Newspaper Page Text
ROCK ISLAND ARGUS.
VOL. L.I1I. NO. 2201.
ROCK ISLAND, ELL., SaTIBDAY, JUK 11, 104.
PAGES 9 TO 12.
THE LIFE OF A DIVER
PERILS CONSTANTLY MENACE HIM
WHILE HE IS AT WORK.
SThe Sensations He Experiences When
1'ader Water, Incased In His Hid
eo as Armor Four Honrs a Day Are
the Limit of His Endurance.
The dangers of the diver" life are
little realized by the world on land un
til one Is killed. Some fifty divers are
at work almost every day in the wa
ters of New York harbor, yet as long as
they perform their tasks successfully
they remain as obscure as their dim
haunts. While scouring off barnacles
from ship bottoms or patching boles
in sunken bulls or mending pipes un
der the East river their work, even if
visible, is too commonplace "to point
a moral or adorn a tale." Even when
there is a wreck and lives are lost few
think of the patient, plodding diver,
who gropes through the watery sa
loons of the steamships and brings
to the surface the pallid corpses.
When the diver is initiated into the
mysteries of the deep be is extremely
cautious. Then he appreciates far
more than after he has become accus
tomed to his strange surroundings the
perils of his new life. As soon us be
has donned his armor, whose very
hideousness would seem to Indicate the
terrors lurking in that unnatural ele
ment into which he ventures, and has
sunk beneath the surface every sense
begins to act in a weirdly distorted
fashion. lie thinks he sees object
.within reach which in reality are far
remote. lie claps his hands with diffi
culty and bears no sound, yet a knock
on the side of a ship with his knuckles
gives the ring of a bell. His body has
an unusual lightness, so that a little
leap will carry him over vast spaces.
His sense of smell has been annihilat
ed. The air which puffs Into his hel
met and then, leaking out through the
escape valve backvof one ear, bubbles
up to the surface as If out of the
snout of a porpoise at first bad the
scent of machine oil. In a few min
utes It becomes utterly odorless.
There are still burled treasure ships
whose exact situations are known to
mariners, but which are inaccessible
lecause of their great depth. Divers
equipped with the present brass and
rubber uniforms cannot go deeper than
200 feet, and even at this depth only a
few can remain more than five min
utes. One hundred antl twenty feet Is
the limit for most nii.iers of the sea,
for at this depth they are under a
pressure of four atmospheres.
For the reason that nan can venture
only a few feet down Into the sea the
diver of these practical modern times
has ubundoned his hunt for treasure
and has become a skilled laborer at $5
a day. Though his wages are larger
than many kinds of workmen earn,
nevertheless they aro less regular, and
the diver who earns $150 a month Is
regarded lucky. He is indeed fortu
nate If he can obtain a steady Job in
the dock department, for the city em
ploys eight divers at $5 a day through
out the year, with only four hours of
labor In the twenty-four and $1.25 ex
tra for every additional hour.
In preparing for his work the diver
must serve a long and tedious appren
ticeship. For the reason that he will
Ik culled on to do the work of various
trades, such as those of mason, car
penter, Iron worker, plumber and mar
iner he must master the principles of
all these vocations. He generally
serves three years as a member of a
wrecking crew, and in addition to ev
erything else he studies the character
of the waters, their depth and cur
rents. In which he will one day work.
He learns to be a diver's tender, the
man who holds the life line and air
tule of the diver, and these are some
of the signals with which he becomes
One putt of air hose more air.
Two pulls of air hose less air.
Three pulls of air hose pull It up.
One pull of llfo line haul up working
Two pulls of Ufo line lower working
Three pulls of life line haul up diver.
As the pressure of the water In
creases on the diver's suit at about the
rate of one pound for every two feet
the apprentice must learn how to man
age the air pump. He must memorize
the following table and see that the
gauge of the air pump tallies to it as
nearly as possible:
Depth Pounds I Depth Pounds
of diver pressure: of diver pressure
In fett- sq- men. In feet. so.. Inch.
20 SO 31
90 12 90 39
40 17 I 100 43
60 a 110 4:
CO 3G4 130 12,
A diver may be killed or his life
shortened many years if the air is not
given him at the right pressure. On
the surface of the water the atmos
phere presses against all parts of his
body about fifteen pounds to the
square inch. Yet the pressure is as
much from within outward as in the
opposite direction and so neutralizes It
self. As soon as the diver descends
Into water the pressure of air against
his flesh must be increased Just enough
to prevent the ponderous brass hel
met in which bis bead is incased from
crushing his shoulders.
A peril which constantly menaces
the diver is the breaking of his air
pipe. "Wherever be goes "he watches
lest be cut it on some sharp projec
tion. The moment that It snaps the
air pressure within bis suit is gone,
and the deud weight of all those feet
of water pounds his helmet with the
lore of a trip hammer. As his body
is charged with air at a' high pressure
this air rushes outward, thus distend
ing such elastic organs as the eyes and
eardrums to bursting.
"I remember a case where a diver's
hose broke," said a master diver. "He
was at work on a sunken sugar ship,
and he was down some sixty feeL All
at once the air pump handles whizzed
round like the flywheels of an engine
wheu the belt slips off. and, with a hiss
that sounded like a snake's, the hose
came writhing and twisting to the sur
face. Before the tender could yell for
help a great bubble exploded right un
der him, followed by a string of small
"Well, we pulled up that life line all
In one breath. We got that helmet off
and pulled off his suiL We thought
him dead. His eyes bulged out till
they looked like fingers, and his ear
drums were blown out like little bal
loons. Around his neck, where the
heavy brass rim of the helmet struck
him, there was a livid black circle
which looked like burned wood. But
he came out of it. He's alive, but life
isn't much good to him now."
At depths less than sixty feet the
ordinary diver can work hour after
hour, but below that limit he must take
frequent rests. Four hours constitute
a day's work at all depths. Thus, at
seventy feet he works three-quarters
of an hour and rests fifteen miuutes.
At eighty feet he works forty and rests
twenty minutes. Thus the ratio con
tinues until at 110 feet few divers can
work more than ten minutes.
When a diver has stayed down too
long, he dot's not suffer while still in
the water, but after coming to the sur-,'
face. After a protracted immersion 1
his organs do not react as quickly to ,
the lighter pressure, and the swellings
trom air pushing out through the tis
sues do not subside as rapidty.
Ordinarily the experienced diver as
he slowly descends docs not notice any
sensations that are painful. He feels
a cracking of the eardrums, which he
relieves by keeping his mouth open
and swallowing frequently. He does
not find it much harder to breathe un
til he gets very deep, when the air has
a drowsy effect on his senses. On ris
ing after the usual "stay down" the
crackings of the ears Begin again, and
again they may be checked by swal
lowing, nu act which forces air of the
same density as that outside through
the eustachian tubes into the chamber
behind tlie eardrum. Unless a man
has a heart that is perfectly sound and
lungs that are especially strong he
should never don the diver's armor.
Even with these he sometimes is com
pelled to abandon submarine work
after a year or two.
Another peril which the diver en
counters is the "somersault." Because
of the great weight of his helmet he is
likely to turn turtle despite his load
soled boots. In Suda bay, island of
Crete, a diver of the British battleship
Hood lost his balance while at work
on a sunken torpedo and hung for five
hours heels over head under some for
ty feet of water. He had tangled his
lines with tlie hawser, which he had
attached to the torpedo and with which
his companions above were attempting
to hoist. When rescued at lust by a
fellow diver he was found uncon
scious, but alive. In another half hour,
however, he would have drowned. Be
cause the pressure of air had not been
sufficient water had leaked in and col
lected in the helmet. When he was
found the water had risen to within a
quarter of an inch of his nostrils. In
tropical waters sharks menace a diver
with such ferocity that he is only safe
when working in a great cylindrical
cage. New York Tribune.
Vegetables have direct effect upon
the human system and often combine
rare curative powers. Spinach af
fords relief in kidney troubles, and
the common dandelion, used as greens,
is excellent for the same thing. As
paragus purges the blood. Celery acts
admirably upon the nervous system
and is u cure for rheumatism and
neuralgia. Tomatoes act ujhju the liv
er. Beets and turnips are excellent
appetizers. lettuce and cucumbers
are cooling in their effects upon the
system. Onions, garlic, leeks, olives
and shallots, all of which are similar,
possess medicinal virtus of a marked
character, stimulating the circulatory
system, and the consequent increase
In the saliva and gastric juice promotes
digestion. Bed onions are an excellent
diuretic, and the white ones are rec
ommended to be eateu raw as a rem
edy for insomnia. A soup made from
onions is regarded by the French as
an excellent restorative in weakness
of the digestive organs.
Election Bribery In Eaglaad.
Some years ago an investigation of
election bribery in England disclosed
the following method of buying votes:
An elector entered the agent's room.
Agent (holding up three fingers to sig
nify 3 sovereigns) Well. Mr. Smith,
how are you today? Mr. Smith I
am not very well today. Agent (hold
ing up five fingers) I am sorry you
are not very well today. Mr. Smith
Oh, I am not very ill. It is all right.
Then Smith looked out of the window
while the agent put 5 sovereigns on tho
table. It was then the agent's turn to
look out of the window, and when he
turned round again Smith and the
money bad disappeared. Smith never
saw the agent put down the money;
the agent never saw Smith pick it up.
Consequently when a parliamentary
commission was appointed the agent
swore be never gave Smith any money
and Smith swore that no one gave him
Corner Sftone of Colored Matron?9
Home to be Laid Zotnorroto
The formal laying of the corner
stone of Prince hall Masonic home for
w illows and orphans of deceased mem
bers ot the i rder. a fraternity of col
ored people which has 4n lodges in
the state of Illinois, will take place
tomorrow. The location of this pro
posed home is on Bock ricr in South
Henry Burris, of this city, grand
master of the colorcl Masons of Illi
nois, and ii trustee f the home, will
lay the stone. All of the officers of
tin- grand lodge and the trustees of
the home have been invite I. and it is
FOR BLUE AND GRAY.
General King's Scheme of a Grand
General Horatio C. King of New
York city, who has Just been elect od
president of the Society of the Army
of the Potomac, proposes a reunion of
the blue and the gray under the aus
pices of that society and of the Grand
Army of the Republic. The recent
convention of the Society of the Army
of the Potomac appointed a committee
to appear before the next general en
campment of the Grand Army and
GENERAL HORATIO C. KING.
confer upon the wisdom of holding a
peace convention of the blue and the
gray. The idea of such a gathering is
received with considerable enthusiusm
by some of the veterans of the Union
army, while others oppose it. Their
main criticism of the plan is that it
might involve the display of the Con
federate flag and thus arouse animosi
ties which are now generally buried
anil which will remain so if no occa
sion is given for resurrecting them.
They fear that such a peace conven
tion as pmiMjseil might defeat the very
object for which it would be held.
On the other hand, those who sympa
thize with the plan of General King
hold that much good would come from
such a gathering of the men who
fought each other forty ye.irs ago.
General King Is one of the best
known of the veterans of the civil war
and is In much demand at meetings of
old soldiers, as he is well versed in the
history of the war and is gifted as au
thor and speaker. He has always lieea
active in keeping up the memories that
pertain to tho struggle for the preser
vation of the Union. He was lorn in
Portland. Me., in i37 and graduated
bVsbbv -lHm IBB
. j AsNiC p
expected that many of them will be
present. Mayor William McConochie
and City Attorney .1. K. Scott, of this
city, and Bev. Searcey and W. A.
Meese, of Moline, will deliver address
es, 'the laying of the stone will take
place at o'clock, and a cordial invi
tation is extended by the members
of the order to any who desire to be
The home i- to be a two-story struc
ture, of modern design, and will cost
$3,500. The ground contains ', acres
and has been in possession of the
members for three years, it having
been purchased of Mrs. Mary Daugh
front Dickinson college, rennsyivafiia.
In 1ST8. He was admitted to the bar In
New York In 1S1 and the next year
entered the Union army, leaving it in
1S(T with tho brevet of colonel. He
has also received the medal of honor
which congress grants on account of
deeds of conspicuous heroism and is a
member of the Medal of Honor legion.
General King has been successful as
lawyer. Journalist and lecturer and
htis talent also as a musical composer.
He was associate editor of the New
York Star and publisher at one time of
the Christian Union, later called the
Outlook. lie also published the Chris
tian at Work. He Is the author of va
rious historical works.
THE MAP PROOFREADER.
Bis Work In Done Slowly and With
"I thought 1 knew my business until
I took a job holding copy in a mapmak
ing establishment." said a veteran
proofreader. "The change from the
rush of a morning newspaper to the
leisurely work of an encyclopedia was
queer enough. It was three weeks be
fore I began to feel that I was earning
my salary. It bikes about two weeks
to read the proof of a good map. If It
is a business atlas, particularly com
prehensive as to small towns, we linger
over a proof and Its successive revises
for a month or six weeks before the
final electrotype is made. In mapmak
ing it Is not only essential that every
town should be in the map, but that it
should 1k in precisely the right place.
The man who is buying a map or an
atlas has no use for it unless It gives
accurate information about the city or
town where he was lorn. where his
wife wus lorn and w here he was mar
ried. The first thing a prospective pur
chaser does when show n a new atlas by
a canvasser is to look up one or all of j
these points. If his native town or city
is not there he won't lather to take
another glance at the book. If it is
there, but not In its precise location on
some river or bay, be does not hesitate
to say he has no high opinion of the
atlas. The motto of our business seems
to be 'Get it all in and get it in right.' "
Miss Carrye Moon-- She rails him
her intended. Are they engaged ! Mist
Cntting Hinrz No. but she intends tZ
marry him. St. Paul Pioneer Press.
Friend Has your son learned much
during his college course? The Old
Man I'm afraid not, but I've learned
whole las' T"mib
Had Jnat Refnsed Him.
"He looks awfully blue. What's the
matter with him?"
"Heart trouble." replied the girl, some
what consciously. Chicago Post
ters, an old settler of this county.
The plat of ground is now under culti
vation and has all kinds of garden
The foundation for the home was
completed about two weeks ago and
the building of the structure will be
poshed as rapidly and expediently as
The lodge iti Illinois is prosperous,
and in a very healthy condition. There
are now in this state about I.Tim) mem
bers, and new lodges are being or
ganized constantly. In t b icago last
winter there were two lodges formed
with a membership of 50 each.
AN ATHLETIC QUEEN.
Wllhelmlna pf Holland and Her Con
sort, l'rlnce Henry.
Queen Wllhelmlna of Holland be
lieves that exercise is tin- best medi
cine. She went to Italy recently to
improve her health and distinguished
herself by making an ascent of Vesu
vius. On one occasion, it being the
birthday of her husband. Prince Henry
of the Netherlands, she gave her court
THE Ql'KEN OP HOLLAND AND PICINCE
UENliY, UEK HL'SBANO.
an outing to a popular resort and. ac
companied only by her husband and
mother-in-law, took an excursion on
the bay of Naples In a row boat, land
ing at evening for tea and later taking
a long excursion on foot.
It has been said recently that the re
lations between the queen and her eon
sort are more cordial and affectionate
than the public has often been led t
believe. The prince has recently been
promoted to the rank of vice admiral
of the Dutch navy and lieutenant gen
eral of the army. There are but two
vice admirals in the navy and but
three lieutenant generals, these being
the highest grades In the respective
Tbe urnnaii'ii trnd.
The Noresmnn's hades is as uulike
the orthodox place of punishment as
It is possible for one to imagine. This
place of torment for the reprobate sons
of the north is called nastrond and is
situated fur toward the frigid north
and is directly under nlfiheim, the
Scandinavian mytbologha's purgatory.
A description of nastrond as I ap
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pears tatne TTose Eaaar (w rurtui in
Iceland in the thirteenth ' century) : is
"In nastrond there is a vast and
dlrefuT structure witrr'doors that face
the north. This building is formed
entirely ofthebacks and scales of ser
pents, wattled together like wicker
work. . But rtherheads of the serpents
themselras are turned toward the in
side of the hall, and they continually
vomit forth Hoods of venom. In which
must wade throughout eternity all
those who commit murder or swear to
lies." Another description of nas
trond is similar to This, but adds that
the evildoers are occasionally bitten
by the great dragon Nidhogg.
TRAVELING IN INDIA.
One Most Hire a Native Servant or
Kndnre Endless Trouble.
Every one who goes to India to travel
Or live at hotels, says the Chicago Bec-ord-Herald.
must have a personal serv
ant, a native who performs the duties
of valet, waiter and errand boy and
whatever else may be required of him.
This is a fixed custom of the country,
to resist which brings endless trouble
to the traveler.
Many of the Indian hotels expect the
guests to bring all their own servants,
both chambermaids and waiters, ami
are consequently so short handed that
the traveler who conies without them
has usually to wait upon himself.
On the railways a native servaut Is
quite Indispensable, for travelers are
required to carry their own bedding,
make their own beds and furnish their
own towels. The company provides a
bench to sleep on similar to those in
American freight cabooses.
Each car has also a washroom and
Bometimes water. But if the traveler
wishes to be sure of washing his face
In the morning ami if lie is wise he will
send his servant to the station master
before the train starts and ask to have
the water tank filled. Then a Hindoo
with a goatskin full of water will
climb to the roof of the car and till it
and, having descended, will stand be
fore the door and touch his forehead
every time tbe traveler looks toward
him till he receives a penny.
At the eating houses along the road
the servant will have to raid the ta
bles anil shelves for food and bring it
to the car for his master, since no wait -
ers are provided, in addition he will j
hire baggage carriers and will attend;
to all the details of catching trains and
A good servant can be hired for ?1.V
a month. Poorer "bearers." as they are(
called, can be engaged for $'J or !?.' a.
month and expect to "find" them-1
selves, but the traveler must pay rail
way fare for them.
THE BOOKS THEY READ.
Cowpor read only his Bible and his
Chopin rarely read anything heavier
than a French novel.
Voltaire's favorite classical author
was Juvenal, the satirist.
Iiossini for nearly thirty years read
nothing but French novels.
Jean Paul Hiehter had only five or
six books, till philosophical.
Lord Clive said that "Robinson Cru
soe" beat any Other book be ever read.
Franklin read all he could find re
lating to political economy and finance.
Michael Angelo was fondest of the
books of Moses and the psalms of Da
vid. Bach was no great reader, but much
enjoyed books of jokes and funny sto
ries. Baxter read only the Bible and best
enjoyed the prophesies of Isaiah and
Wordsworth was fond of the poetry
of Burns, but said the latter was too
rough and uncouth. Booklover
A cow will approach a new object
fascinated, but with timorous suspi
cion, aud a horse is even more timid.
gazing at a distance for awhile, ready
to flee in a moment. The monkey will
snatch at everything that Is new and
deliberately examine it till, (hiding
that be cannot eat it or mock mankind
with it. he will drop it and let it pass
from his shallow memory. There is a
pathos in the sleiidemess of animal
curiosity, it is so easily satisfied. The
thought, if thought it be. usually ends
with the first Hush of surprise and the
impression of safety.
Ground up mummy makes a brown
of a certain rare color that nothing
else can give. It Is on uccoiint of the
asphaltum in the mummy that this is
so. The Egyptians wrapped their dead
in garments coated with asphaltuni of
an incomparably fine and pure quality
This asphaltum as the centuries passed
impregnated the tissues of the dead
themselves. It turned them into the
best paint material in the world. Iie
ing exceedingly expensive, it is used
only by portrait painters in depicting
Wife rm so afraid this new hat will
get damaged if it's left in tbe home.
Husband Why not put it in our safe
deposit closet? Wife But is there
room there with all our bonds?
band No, but we can take the
bonds Spons;e Cake.
"Do yon call this sponge cake? Why,
it's as hard as can be."
"Yes, mum. That's the way a sponge
Is before .it's wet. Soak It hi your tea,
mom." London Punchy
COWBOYS AS FIREMEN
THE WAY THEY BATTLE WITH FLAMES
ON THE PRAIRIES.
Horses and Men Plnnge Through the
Line of Fire to Their Stations Cat
tle Slnst Be Sacrificed to Save Oth
er Cattle and the tiraii.
The "firemen of the plains" work
with a system, each man knowing
what is expected of him and bravely
executing it like firemen of the city.
Cowboys are the "fire fighters of the
plains," and burning grass is the ma
We will take, for illustration, the
great Espuela or "spur" ranch in the
lower Panhandle country of northwest
Texas and go back a number of years,
w hen destructive tires were more fre
quent than they are now. Hundreds of
cowboys were employed on that ranch,
living In camps widely separated, cov
ering the unsettled counties of Dick
ens, Crosby. Garza and Kent.
Great and very destructive prairie
fires often occurred, and systematic
plans were adopted to fight successful
ly the devouring element, which not
only involved a great loss of grass, but
of stock also. One of the most success
ful plans was the following: It was un
derstHd among the men ut the various
camps that when smoke was discov
ered ascending from the prairie each
and every cowboy must saddle his
home aud gallop away toward the fire
straight out in u line from I .s camp.
This had to be done at night also, the
fire then being detected by its light,
and the boys would come from every
direction, striking the line of fire at
many different points almost at tho
same time. If the tire had spread much,
the men from tin different camps
would sometimes be many miles from
each other, those from the same station
going in a squad together.
If it was at night the scene would bo
one of ,wlld and weird grandeur the
great line of lire, the galloping horses
as the cowboys approached it, some
from camps on opposite sides, their
forms and those of their horses stand
ing in relief in the bl ight glare of the
1 burning grass.
Herds of bellowing.
frightened, stampeding cattle made
the scene more terrible and exciting
as they ran before the pursuing,
crackling, roaring flames. Above tho
din could be heard load shouts of com
mand from leaders of the assembling
The men were not standing still on
their horses. The fire was traveling,
and they were going with it until
ready to begin their attack. Cattle
must be sacrificed to save cattle. As
soon as nu animal fell four cowboys
dismounted, and 6harp knives and
hatchets were at work, and in less
time than It takes to tell the slain ani
mal was cut in twain. The halves
were split so as to lay fiat upon the
ground, and to each hoof the end of a
rope was fastened, the other end being
around the pommel of a cowboy's sad
dle. They dashed away to the lino
of firo, dragging the severed parts uft-
i er them.
When the cowboys reached this, two
men would cross plunge through tho
blase. Tom tried it, but his horso
wheeled and turned away from the
blaze, snorting loudly and In terror.
"Give me your end of the rope,
Tom," one of the other men said. "I
can go over. Black Duncan will faco
It." And with a great plunge he clear
ed the line of lire.
One of the other two also crossed,
ami without a moment's halt and with
scorched faces they wheeled their
horses and ran parallel with the fire,
dragging the bloody half of the beef
ovr it, smothering the fire out as fast
as their horses could run and drag
the weight. One man was then on one
side of the fire and the other on tho
opposite, each with his rope to the
foot of a beef, straddling the blaze and
beating out the greater part of It
They wore slick duck Jackets and
leggings, upon which the fire could not
easily take hold. It was hot work,
however. They could get only tho
length of their ropes from the fire.
The two men with the other half of
the beef were going in the opposUe di
rection, taking the other end of the
line of fire. Suppose the fire was trav
eling south and the line exteuding east
and west, two dragged east aud two
west, fast receding from each other
and every moment widening the black
streak which marki-d the trail of tho
While these four men were getting
ready to do this work other cowboys
were sitting on their horses near by,
their faces lit up by the burning grass,
and cheering their companions who
were crossing the fire line to fight the
Those, however, who were idle had
their work to do. Each held a-rolled
slicker In his right hand, and when the
breach was made in the fire line they
divided their forces and followed tho
lKys who were sweeping the flames In
order to extinguish effectually any
which might be left.
Before the plan described was pnt in
practice wagons loaded with water and
tow sacks were run to a fire, and tbe
boys had to dismount and fight tbe
flame with wet sacks. They were
supplied with these by men galloping
back and forth between the wagons
and fire fighters. The dry, hot sacks
were carried back as fast as wet ones
The other plan was the best, being
Ccatiaued oa Page Twelve.
. . .a asaaafc-