Newspaper Page Text
ROCK ISLAND ARGUS.
I LAST EDITION
VOL. LI II. NO. 19l.
ROCK ISLJSrD, ILL.., MONDAY, JUNJfl O, lt04.
PRICE TWO CENTS.
SCORE OF MINERS MEET
DEATH AS THE RESOLT OF
A DYNAMITE OUTRAGE
Two Hundred Pounds of Explosive is Set Off Un
der a Crowded Depot Platform.
Victims All Employed in
Awaiting a Train for Home.
Colorado Spring-. CoL, June G. An
explosion :it Independence, a nation
if the Florence A Cripple Creek rail
road. 'it 2:30 this morning killed !:
miner and injured eight or ten oth
IJyuuin lit, Coder Platform.
The explosion whs undoubtedly
caused by dynamite whieh bad been
laid iiiid'-r the center .f the depot
platform and which was set off by an
The Victor militia has been ordered
nut. Trouble is expected.
Awaiting Train for Home
The miners killed and injured were
all employed on the Findley property
ami were waiting to take a train
The killed and injured were taken to
Victor on a special train.
Train Him I Not Arrlinl.
The train had not arrived at the
depot when the explosion occurred.
None of tin- trainmen were hurt. Fif
ty miners gathered on the depot plat
form were blow u into the air and in
every direction. Mau.v were so badly
mangled identification was difficult.
Tor Ornl Hole.
The explosion shook all buildings in
the town and tore the depot platform
and surrounding objects into splin
ters, tearing a great hole in the
ground upon which the depot stood.
It i- believed about 800 pounds of
d namite was used.
(' lorado springs. June ". Later de
tectives found the machine which sel
off the dynamite under the platform.
BIO REUNION AT COLFAX
OF ADVEHTIST SOCIETY
Colfax, la.. June 'Hie Seventh
Day Ad elitist society of the state of
lowa is holding its annuel elghl day
camp maetJng at this place in a fifty
acre tract of timber adjoining Colfax.
About KMMQ Ad vent 1st s from vari
ous parts of the state are iu attendance
mid camping on the grounds. Tha
meeting closes neat Saturday, Speak
ers of national reputation are prea
eut ASKS HIS GOVERNMENT
TO SEND A BATTLESHIP
Washington. June .Rear Admiral
Chadwick today cabled the navy de
partment that the British minister
minister at Morocco had requested
the Knglish govemmenl to send a
battleship to Tangier.
NOT A UNION PAPER MILL
EMPLOYE WENT TO WORK
Appletoii. Wis., June ". Not cue
union aer mill employe in the Fox
valley came to work today. On ai:
open ballot all voted to qail work.
WIFE OF MARK TWAIN DIES
OF SYNCOPE AT FLORENCE
Florence. Italy. June f. Mrs. Sam
uel M. Clemens, wife of "Mark Twain."
died of syncope here today.
Better llo Left It Alone.
Watertown. N. I, June C John A.
fmiH of Livingston. Ky . aged 90.
u private of the Ninth infantry Madi
son barracks. Is dead as a result of an
vperation to remove a bullet from his
brain which had been there without
apparent Injur? to his intellect for ten
month. The wound was received in
Menomoala Wlu. I he Meet.
Madison. Wis., June ti. Menoinonle
won the interscholastic meet here, hav
ing nineteen points to its credit, with
east Bide of Milwaukee second and
west aide. Milwaukee, third.
Her Latest I. over.
"Nell's just crazy over Shakespeare"
"So be'a her latest la ha? Wbers'd
she meet blm ?"
OF A FOUL PLOT
Findley Mine and Were
GOV. YATES TALKS
TO HIS APPOINTEES
Keviewa Features ol Convention at
Love Feast Before Resum
Springfield. IIL, June rt. Governor
Yates called the employes of the vari
ous state depurtuieiiLs Into his office at
the state fa use atid spent an hoar with
them in a love feast. He said he was
anxious to gel buck to his desk und
had apprehended that the employes
would wish to call on him from time to
time to discuss the convention. For this
reason he thought it best to call tiiem
all together. He said be had uo secrets
to keep from his friends ami regretted
that he had not been able to get them
together during the convention and tell
them what had happened and was be
The governor went over the details
of the many conferences during the
c invention, ending In the combination
for Deneen, and the onslaughts ou his
forces. lie also talked for party har
mony. After the love feast the govern
or, at the head of his visitors,
marched to the offices of Secretary of
State Hose. Auditor McCullough and
Attorney General Hamlin to congratu
late them ou the results of the con
vention. WESTERN MINERS
Moyer Wants . S.
Oeuver, June ". The convention of
the Western Federation of Miners has
reaffirmed its political action of the
tenth and eleventh annual con volitions
in favor Of socialism. Albert Ryan,
of Arizona, and M. It. Dempsey, und
11. M. Swan, both of Montana, wore
appointed a committee to meat with
Senators Teller and Patterson ud
urge them to secure if possible, the
release of President Moyer from the
military prison at Tellurlde.
This action was taken at the request
of Moyer. who. in a letter, enclosed a
clipping from a local paper containing
the corresK)iidence of Senator Patter
son and Secretary of States John Hay
n the Imprisonment of T. J. Lee, an
engineer imprisoned at Sacatecaa,
STOLE FROM DEAD
Allegations Made Kalmt Dps Moines
Citizeo, Who la Ar
rested. Des Moim s. In.. June 0. Charles
Fah"er. formerly an officer of I'edar
Rapids, employed In caring for fami
lies quarantined for smallpox, has I - n
arrested charged with stealing &!.H0
from Charles Strakota in November.
It Is alleged thst he dug up a crts k
In the cellar of the house, after Stra
kota had died with the disease and
his wife was uttering from it. Ho has
been watched by detectives for many
A iulaMlor Meyer onilnn Muiiie.
Rome. June d I'nitwd States Am
bassador Meyer bss iald a farewell
visit to Foreign Minister Tittoui. and
afterward left Rome on his summer
vacation, most of which will be spent
In the United States.
Wisconsin to Sen. I Two Tisnn.
Madison. Wis.. June . 1 he athletic
iad of the University of Wisconsin
has decided to send a "varsity four in
addition to the 'varsity eight to the
J Pougnkeepehr regatta this month.
RIOT AT ST. LOUIS
Crowd, Angered at Failure to
Have Bull Fight, Burns
THOUSANDS TAKE PART IN IT
Find Wild West Show Too Tame and
Unable to (et Money
r-r. l.ouis. June u. incensed over
their failure to see a "genuine Spanish
bull tight." which the authorities had
ordered stopped, a riot was started la
an arena near the Worlds lair
grounds by a crowd of li.oixi men and
boys, who were unable to get their
money back, and the building was
burned to the ground. The price of
admission charged was L Four men
were placed under arrest by the au
thoritles of St. Louis county, charged
with the destruction of Jhe property.
Try to Mob Prisoner
Tbe crowd, thinking these men were
connected with the show, made au at
tempt to mob them. The building COfcl
$-.5u and is a total loss, with no in
surance. The show began with a wild
west cattle roping exhibition, but that
did not suit the crowd, which demand
ed the bull tight. When the matador
appeared the civil officers served pa
pers on the management of the show
prohibiting the tight. The result was
incendiarism and riot.
PROSECUTION RESTS AND
LAWYERS VISIT CHICAGO
:ni..d Rapids, Midi., June B. The
prosecution has rested iu the C. IV
Conger conspiracy trial, and the de
fense devoted its lirst inning to the
reading of testimony and documents
pertaining to the Lake Michigan water
deal. The court then adjourned until
tomorrow morning, the extended re
cess being granted to allow Prosecutor
Ward and Attorney Clapperton to go
to Chicago to take depositions for the
These depositions will relate to the
winnings which La nt K. Salsbury al
leges he made in market speculations
at Litchenstern's place. The defense
demanded the production of other wit
nesses metiioued iu the luiormatiou.
saying that Clay Hollister, cashier of
the Old National bank, would be want
ed, and perhaps Frederick Carman, one
of the eastern protnotors of the water
CLAY COUNTY INDORSES
WILLIAMS FOR PRE8IDENT
Louisville, '111., June 0. The Demo
crats of Clay county In mass conven
tion in this city selected six delegates
to the state convention. A. M. Rose,
of this city, was indorsed for congress
and Representative Williams. of Cariul,
Two Kit ird i.v Trains.
Terre Haute. Ind.. June 0. Michael
Bheerln, no years old, while walking
on the railway tracks, was struck by
a Vandalia train and killed. Charles
Grimm, braheman on the Chicago and
Fastern Illinois line, fell from his train
near Coal Bluff, and his body was cut
In two. Ills home was In Brazil,
John Duncan, of Calumet, Iic.nl.
Houghton. Mich.. June & John
Duncan, of Calumet, died at his home
from heart failure. He was superin
tendent of the Calumet and Heela
mine, and one of the most prominent
nun In the copjier country. He was
conspicuous In Republican and Ma
MIRACLE IN THE
Struck Deaf and Dumb
Chicago. June 6. Professing disbe
lief In Ood and following his state
ment with a challenge to the Almighty
to demonstrate His power. Julian Ken
fro. age. I 21 years, and living until
tbe last few days at 1M3 Wells street,
suddenly was stricken deaf and dumb.
This strange experience In-fell the
young man lute last Tuesduy night,
and be still is a deaf mute. Siuce
being stricken he has professed hi
p-lief iu Christ and has gone to his
home In Shreveport, La., where under
a Christian mother's care he will study
the Scriptures with the hope that ulti
mately he will be able to preach the
gospel from pulpit and platform. Le
tails of the strange case have jnst be
Reilsiona Talk While Tlaying Whlit.
Reiifro was born of religious parents
In Shreveport, but did not take kindly
to the solemn teachings of his mother,
and left home several years ago. com
ing to Chicago and going to work in
the office of a north side tannery as
shipping clerk. Ixist September he en
gaged a room in the flat of Mrs. Gillen,
203 Wells street, and there met sever
al young men. with whom he formed
a close friendship. Four of the young
men were playing whist last Tuesday
night when their conversation took a
religious turn and they abandoned the
game. Three of the four expressed, a
Causes Awful Havoc Sat
urday Evening at
FOURTEEN ARE DEAD
Three Thousand Cattle
Burned Loss Near
1 cor in . HI., .nine i. roiirteen per
sons are known to nave lost tlieir
lives as a result of the Coining di
tillerv tire Saturday. Elmer Hoean,
who was -wept several blocks by a
flood of whisky, died iii the hospital
yesterday. Four of the eight bodies
recovered have been identified. The
ss is conservatively estimated at
$850,000. The city health authorities
and Humane Officer Hanna are work
ing to remove the carcasses ot tne
steers. Fortunately tne weather is
cool. Air. iianna is directing- tne
shoofing of the injured steers and
Citv Phvsieian Haves i- arranging to
turn the carcasses with quicklime.
Started With Kxploaion.
Peoria. 111.. June ('. An explosion
which occurred in the eleven-story
Warehouse of the Corning distillery.
the second largest iu the world, coin
pletely wrecked the building. The
ruins immediately took tire and com
municated to three adjoining buildings.
burning them to the ground. Ten men
were burled beneath the ruins and
burned to death. Six others were seri
ously injured. The loss on buildings
und whisky and spirits stored will ap
proximate Kl,xx.U00. The tire spread
to the stock yards district, where a
dozen large cattle barns filled with cat
tle, were burned..
List of the Dead nml Wounded.
The list of the dead follows: Fred
Knoll, Louis Bebrend, John Hobeeker,
Joe Zimmerman, l uis Sax. Will-
lam Finley. .Ir.. B. Brown, M. Crowl.
John Leppln and William Field. The
Injured Adam Werner. Edward
Werner, Elmer Elogan, J. B. Marshall,
James M. Miller and Allie Feinberg.
Sure Death to Those Inside.
One tire alarm followed another in
rapid succession, until the general
alarm brought every fire engine in the
city to the scene, but their efforts had
little effect on the conflagration. The
warehouse, containing in the ucighbor
hood of yo.OUO barrels of whisky, was
instantaneously a seetlng cauldron,
and It was known that no one inside
the bis structure could last a moment.
It was sure deuth to all those who had
been at work there. The whisky from
the burstlug bunds Hooded every
thing. River of Fire In the Cattle Pens.
Large streams ran down grille to
ward the river, and in a short tiuie
there was n foot of whisky In the cat
tle pens east of the warehouse. It
Continued on Page Eight
CONVERSION OF A
After Declaring Only Such a Sign Would Cause
Believe in a Supreme Being.
inner in Uod, but Rentro declared he
was an agnostic.
Sirn Is I ven.
"I would believe in Cod if I could."
he said, "but I have read a good deal
of Ingersoirs writings and am unable
to have faith."
'"There are demonstrations of Cod
all about you." said one of Renfro'a
There may be. but I do not under
stand them." replied Benfro, Fel
lows, if (bxl would demonstrate Him
self to me in some way for instance.
If He should strike me deaf and dumb
or blind I might admit His exist
ence." One of the young men was about to
reply to the argument when he no
ticed Benfro turn pale. The next mo
ment the skeptic threw his arms out
lefore him as If wanling off a blow,
then he convnlsivclv iilaced his hands
before his face. An instant later be
fell forward, off his chair, und on to
the floor. At first Renfro'a compan
ions thought him dead, and then they
concluded he was shanimiog- Kvent
ually they rushed out. one for a phy
sician and another for water. Mrs.
Gillen was summoned and was in the
room before the physician. Dr. O. G.
Draier. 205 East Chicago avenue, ar
rived. Mrs. Gillen sooke to Renfro. but
gained no response. Dr. Drauej found
A TRI-STATE FAIR
Dubuque Proposes Having the
Biggest Thing Ever Held
ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN AND IOWA
Association is Incorporated With
Capital Stock r $.-. -
Dubuque, la., June G. -The Dubu
que tteca iters association has com
pleted allararngements for the tri-state
fair which will le held in this city in
August. This will be the biggest en
terprise of its kind ever undertaken by
the business men of Dubuque, and in
magnitude will eclipse the annual state
fair held at Des Moines. There will In
exhibits of the industrial and agricul
tural progress of Illinois, Wisconsin
and lowa. and the farmers and mer
chants are manifesting much interest
in the project- .
Expect Many Visitors.
The fair will continue one week, and
it is expected that there will be more
than -Run to visitors in the city. It is
the purpose of the protnotors to make
it a fixture and if push and energy
count for anything there is no reason
why it should not be made a success.
The fair association has been Incorpor
ated with a capital of $50,000.
INTERURBAN IS PLANNED
Indianapolis June 6. A Chicago dis
patch says: "An electric line has been
projected to connect Chicago and Indi
anapolis, to be known as the Chicago
and Northern Indiana Railroad com
pany. The promoters plan to construct
the road similar to a steam road, with
the exception of the power equipment
It will be built on a right of way
through Lake. Porter, Jasper. Pulaski,
White, ('ass. How aril. Clinton. Tipton,
Hamilton and Marion counties. A
corps of surveyors has begun to lay
out the route.
"The directors of the company are
Lester Smile. A. L. Wheeler and Sen
ator Charles X. Thompson, of Indian
apolis; Henderson K. Davenport, of
Sheridan: James G. Kemp, of Kemp
ton: Marion W. Bikenbury. of Rus-
iaville, and Luther McDowell, of
Young America. An official of the
company says that the road will op
erate in competition with all steam
roads, both as to freight and passen
OFFICIAL VOTE OF TYPOS
FOR PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED
Indianapolis, June ;. The official
count of the vote of the International
Typographical union for officers has
been completed. The vote WHS SS
follows: Charles E. llawkes, Chica
go. 13.407; James M. Lynch. Syra
cuse, 20J383. The total vote was 34 -oi4.
or 7U per cent, of the member
ship. . &
Keult of Tea-lug a Horse.
Dilisboro, Ind., June G. The 0
y ear-old son of August Gortmlller a
fanner in the Ben ham neighborhood,
was teasing a farm horse, when the
horse retaliated by biting off two of
the boy's fingers and badly lacerated
Alleged "Grafter" A. .nillNd.
Milwaukee, June ti. Slgmund J.
Richter an ex-ulderman whom an in
dictment was returned by tbe grand
jury' on a charge of accepting a bribe
of $100 for special privileges, has been
acquitted by a Jury In the circuit court.
tire youth's heart to Be normal and
was inclined to consider the attack
purely a nervous one. The physician
was told of the religious argument,
mid also that Reiifro had been study
ing hard, and the late into the night,
and had been worrying slightly over a
love affair. The doctor ordered Ren
fro to arise, but seemingly he could
Thought It Was ITrnltasa I
'T felt that Benfro had lx-come over,
excited and was suffering a passing
nervous attack which change of sur
roundings would cause to pass uway."
explained Dr. Draper. "I spoke sharp
ly to the youth bSCS use In some nervous
attacks sympathy Is the worst thing
to offer and only reacts on the patient
with 111 effect. I have heard of cases
of sudden loss of speech, but in my
superficial examination of Reiifro I did
not notice ign of grievous affection
of the brain over the speech center
on the left side of the head. Benfro, I
supposed, would regain his hearing
and speech once he sought another
environment and ceaswd the daSCUSStoo
In a conversation later carried on
in writing with a clergyman Renfro
admittinl that the sign given him had
converted him and that he now be
lieves there is a Pad. He has began
the study of the sign language, and
declares his life is God's as long as He
sees fit to use it.
CAUGHT THE JAPANESE IN
AN UNLOOKED-FOR ATTACK
A CLOSE CALL FOR
CREW OF LAKE TUG
Thirteen Persons Taken From Craft
After it Itau on
Duluth. Minn., June ti. Lleven
members of the crew and two women
passengers Mrs. Merritt, wife of the
owner of the Park hotel, Sault Ste
Marie, and her guest. .Miss Gates, of
the same city- on the big sea tug
Niagara were rescued from that craft
by the tug Kdna G., belonging to the
steel corporation, after a perilous ex
perience at Knife island, twenty-four
uiiles down the north shore of Lake
The tug had gone on the rocks in
the worst northeaster of the year, and
it was feared for a time that all on
board would perish. The Kdna G. was
two miles away at the time and bear
ing the signals of distress hastened to
the assistance of the foundering craft.
Life rafts were launched and one aft
er another the terrified people jumped
on to them and were safely brought to
shore. The Niagara will be u total loss.
OIETZ STILL HAS
KUort 'to Settle Lumber Trouble
Through Argument in
CMrpe .. a Fails, Win., June . The
case r the t uinnewa Lumber and
loom company v . John F. Diets is be
ing argUOd before Judire Parish todav.
Ihe action was brought some time ago
to establish the on noisliin of the
rhom-Apple dam. which Diets is hold
ing at the point of W inchesters.
Judge Parish Issued an order enjoin
ing Diets from Interfering with the
drive until the title was settled. The
Injunction as violated and Diets lias
defied the officers to arrest him. Judge
Parish will kssisl that the ditliculty
be settled at once.
DEATH AT BURLINGTON,
IOWA, IN CAR RUNAWAY
Burlington. la.. June G. A heavily
loaded electric street car rushed down
Valley street hill and was wrecked
against a shade tree. The passengers
jumped as the ear Hew along, sixteen
being badly Injured. Mrs. Joseph
Keehn Was killed. Ora J. Gould, pute
Usher of the City directory, had his
shoulder broken. Several others had
arms and legs broken, and many were
badly cut about the head and shoul
der. DES MOINES WIFE MURDERER
GETS OFF VERY EASILY
Des Moines, la. .'.lime f. Charles
W. Graves, accused of wife murder,
who is alleged to have saturated his
victim with kerosene after the murder
had been committed and then delib
erately applied the torch, was permit
ted to plead guilty of manslaughter.
The limit Is eight years, which be Is
expected to receive.
MUCH TROUBLE CAUSED
BY ONE FIRECRACKER
Pittsburg June 6. Harrison Rar
ton was fined $50 or sixty days to the
workhouse for selling a giant dyna
mite cracker to William Maguire. The
lad tired the cracker off in crowded
Fifth avenue, which brought out a
squad of jKilice and thousands of pio
ple In two minutes.
MICHIGAN WINS MOST
POINTS IN FIELD MEET
Chicago, Jhinc C -The University of
Michigan on the intercollegiate con
ference athletic association nuet held
on Marshall field, securing 82 iolnts.
Chicago was second with points and
Wisconsin third with a total of 2T.
- . . t s ' 3 t :
N it Smm 1 i i ,1 fur Mi'niamkl.
Milwaukee, June ;. Frank Nieso
niwskl. ex-member of the Milwaukee
boa id of public work, convicted of
bribery, has been denied u new trial
by Judge Vlnje und sentenced to puy
a fine of ?1.) and coats. Niezorawskl
was accused of accepting a bribe of
800. He paid the line under protest
ui ' will appeal the case.
Flrt Altaut (.ran. I r.lerfed.
Los Angeles, Cal. June 0. The
Brotherhood of Ieomotive Engineers
has elected It. BottraO, of Ottawa,
Can., first grand assistant engineer. J.
C. Currie, of Cleveland, O.. was re
elected second grandassistant engineer
Special .Mission to Kins Kdward.
Paris, June ;. Two Chinese princes,
Chang Chun Yin and Isangi Su Chen,
members of tbe imperial family of
China, arrived in Marseilles. They
have a special mission to King Ed
watd and left for London at once.
Report of a Sortie of
Russian Fleet at
FOUR SHIPS SUNK
Besieged City Gets Word
Out by Carrier
Liao Fang, June . It is positively
reported here thai the Port Arthur
squadron made a sortie shortly after
dawn Saturday with torpedo boat de
stroyers leading and found the Japan
ese fleet quite unsuspecting the pres
ence of hostile warships, with the re
sult thai four Japanese ships were
sunk during the attack.
Humor a Vessel Is Sunk.
Chef oo, June 8. The Russian con
sul here has received news a large
Japanese vessel has been sunk by a
mine off Ta lien Wan. The news is un
Cariler I'lgeonn llrlng News.
Now Chwang. June Ik Two car
rier pigeons have arrived here from
General Rtoessel, at Port Arthur. The
Russians will not divulge the mes
sages carried by the birds but de
clare they contain good information.
and are very cheerful since the pigeons
.lap I.ossJnne S.
Seoul. June 5. ( Delayed.) The Jap
anese consul at densan wires that
during the skirmish which took place
on the 3rd. 30 Japanese soldiers and
one lieutenant were Killed and three
men severely wounded. The Russians
in rclrcaling burned a number of
Korean villages. Natives attacked the
Cossacks, killing two and wounding
Tokio. June 6. In recoanition of
their services during the war Vice Ad
miral Togo and Admiral Yamatnoto
have been promoted to the highest
rank In the navy. Several lieutenant
generals were made generals.
St. Petersburg. June 6. It is report
ed Kuropatkin's staff headquarters
have been moved 40 miles south of
the Liao Yang.
Keller Column Is Near.
Paris. June 0. The Bt Petersburg
correspondent of The Matin says bo
learns from a trustworthy source that
the advance guard of 1,H0 men un
der General Stakelberg, sent by Gen
eral Kuropadkin to the relief of Port
Arthur, has already reached the en
frame to tle Llao-Tung peninsula, and
that the balk of the army is following.
The correspondent of The Matin at
New Chwang confirms this, stating
that important movements of Russian
troops arc proceeding to thesouthwurd
of Taclifchao towards Kaipiug.
.lap Turn on the Cossaeks.
Tokio, Juno The Japanese and
Russian forces located north of Pu-
lantlen, which were in a series of
brushes during the early part of last
week, had another encounter on Fri
day. June 3, near Chu-Cbia-Tun. On
that day the Japanese cavalrymen met
the Russians at noon. The Russians
numbered 2.Mio men. and were com
posed of infantry, detachments of cav
alry and artillery. They were pressing
the Japanese cavalry when the Japa
nese assembled tlu-ir entire force and
engaged the enemy. The Russians
drew off gradually, and ut 5:.T0 in the
afternoon they retired to Telisbu.
Jteport of a Cossatrk Repulne.
The Japanese had four men killed
and four men wouiicd In this lighting.
A report has been recalTCd here from
General Kuroki saying that on Friday
last a detachment was dispatched from
Ai-Yang-Cheng (AI-Yang-PlenmenV; to
the northeast of Fens-Wang-Cheng to
make reconnoissance toward Chai
matsl Si-Matsi. thirty-five miles north
of Feng-Wang-Cbeng). This detach
ment encountered WO Cossacks, and
after a brisk engagement the Russians
retreated General Kuroki reports that
the Russian loss was heavy. The Jap
anese suffered one man kbled and three
A CURE FOR MILK FEVER
HAS BEEN DISCOVERED
Washington, June 0. The success
ful treatment of milk fever In cows
by the injection of "filtered atmos
pheric air" Into the udder is an
nounced in a bulletin Issued by the
department of agriculture. The air
treatment described is simple, and tha
exicriment8 have been successful in