dy
mimic force that when released in time
of battle is hurled against the enemy
With terrific effect.
Russia has never been defeated, if
tin rather inconclusive Crimean war be
excepted. Steadily, resisilessly, she has
spread her dominion over Finland, over
Roland, over Turkey, over Mamhuria.
Even the matchless genius of a Napo
leon was unequal to tlj: task of pern
tr.it ing this human mass. No nation of
cither ancient or modern times has ever
been so unified, so organic.
In the matter of navies there is little
to choose between Russia and Japan.
Russia has more ships, but many of
mem are iockciI up in me isiacu sea.
I and many more of them dare not leave
! the Ilaltic. Then. too. while a fair Lro-
portion of Russia's warships are strict
ly modern constructions, practically all
of Japan's an? as up to date as it is
possible to make them. ' Russia has had
no lighting experience with Ict new
navy; Japan has had boMi men and
ships test'-d under lire. And. most im
portant of all. the theater of the pres
ent contlict is half around the world
from Russia proper, while Japan in
operating against Russia's Meets in the
est will be at the same time patrol
ling her own coast and menacing the
Asiatic ports owned or controlled by
Japan's War Chief.
fieneral Miisatake Tenim-hi, Japanese
minister of war, who will direct the
operations of the mikado's army should
the threatened clash with Russia take
place, is a soldier of wide experience in
lie studied in the (ierinan uui icmitics
forty years ago and on his return to
.la pa 11 entered the army, in wlih-h he
served In various capacities until short
ly before the 'hino-Jnpa le-sc war,
when he was made a member of the
board of sirategy. During the map-fi
of the a!ii-s on I'eking in 1 '. m he serv
ed as a major general under Lieutenant
General Yauiagiiehi, who comma tided
the Japanese troops, General .Terauchi
i is fifty -eig'nt years lfl. is known as an)
able tactician and was made minister
of war in March of last year.
Ueneral Terauchi is regarded as ona
of the best informed military authori
ties in the empire, and to him is due
much of the credit of reorganizing the
army according to western methods.
After the close of the war with China1
he advocated and brought about the
splitting up of the army into twelve
divisions instead of six. thus making
it easier to mobilize in case of trouble.;
He was active also in promoting tbe
establishment of the Japanese Red,!
Cross society, which now numbers Gt)3,
1'X of whom 4(;.."'Jo are life members
Since becoming the head of the war
department General Terauchi has kepC
in close touch with all European im
provements in military equipment and
man killing devices. As a consequence
military experts agree that no army to
day is better prepared for a couflicC
than that over which he holds sway.
lake his prospective antagonist. Oen
eral Kuropatkin. the czar's minister of
war, Terauchi is no carpet knight, but
has come by his military knowledge b.Vj
long service in the lield. Should tho
czar and the mikado lock horns over:
the eastern quest ffm these two mell
will be called upon to display their
highest skill; but hot until actually.
I.KM.I1AL MASAI A K K TKKAl'CHI.
pitted against each' other en 11 their reJ
abilities be determined.
Headlne and Talklnjt.
Rooks are no substitute for talk.
They tome mil of talk and go back into
talk. We doubt if reading 11 lone ever
made "a full man." If has been said.'
that reading is thinking with some one
else's lead, but talking is thinking if
we may borrow a simile from the motor
car- with two bead power. As a book
worm is to tl.e loan of the world, so It
the silent ti. inker to the talking think'
er. The man who does not. talk is it
st ra Hirer upon earth. He does not knowi
his fellows. anl they do not know himj
and ll.iiM we do not know we cannot
greatly like. "Little do men perceive
what solitude is and how far it extend
ed!, for 'a crowd is not comitaiiy, amf
faces are but a gallery of pictures ami
talk but a tinkling cymbal, where then
Is no love." Vet a man may do heroi'J
deeds and never talk at all in our sens
of the word, and he iii.iv Ipc a learneiC
man and never express an opinion oi
any subject of the Jirst consequence.
All the same, we agree with Karon
that, inasmuch as he Is shut up in him- 1
self, "closeness doth impair and a little,
perish his vudUtrulnJutivs. ljruU,ii
h pi J
1 i s !
1 ---- i
. ' - s " - J ;
. fit iJ