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- THE ARGUS: FRID A Y.SElPTEIBER 4, 1908.
' t '
11 Intellectual Czar
of ail the Russians
Boyhood'Youth," "The Cossacks,"
"Sevastopol Sketches," " Family Hap
piness," "War and Peace," "Anna Ka
renina" and many- other short stories.
His tales published during the Crimean
war caused Emperor Alexander II. to
.order the general under whom Tolstoy
served to take care of the author and
not to exiKse his life to any danger.
The stories named above belong to Tol
stoy's first literary period. To the sec
ond belong "My Confession," "What I
Believe," "The Kreutzer Sonata" and
other religious, philosophical and socio
X the threshold of his eightieth Russia. Tourists safely accredited to that dav -uen the Tartar was trans-
u.rtmiay eouut Tolstoy, Intel- penetrate xue eoniama or tue -iituo formed lnto the philosopher, astonish
lectual czar of ill the Russians.1 father" uniformly have had two ob- eJ tne worij That part of It which
aristocrat, peasant, philosopher,' Jecls ia view-one to be presented at doalg witn the reiati0ns of state and
Aristocrat, Peasant, Philosopher, Reformer,
Agitator, Humanitarian and Literary Genius.
reformer, agitator, humanitarian, liter- court aud meet the czar because of the
ary genius and lover of everythfhs that awe aud glamour that attach to the
Jives, launched one. of his daring,, au-, ruler of the world's greatest autoe
uaciuus pnnippics f
gainst the czar be
cause the death sentence was being in
flicted upon so many Russians and an
other because people who distributed
and read his books were being arrest
ed, tormented and ruined. The first
philippic was inspired by a report that
twelve peasants had been hanged for
an attack with Intent to rob on a land
ed proprietor's estate. With the strokes
of a master Tolstoy paiuied a graphic
word picture of the executions "care
fully arrangwl and planned by learned
and enlightened people of the upper
class," denounced the secretary of thu
court, the.premlor and the czar as "in
direct participators in the iniquities
perpetrated every day" aud appealed
to them lo cease their bloody work for
the Fake of their souls and fur the God
who lived within them. The will that
sent them Into the world, he declared,
desired only one thing from them
love from man to man.
Lova of Man For Man.
"Rut what are you doing? To what
are you devoting your spiritual
strength?" he asked. "Whom do you
love? Who loves you? Your wife?
Tour child? But that is not love. TLo
love of wife and children is not human
love. Animals love in that way evej
Individual is not very different from
widely held Socialist views in many
parts of the world, that which deals
with the church is repugnant to the
orthrwioT it led to his exeommunlca-
n, hater of wnr, injustice aud op-jtion by the Greek church several years
swion. author whose works have ap-'a a"nd that whicn deals. with the
racy; the other, to meet Tolstoy, ideal
ist, champion ; of the brotherhood of
in forty-five languages, lover of tender passion ia at variance with the
and peace, literal follower of ' conventional view. it was the treat'
Dormant Genius Awakens.
A descendant of Count I'eter Tolstoy,
who was a friend and comrade of
Peter the Great. Count Lyov, or Leo
Tolstoy, was born at Yasnla Tolyana
on Aug. 28, 1S2S. At an early age be
was left an orphan, but he received a
good education, as do all Russian no
bles, being placed under private tutors
and afterward attending the university
at Kazan. He pursued his studies aud
traveled widely until 1S."1. when he
entered the army and went on an ex
pedition to Caucasus.
Early in youth Tolstoy had been
thrown in contact with the, gay mili
tary life of Moscow, and when he ex
changed that life for that of the uni
versity it meant, to a largo extent, only
a continuation of riotous living. But
of a sudden the nob" r passion in him
began to stir. The dormant genius
began to wakeu and to look what hour
it was on the clock of self emancipat
ing humanity. Tolstoy the man be-
I - 1 Site t-
to " r'rp3. Kit
-"i-rriTi nrrii-iti--r-- " yi"-:
COUNT TOLSTOY IN PEASANT GARB.
more strongly. Human love Is the love
of man for man for every man as a
bou of God and therefore a brother.
Whom do you love in that way? No
one. Who loves you in that way? No
one. You are feared as the hangman
or a wild animal is feared, all of you,
from the lowest to the highest accom
plices in murder,
gan his great life struggle with Tolstoy
the Russian. He grew ashamed of his
life of dissipation and. tearing himself
from his carousals with his profligate
companions, lied, a year before his
graduation, to his country estates,
there to exchange the books of the unl-
J versify for the implements of the field, ;
the prospective life of a lawyer for
In his second philippic Tolstoy de- J that of a farmer. Five years he spent
clared that tormenting tne uistnuuters
of his writings, "while I, the chief
cause not only of the distribution but
even of the existence of these -books,
am left In peace," was not only "re
voltlngly unjust, Vat also amazingly
Btupid." The Russian subject, he said.
ment of this last phase of the cult in
"The Kreutzer Sonata" that made the
novel the sensation of two continents.
In his efforts to follow the example of
Christ. Tolstoy refused to accept pay
for his literary work and on his copy
rights and endeavored to give away
his personal property and his estate,
covering 2,300 acres, but In these moves
he was frustrated by his wife," who
declared that she and the thirteen
children she had borne him should not
be impoverished. This and other
phases of the Tolstoy cult -are so un
conventional and Impractical that for
years past many Russians have be
lieved he was crazy. In an article en
titled "The Tragedy of Tolstoy" So
phie Wltte. sister of Count Witte,
made this significant statement: "The
number of tragic, unnatural deaths and
suicides, and especially the number of
people who have become Insane, in this
aristocratic family, has been astonish
Though prevented from giving away
his property, Tolstoy adopted a very
simply and frugal method of living
and wore the rough clothing of the
Russian peasant. Once he appealed to
a peasant audience by reading "The
Power of Darkness" before his ten
ants. To his Intense chagrin the peas
ants roared with laughter at the most
pathetic points in his story. But this
incident did not dim his interest In
the lowly moujiks. Early and late ho
championed their rights and denounced
their wrongs under the czar's despotic
Cupid as the Devil.
A writer who visited Tolstoy not long
ago thus described him: "Tolstoy
reads, writes and receives his friendf:
in his bedroom. His couch is quite de
void of mattress, sheets or pillows.
Near the couch there always is an as
sortment of shoemaker's materials,
with which he work when not tolling
In the field or devoting himself to writ
ing.. He arises , at. 5 o'clock In the
morning and goes to bed early at uight.
His meals are of the simplest food and
no meat. He defends the opinion that
man has no right to kill and consume
a living organism.
Temperance finds in the great nov
elist an enthusiastic supporter. He nei
ther drinks nor smokes, and he in
cludes in the term many other indul
gences that the ordinary advocates of
temperance consider apart from their
creed. To him romantic love also is
intemperance. The tender passion that
from all time has been the theme of
the poet and novelist Tolstoy deems a
species of moral depravity. Cupid Is
the devil in his most awful guise. Mat
rimony brought about by romantic love
he holds to be an unholy alliance. Men
and women should love each other as
friends or brothers and sisters.
"In the matter of land ownership
Tolstoy admires the theories of the late
Henry George. He considered George
the greatest American citizen of his
time. Tolstoy, however, believes In a
system of communal rather than na
tional ownership. The Ideal state of
society, according to his theory, is the
simple rural communes, in which every
family would have the right to till soil
enough for its own support. Govern
ments he regards as the root of all evil.
Tax collectors he considers highway
men. He looks . forward to a day
when men will no longer consent to
be robbed of money nor be instructed
In the art of murdering one another in
"The iiccumulalion of vast posses-
had been forced to obey his czar before
"An illiterate peasant," declared Tol
Ftoy, "may get drunk, roll in the mud,
use bad language, light, break a coin-
on his ancestral estates, living partly
the life of a student, partly the
lift of. a master of peasant slaves
and partly as a dreamer of beautiful
dreams of their emancipation. He was I
aroused from these dreams by the na- 'slons by individuals the count regards
tion's call to arms. On the breaking ' as one of the great evils. His thought
out of the Crimean war he was sent to , has been that the mission of a few
Sebastopol. there taking command of a great American millionaires would be
mountain battery and assisting in the ,to hasten the climax. He' "does not
defense of the citadel. At the close of think, however, that the equalization
the war iu JSoG he resigned bl3 com- ,of property will be brought about "by
rade's jaw. beat'hls wife and steal a Inission and devoted himself to the lit- violence, but by a general moral awak-
horse, but I cannot imagine a peasant erary career which was to make him
in tho ' whole of Russia who either w orld renowned.
when sober or even when tirunK i Immediate success crowred his cf-
would venture to say that a man ougnt
to be ' punished for circulating u' book
which says that working people can
only; arrange their life well when they
live a 'godly'- life that is, live in
accordance with the gospel command
ments to kill no one, not to quarrel.
forts as a writer. He was as greatly
surprised as anybody at this instan
taneous success. From the bloodv
ening. i. lie great millionaires, ne ex
1 peels, will become convinced that they
have no right to the property they now
regard as their own and will give it
up, just as he would now be willing to
move off the family estate Jit 'YasnJa
fields of war he had hastened to St ;Polyana. America, he thmks. will set
Petersburg, where as the most famous
author of the day he was welcomed
with open arms by a society whose
and that to live 'godly' means to fear oniy virtue, to judge from his writings,
anu oDey uoa more man one iruis seemed to lie In Its not being virtuous,
the police officer, the governor .or the The period of probation reached its
czar, and when, police officer, governor end at ast Thrown again into the
or czar commands anything that God wllri of tne av worId i, ,lrntn.i
forbids one must obey not police of- the cud of sin down to its dresrs. nn.i
England will follow.
WALTER J. JANES.
. Hawks Attacked Swimmer.
Two immense tishhawks had fun In
the ocean at Asbury Park, N. J., with
William Prell, a musician employed at
Conzress Hall. The musician was
Ccer, governor or czar, but God, and fQ utter disgust he snatched it from his .bathing in the ocean about a hundred
that killing Is forbidden by God. And ups. He turned from his wicked self .yards from shore when suddenly a
yet it stands written down, sealed and- an(r thus ended absolutelv, like the school of weakflsh surrounded Win.
signed by a senator, that the man who drama of "Faust," the first part of his ' and he had hard work keeping afloat,
spreads such thoughts must be pun- ijfe. Tolstoy the Tartar perished: Tol-i In the midst of his troubles the fish-
ished,- and this is headed by an an
nouncement that all this is done in
Russia In 190S by' his Imperial majes
ty's ukase." "-
These two Incidents, are characteri3-
tic of a man who for the past quarter
stoy the philosopher was born.
. i. ,
Two Literary Periods.
,nis writings represent two periods of
literary work before and after his re
ligious crisis in 1S7S-9. "Childhood,"
of a century has been one of the great-'' his first Btorj. was printed anonymous-j lifeboat and eoottlhad Pfell safe on
est Intellectual forces at work In all Iy and was a great snecess. Then came shore.
hawks spied the fish and attempted to
get a hearty meal. In doing this the
hawks nibbed at Prell's head occa
sionally. The musician now nearly
frantic, yelled for help and. Life Guard
Jackson heard the ?ries. launched a
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tlntlnrr and TVIghi.
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Evenings Few reserved 20c. All
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