Newspaper Page Text
THE ARGUS, THURSDAY. DECEMBER 31, 1908.
REVIEW OF EVENTS AND TENDENCIES OF PAST YE
By EDWIN 5. POTTER.
Editor Universal News Analysis.
Despite the Depression,
Republicans Retain Control
Looking now calmly and dispassion-
ately back across the field of conflict-
lng luterests and balancing forces
which shaped the American presiden-
v tial campaign of 1908, one incontest-
' able conclusion forces itself ou the
.open "mind. - It is that a "majority of
the people became convinced in one
way or another that it is "better to
bear the evils that they have than to
fly to others that they know not of
and to give the trust regulating poll
cles of President Roosevelt a louger I
and faire -ial in the hands of his
people became so
1 to suit all kinds of
.allent facts can, how
it ed briefly and with
was Issued the challenge
iarty in power which was
.ie in many ways the plans
of the different parties for
ire of the American electorate
S, the message of President
clt to congress advocating his
m of radical legislation.
June 1C at Chicago the Republic
got together. They cheered forty
jutes '.when Chairman Lodge eulo
" Jed4 the president and seated all the
Taft contestants. The thoroughness of
this operation caused it to be described
as the administration "steam roller."
of which Frank H. Hitchcock was the
engineer. The only fight was on the!
court injunction plank. Samuel Gom
pers, head of the A. F. of L., and other
leaders Of organized lalwr, confronted
with numerous court decisions unfa
vorable to their methods and facing
lower wages or lack of work for many
workers, had decided to fight in the
open for the party whose labor plank
suited them best. Despite the warn
ings of the Gompers "cabinet" before
the platform committee the plank final
at Chicago was not to their!
an Cleave Cannon Crane !
Republican leaders insisted i
5i nil rtT"ir "Rrmii 1 1
.-upon upholding the integrity of the
courts. lt asserting that the rules of
injunction procedure be "more accu-
"W,v ri..finP.l hv statntP- .nmi thnt nn
i ' injunction should Issue without due no-j
tice "except where irreparable injury j
would result from delay." William H.
Taft Kit Ohio was nominated for presi
dent on the first ballot and James S.
Sherman of New York for vice presl-
.j On July 7 at Denver the national con
vention of the Democratic party as-
sembled with the knowledge that an '
'overwhelming majority of its delegates
were pledged to the nomination of Wil-
Ham J. Bryan of Nebraska. The big '
gathering broke all records for continn- j
ous cheering when the blind Oklahoma !
senator. Gore, eulogized the Nebraskan, !
' the demonstration lasting eighty-seven '
. minutes. Bryan was nominated on the j
first ballot, although the name of j
. Johnson and Gray were presented. !
John W. Kern of Indiana, with the ap-
proval of Bryan, was named for second j
'.f As In the Republican convention, the i
- main contest had to do with the word-;
in? of the injunction or labor plank of ;
the platform. Gompers was present
and gave his assent to the plank finally
..eeu up-m. UHuwiuub' iu.li iuc
"courts of justice are the bulwark of
our liberty,' it demanded a modifica-
;. tion of the injunction law so as to pro-
I . arlAhy I ? taf 8 0f, InI
dlrec-t coutempt. It declared agaius
treating labor organizations as llegal
combinations in restraint of trade fa -
vored the eight hour day and promised
a general employers' liability law.
,. Bryan at once Induced his executive
committee to say that it would reject
all corponite gifts, would i limit Individ-
JTat T - ? W,fd
publish on Oct. lo and dally thereafter
the names of givers of $100 nnd np -
ward. The final total published after
election was $020,044 from 73,000 con
tributors. Although the Republican
convention had rejected a publicity
plank, Taft and his managers decided
to work under the New York law and !
i publish names and amounts of eontrl!)- j
. mors arter tne election, uneir runas
Frank H. Hitchcock, who had engl-
. neered the Taft canvass, was chosen
- l. f- WA T 1 V. 1 1 .AtMAl
.uuu ei.uu..-.. UUa,
committee, and George R. Sheldon was
made treasurer ' The Democrats elocl -
eu oriuuu c, ,. me uu,uo i.e-
paper proprietor, as their national
cnairman ana oovernor uasKen or uk -
""m "U,T, . 1 I'. , compromise between that and the Ald
: Treasurer Haskell resigned, his placo rlch biU uh DroTj,ion for 1omt
was filled by Herman Bidder, editor of ,',' Kn ProJlslon ror a joint
v, x-. tv..,, efa.. V,. ' . commission to report on permanent re
. the New York Staats-Zeitung. . . ! , . . ,, . ,
: July 28, at Cincinnati, Taft delivered 8 byI(,bot(h branthe9
' his speech of acceptance. He frankly Bn.f br thc, ',rldent, ,
Accepted the role of "me too" by dtt Under the Presidents prodding the
7Juding the Roosevelt policies in their
, i. ,.i J:
tl UlilU w -& J . v. .ww
lAcj. 12, at Lincoln.' Neb., Bryan was
notified of his nomination and sounded
the keynote of his campaign in tha
'fiuestlon. "Shall the Deonle rule?" In
f subsequent speeches he gave great
' prominence to the bank guaranty plan,
t to the popular election of senators and
to caniDaim tmblicitv before election,
II made a special bid for the labor
vote on the Injunction plank. He
would destroy all trusts controlling,
over 50 per cent of an industry.
:VA Regarding the depression a3 the be-
V ginning, of .Luc breakdown of the cap -
ltalist system and claiming the army
of Idle workers as "their usset.'tbe "So-
I cialists of America went into the cam-
I palgn with better weapons than ever
- before. On May 10 the Socialist con-
ventlon met at Chicago. For the first
1 1 Til o Ilia SEwlnlleta nf A Tilfirtn n f-
....... vfc -
uruieu meir posiuuu ou upeciuc qura-
tions of policy. The convention nom-
lnated on the first ballot unanimously
Eugene V. Debs for president and Ben-
Janiln Hanford for vice president, the
same ticket put up by the .socialists m
The Prohibitionists, conscious of the
great strides their cause had made on
tne loeal option issue in many states,
nominated Kugene v. Chafin of till-
nois and Aaron S. Watkins f Ohio
July 15 at Columbus, O., on a plat-.
form containing many radical propos-
al Asides that against the sale or
manufacture of intoxicants.
on July 28 at Chicago the first na-j
tional convention of the Independence
party, outgrowth of the league organ-
lzt uy Ealtor Hearst, named Thomas
I.. Hlsgen or Massacuusetts and Joun
Temple Graves of Georgia on a plat
form continuing most of the radical
ideas of the Democrats and some more
radical. Opposition to Bryan was its
The People's party April 3 at St.
Ixuiis again named Thomas E. Watson
of Georgia as its standard bearer along
with S. W. Williams of Indiana, al
though It did not put a ticket up in
all of the states.
On Sept. 13, at Columbus, O., nearst
stirred up the hitherto calm current of
the campaign by reading into his
speech the first batch of a series of
letters which had been stolen from the
files of the Standard Oil company and
which threw a sinister light on the ac
tivities of various public men, notably
Foraker- BaileJ-. MacLaurin, Sibley,
certain Pennsylvania judges and ex-
Governor Stone, who was urged to ap
point them. Most of the letters were
written by Vice President Archbold of
the trust and contained divers certifi-
cates of deposit for large sums of :
money. At the same time Hearst re-
peated the story of the alleged attempt !
to bribe former Attorney General Mon
uett of Ohio wherein Haskell, the Dem
ocratic treasurer, was made to figure.
As Rvernor of Oklahoma Haskell also 000.000 by the end of the fiscal year,
w:is accused of protecting a legal The postoffice department, by order
l'raneh of the Standard. Foraker ft0f the president, ruled that papers in
" ,7",ew1iro,u lue lS".
the president issued a hot statement
TOnd the C?hi,':ui aDd a,ve ,"Ut
an olJ Mter showing how laft had ro
fused to deal with Foraker: then com-
pared this course to that of Bryan and
iiasKen. uryan replica, demanding a
nearing for Haskell, and then ensued u
bitter verbal duel on personal and
party Issues. Haskell resigned, but
protesting innocence, as did also Du
Pont, the powder trust head, from the
chairmanship of the Republican speak-1
ers bureau. Both the president and
l Kr..u.m iuui puuiisuius;
mes of contributors before election !
would be to invite unfair and partisan
criticism of candidates. ;
Gornivers appealed to aU unions in
the A. F. of L. to give moral and finan
cial support fo Bryan. Speaker Cannon
was the special target of the Gompers
batlerj-, aud "Cannonlsm" became a
national issue, many candidates for
congress being pledged against Cannon
as the next speaker.
Ou Nov. 3 the voters of the nation
had their say. The extent of the Re
publican victory can be best remem
bered by the statement that Taft car
ried every s'.ate that Roosevelt did in
; rj04 escept Xtbraska. Colorado and
Nevada. Furthermore, Taft invaded
the soUd somh ,vith smnl, plurallt,eH
m Ma land Miss((Url and ,
ln other 80Uthern 8tates Tne
,uf VQte 8tood. Taf 7X)27filti;
Uryan. O303.1S2; Debs. 447..S1. Chatin,
241.2r,2; HLsgen, 83.180; Watson. 33.871
GiIhalls (S.alallst-Labor). 15,421; total
; 14t83:a9. The total vote ,n 1W Ava'
13)510J08. Severa, 8tatog , the Taft
column 0,ected Dcn:wrjtlo KOVernors
IIartlon In oll, Marsha Jn ,n.
; ,!,,. ,, T-.i,.. n....- ,-.
captured the Democratic stronghold of
York city. The Republican major-
n nnt' .na L,,
1 the tota, and th Dem
cratlc 172. The senate's Republican
complexion was unchanged.
The early months of the long session
of congress were devoted c hiefly to the
Republican wrangle over the terms of
a currency bill. The Aldrlch relief
measure finally went through the sen-!
"to Tnrph ilpcnlta iYia nil nlo-Vit- f!ll
buster of La Follette, to propitiate
Wn . nt T ff
ongar(.ny of fourteen weaithy mcn
wh he Bald BctmU , d
J tlon The yreeland bill, in which
clearing house asswiations were made
the cnannel of the new currency issue.
( wag passed by the house and theQ a
Sterling liability bill was advanced by'
the maiorltv and nassinl linanimouslv ;
fn hoth houses. This holds !ntM-stat
ces and abolishes the rule barring'
compensation when the negligence of
a fellow employee can be proved,
The Democratic filibuster was met
by a gag rule and dally recess until'
the majority had 1 accomplished its
purpose. This included provision fori
two new battleships instead of the i
four urged by the president, higher
pay for army officers and privates and
liability law .to protect employees in
the service of the government. . The
house failed to pass the antl-injunc-
f tion and anti-trust amendment to the
Sherman law desired by the president
la the interest of labor. "In" God' We
Trust" was restored to the gold coins,
The total appropriations of the ses-
slon reached the record figure of $1,-
frm trrnaa ranccamTtlful Tltwt T ovA
' w,.,..-., tvuo ..sv - v . uuu .
ceiveu me nuai .uooseveit message, in
which executive control of legalized
trusts was advocated and judges were
urged to heed the will of legislators ac-
cording to present day standards. A
titter controversy arose over one pas-
eage which intimated that congress
had confined the secret service to the
treasury department because members
did not want to be investigated. The
senate. moved an investigation of the
secret service, and the house demanded
proof of the president's assertions,
Uncle Sam Insists
Upon Carrying a B:g Stick.
The administration's foreign policy
has exemplified well this year a fa-
vorite saying of the president, "Speak
iatf4v ...ifr r.nrtr i !.. uti..b TMj i
nation has preserved good feeling to-
ward other nations, but at the same
time has sent Its battleship fleet to the
antipodes and devoted much thought
aud money to navy and army better
ments. " .
March 11 at Magdalena bay the
fleet ended its voyage around the
Horn, In command of Evans, and was
wildly welcomed all along the coast to
San Francisco. Evans then gave up
the command to Sperry. and on July
7 the fleet sailed from San Francisco
on its record breaking naval practice
cruise, visiting Hawaii, New Zealand,
Australia, Japan, China and the Phil
ippines before the year's end.
The war department changed heads
July 1, Luke E. Wright succeeding
On May 5 the state department con
cluded a five year arbitration treaty
On Nov. ::o notes were
signed containing an agr
Janan for concert of act
ion In maln-
tabling the status quo in the orient, a
The treasury in January had a defi
cit of $10,000,000, which grew to $X),-
foreign languages must submit trans
lations and authorized postmasters to
exclude papers containing incitement
to murder, arson and treason. In 5Iay
the rarcel limit to England was raised j
to eleven pounds, and Oct. 1 the postal '
rate to that country was lowered to 2
cents, later the same to Germany.
On Aug. 14 the president appointed a
commission, headed by Professor L. H.
Rnilpv of Pnrnpll tr either flntn look.
ln to betterment of farm life,
Mav 13 to lu at the White nouse the
first conference of state governors and
not0(1 men met tne presidcnt to dis-
t.uss t conservation of national re-
sources, the conference making a new
element of national unity. This body
reassembled Dec. 8 and approved a
great scheme of waterways by a bond
Cld World" Rulers
Had a Nerve Racking Year.
GREAT BRITAIN. The government
of King Edward began the year with
a program of radical legislation, in
cluding old age pensions, frankly in
tended as a sop to socialism, which
showed signs of rapid growth along
with the Increase of the vast army of
the unemployed. Asqulth took the
reins April 5, when Premier Banner
man retired on account of continued
Illness. Asquith' carried through the
age pension bill July 20, the plan" of
which is $1.25 a week to all over sev
enty years of age whose income is un
der $150 a year, to take effect Jan. 1,
1909. The Asquith government encoun
tered a boisterous campaign for wo
man suffrage, the suffragettes organiz
ing Luge parades and rushes on the
parliament to attract attention, many
women choosing prison terms rather
than give bonds to keep the . peace.
Alarm over the signs of coming revolt
throughout India has increased, with
numerous acts of violence against the
ruling Britons. CANADA felt the ef
fects of the American depression ln
. decreased exports and in a halt in her
industrial development. The general
I nlnnllnna ftt (? CMiatntnori tlia T.nnHnr
government. A great-historical pag-
GERMANY. The German people
will remember the year 1903 as mark
ing the end of their kaiser's absolute.
personal rule and the beginning of
. ministerial responsibility to the reichs-
j ifl? TMs revolution th
power of public opinion voiced in the
radical press and In parliamentary ac
tion of nearly all parties came to a
head in October, the occasion of the
outburst being an authorized inter
view in the London Telegraph in
Jom a secret common againEu n-nianu
which. the kaiser told of his refusal to
during the Boer war and of sending
, . . . ,
war plans to th
plans to the queen. It was like
last'straw. The reichstae cnlhiJ
th last etraw- The reichstae calloJ
Ton Bulow to account, and William
TURKEY. The leaven of democ-
racy showed signs of working even ln
the European stronghold of autocratic
Islam. The sultan of Turk saw bis
army turning from- Mm under the in-
j fluence of the Young Turk party and
thus powerless, he put into effect the
hitherto dead letter, constitution of
1S7C and called into being a national
parliament at Constantinople. This
body met amid rejoicing Dec. 17. -THE
BALKANS. -On Oct 5 the
whole status of southeastern Europe,
as fixed by the treaty of Berlin (137S)
was suddenly altered. Bulgaria pro-1
claimed its independence, with Trlnce 1
Ferdinand as its czar and at the
. i t . t i .
Dame time uy tuui:ciicu uiiiniLjtiutuL (
Austria announced to the powers that
she proposed to annex completely the '
former Turkish provinces of Ilerze-
govina and Bosnia, while the Turkish
island of Crete moved toward a union I
with. Greece. War seemed unavoid-
able then, and the clouils still lower
in the diplomatic sky as a gloomy
omen of what tie new year may have
in store. The prompt action of the
powers ou motion of Russia in agree
ing to hold a conference to readjust
the balance in the Balkans, the open
ing of negotiations between Bulgaria
and Turkey and the military impo
tence of Servia and Montenegro com
j bincd to prevent an immediate out
break. ater lurKey began a boycott
of Austrian goods, and all the Balkan
states prepared for war.
PORTUGAL. The ferment of Re-
DUblIt.allism in tho l,Hi,m,.s mn
archy after long restraint found vent
i In the assassination of King Carlos and
Crown Prince Luiz Feb. 1 while they
were riding in the streets of Lisbon.
The younger son, Manuel, who was
slightly wounded, succeeded to tl'e
throne, and the hated Premier Franco
fled the country. Subsequent elections
showed the Conservatives still in a
large majority. t
MOROCCO. On Aug. 24 the oft re
peated story of the defeat of Sultan
Abdul Aziz by the forces of the pre
tender, Mulai nafid, proved to be true,
and the latter demanded recognition
of the powers as the sultan. That was
where the German emperor made a
peck of trouble by recognizing Hafid-
without consulting the nations in the
Algeciras conference. France firmly ob
jected, Spain seconded, and the kaiser
"came down." Then they all bowed
to nafid together.
FERSIA. The Radical first parlia
ment at Teheran under the constitu
tion granted in 1907 was wiped out of
existence in a bloody battle with the
shah's soldiers June 23. 4!.'0 persons be
ing killed in the streets, the parliament
buildings battered down and some of
the Radical leaders executed. The rev
olutionists captured and held Tabriz.
JAPAN. The Japanese government
gave the American fleet a wonderful
reception, the mikado and the presi
dent exchanging most cordial greetings.
CHINA. On Nov. 13 Emperor
Ivwang Sen and the dowager empress.
who had been for a generation the
real ruler of China, died. Tu Yl. the
Infant son of Prince Chun, had been
designated as heir to the throne, and
the regency was seized by Prmce Chun
CENTRAL AMERICA, hovered on
the verge of war. but finally the issues
were laid before the ' new Central
American court of justice, which was
set up May 20 at Cart a go, Costa Rica,
with all the states represented.
VENEZUELA added Holland to the
list of her "don't speak" neighbors by
expelling the Dutch minister for some
indiscretion, and the Dutch were hot
for coercion. They began war Dec. 13
by capturing ;the Venezuelan coast
guard ship, Alix. Sleeper, the American
minister, finally broke off relations and
quit the country owing to the failure
of the Castro government responding
to the overtures from Washington as
to a settlement of claims. The Vene
zuelin minister later . was recalled
from "Washington. r President' Castro
sailed for Europe the last of November.
CUBA rose to her new opportunity
with orderly elections in December,
Jose Miguel Gomez, the Liberal leader,
being chosen president. , '
HAITI was torn by two revolts, that
led by Juneau and FIrmin in January
being crushed, but the second, under
Antoine Simon, resulting in the blood
less capture of Port au Prince and the
fall of the Nord Alexis government
Doc. 2. As the forces of Simon ap
proached the capital the officers of
Alexis deserted aud the people turned
against him, so that , he was barely
able to escape with his life on board
a French warship. Simon took posses
sion of the- city and on Dee. 17 was
elected president by the Haitian coV
Rays of Hope Follow
Year of Business Distress.
Everything Is relative. While busi
ness conditions in this country are
still far from what they were two
years ago, the end of 1908 presents an
encouraging outlook in comparison to
that which capital and labor faced
last January. Then 338.000 freight cars
were Idle, thousands of mills and fac
tories were closed, at least 2,000,000
wage earners were unemployed, other
millions worked on part time or at re
duced wages, goods on hand could not
be sold at a profit, railroad and Indus
trial stocks were battered in price al
most Deyond recognition, and at high
rates of interest little money could be
nticed from , hiding. 'Fear possessed
the business community on the eve of
a presidential campaign in which both
the old parties were considering radl
caL measures for scaring1 off the bogy
of socialism. Processions of . the un
employed marched in the larger cities
and gave authorities a case of nerves.
A large number of strikes resulted
from wage reductions,, but few were
.' The railroads were between the dev
il of reduced traffic and the deep sea
of a threatened general strike. Their
only apparent relief if they hoped to
pay salaries . and, dividends, was .to
raise . freight rates. Here they met
tbd opposition of the shiopers backed
by the preliminary' investigation of the
interstate commerce comission. The
Southwestern association did advance
rates in July, and some soutlern lines
reduced wages, while nearly all lines
1 -l 1.1 tff mun Til FWipiimlipr c () nip the
v. ..u. - . - - - j
general announcement 01 a iu pei tern
increase to take effect Jan. 1, 1909.
E. II. Ilurriman in March took full
possession of the Georgia Central,
which with a new connecting link gave
him n cross continent system.
On Apr'J 2S Cleveland's three cent
fare municipal street railway system
went into effect, but hardly was it
started when a bitter strike was called
to enforce a former contract for wage
Increase. Riots and car dynamiting
ti;d up the Hues for weeks, but the
city finally won. A deficit the first
two months gave way later to a sur
plus, but the public, dissatisfied with
the. service, voted In the Oct. 2 refer-
cnuum against the municipal fran
chise, aud a few weeks later the com
pany was thrown into a receivership.
Secretary Wilson reported the value
of all crops to the farmer to be $7,772,-
000,x0, n new record, corn heading the
list with 2.043.00,000 bushels.
Jan. 0 New York celebrated the com
pletion and operation of its first East
river tunnel and of Its first Hudson
river tunnel from Hoboken Feb. 25.
Philadelphia's $20,000,000 Market
street subway was opened July 30.
The beean speed record was lowered
reiteatodly by the big British turbines,
the Lusitania finally doing the best
western trip In 4 days 15 minutes.
Regulation of Trusts
and Pursuit of Grafters.
The American smile of 1907 when
Judge Laudis fined the oil trust $29.
240,000 for taking Alton rebates cer
taiuly came off July 22 last, when
Judge Grosscup and associates cf the
court of appeals at Chicago reversed
Laudis on the assumption that the fine
was excessive and not based on good
law. What the chief hunter of the big
octopus had to say of that particm r
turn in the road was that the nierita
of the case had not been touched and
he would "regard it as a. gross miscar
riage of justice if through any techni
calities" the quarry should escape. The
president at once had the motiou for a
rehearing made. This was denied, and
tha famous case goes up on appeal to
the supreme court.
But in the meantime the government
pack was in full cry along other paths,
the chief of which led toward the dis
solution of the Standard Oil company.
Sept. 10 at Philadelphia Judge Gray
and associates on the circuit bench
sustained the right of railroads to own
and operate coal mines, holding the
commodity clause of the Hepburn bill
to be despotic and confiscatory.
Federal suits were also started
against the Harriman railroad trust
and against the powder trust, while
numerous fines were imposed on rail
roads and other corporations under the
Elklns law for rebating. On March 23
the supreme court, S to 1, invalidated
the Minnesota and North Carolina rate
laws, holding that federal courts had
the right to review and to stay execu
tion to protect stockholders. The Ala
bama rate law was held up by the cir
cuit court pending investigation of
reasonableness of rates. Pennsylvania
two cent rate law was invalidated by
the state supreme court. On Nov. 31
the United States supreme court ruled
that tiie order of the Virginia railroad
commission fixing a two cent passen
ger rate was subject to review and
must be tried before the highest state
court before seeking federal Interven
tion. In December the circuit court of
appeals enjoined the tobacco trust from
continuing interstate traffic.
Early in January the supreme court
knocked out the employers' lability
law because it was uot confined to in
terstate corporations. On Jan. 25 it
ruled that membership in a union
might justify dismissal of interstate
railroad employees.- On Feb. 3 in the
famous Daubury hatters' boycott case
it decided unanimously that the boy
as a method of lighting capital is
.uegal wheu declared against goods in
interstate traffic. President Gompers
and other A. F. of L. officials were en
joined from publishing au "unfair list."
On March 9 the California supreme
court vacated the conviction of former
Mayor Schmitz, and he was freed ou
heavy ball covering other charges after
having been confined ten months.
When in November bis pal. Boss Ruef,
was brought to trial the desperation of
the graft forces showed itself in the
act- of one discredited saloon man,
Hans, who shot Heney in court.
Though Heney was seriously Injured,
he recovered to continue the fight with
Increased public sympathy. Ruef was
convicted Dec. 11 and faced a prison
term. Four of Pennsylvania's capitol
grafters were convicted in February
and sentenced Dec. 18 to two years in
prison and $500 fine each.
On Nov. 6 at New York Charles W.
Moree, the millionaire whose illegal
banking practices were believed to
have started the financial panic of
1907, was brought to stern justice with
conviction and a fifteen year sen
tence. At the same time sentence for
bis banking associate, President Cur
tis of the Bank of North America,
rittsburg was shocked by a. series
of banking explosions and defalca
tions, two of which stand out as col-
lossal , crimes. On March 23 Henry
Reiber, teller, and John Young, a edi
tor of fie Farmers' Deposit National
bank, were arrested for the misuse ol
over a million of the bank funds. In
June they were sentenced to ten years
each. Ou May ? William Moatgom-
ery, cashier of the Alleghany National
bank, was accused of diversions which
ultimately ran up to $1,350,000, includ
ing some state funds. He was sen
tenced to fifteen years in prison.
Kentucky's tobacco Night Rider?
made additional raids in spite of the
troops sent out to check theia. and on
Oct. 20 a band of dispossessed squat
ters on Rcelfoot lake, .Tennessee, kid
naped Captain Rankin and Colonel
Taylor of Trenton. They hung the
former, but the latter escaped by
swimming the lake. Troops were call
ed out, and luany arrests were made.
The most serious race riots of the
year occurred at Springfield, 111., Aug.
14 and 15. when a wild mob killed
nine persons, injured eighty and burn
ed houses occupied by negroes. Troops
were called out and the leaders
brought to justice.
The last of the Idaho cases against
miners olliclals ended with the ac
qulttal of George A. Pettlbone in Jan
uary. Harry Orchard, the confessed
murderer of Governor Steunenburg,
whose testimony implicated the min
ers, received a death sentence, which
later was commuted to a life term
Caleb Powers, four times tried in
eight years for the murder of Governor
Goelel, was pardoned by Governor
Wlllson of Kentucky.
Religion and Other Data.
. Continuous mechanical flight as a
human feat has been publicly demon
strated to the satisfaction of the
world by the two American aviators,
Wilbur and Orville Wright, giving as
surance of new military weapons and
promise of practical commercial ap
plications. Having finished their se-
cret trials at Kill Devil hill. North' or mo uuurcnes i jurist m Amer
Carolina, last Mav and having receiv-j ,ea at Philadelphia In Decnnlr. This
cd patent protection here and abroad, ! council also took advance! ground for
the Wrights made public the details ! practical social reforms,
of their wcrk. Wilbur then took one1 American athletes won a Majority of
machine to Le Mans, France, and Or- the events in the Olymi iL- games at
ville another to Fort Myer Va.. for London in July. John Have? beimr the
official trials in Sentmi.nr Orriiii.
scored first, making a record flight of
1 hour 14 minutes 20 seconds prior to
the fatal trial of Sept. 27, when the
aeroplane, carrying the inventor and
Lieutenant Selfridse, fell with a
broken propeller, killing Sel fridge and
breaking several of Wright's bones.
Later Wilbur sailed the air alone 1
hour and 31 minutes and on Oct. 10
took along one man for 1 hour 9 min
utes 45 seconds, winning $100,000 for
the Invention from . a French syndi
cate. Far man and Delagrange also
made successful aeroplane flights in
France, the former winuing the Arch
Deacon prize for the first 'circular
mile, while the tetrahedron machine
of Bell and Baldwin at Hammonds
port. N. Y.. was flown short distances.
Count Zeppelin of Germany again
led the world in the dirisible balloon
APPY New Year!" The glad
greeting rings out on every
hand. A new twelve month
has been ushered in with
. all its mystery of "the
things which are to be."
We need then for our
selves and for others to put
the emphasis upon the
word "new" rather than
upon the term "year." That another
year has come Is relatively unimpor
tant. The stress is to be laid not on
the quantity but on the quality of
one's life. All that an earnest soul
can do is to live each day of the new
year by itself, as it comes in its turn,
trying, if so it may be, to put a
month's effort in one day, and a day's
victory into a single hour. The time
is short, and it remaineth that all
who know Christ and partake of his
gift of new life should be diligent al
ways, watch unto prayer and boast
not themselves of the morrow. Suffi
cient unto each day Is the burden and
The newness of the new year Is es
sentially a newness of spirit. A new
man will always enjoy the new year.
When another January arrives it is
distinctively the time to slough oft the
old and to put on the new. There is
an old nature to be discarded, and a
new spiritual manhood to be assumed.
The trouble with many people, how
ever, is that they try. to remake and
to reform themselves, forgetting that
a few good resolutions, more or less
loosely kept, can at best only touch
the outside and possess no interior
efficacy in the recesses of the spirit.
The new man who is really worthy of
the name is the new man in Christ
Jesus. Where Jesus is there is always
newness of experience, renovation of
the moral nature, freshness of hope
and a resiliency of elastic joy. - It is
not necessary to wait until the first
of January ln any approaching year
to win the wisdom of such a heavenly
faith or to experience the benefits of
such a spiritual quickening. The
promise of God is now, to every one
that believeth. Each morning may be
a resurrection day, each evening
time of golden promise fair, yet not
as fading, as the sunset. The New
Year joy is for all of life, all the
time. - r,f
It Is stimulating and encouraging to
feel that a brand new-year is offered
for happy employment, and that the
ya recorus wita vuAr motley pages,
field, although hlsv series of fllgnts'
culminated Aug. 1 in the burning ot
his huge rigid gas airship at Mayence.
where he had. paused in a storm for
repairs, alter a continuous Jonrney '
2C1 miles in 11 honrs. With popu'.rr
aid he built another ship, in which 6e
made iutre flights in November, win
ning the, kaiser's praise and selling bis
invention to the government. - :'
The dirigible balloon built by Thom
as W. Baldwin on oiliciati trial' at
Fort Myer. Va., in August attained a
speed of 19.10 miles an bouro: a two
hour trip and was bought l the war
department for $t),000.( :, '
Both the pan-Anglican conference and '
the Lambeth conference ac. london
went ou record for f- Rlallsm. : The .
Methodist general conf. ence at Balti
more took advanced gr md for Indus- .
trial reforms and proh itiou, lot re
fused to change the cod of dl-upline.
The Episcopal diocese t New York -:
made a working arrang- ment v. th or- .
ganized labor. Ou the t. her h:i:.J, the
American Catholic socie. sharp' con
demned socialism. Th.- first jissem
bllng of the Catholie hosts In this -'
country took place in Cl.kago :u No-
vember, the occasion beiiig the ctlebra-w,
tion of the transfer of the United j
States from a mission country to a ; .
country with an indepen.lent national
church. , v
Signs of a coming unification of all :
churches were seen first in the warm "
Interchanges between the Methodist
Episcopal conference at 1' .Ulmore and-' i ,'
the Methodist Protestant conference at ?
Pittsburg, in the union motions be- i
tween the latter and the VoereKation- 'i -.
al aud United Brethren, ia the-union '
favored by the Presbyterian general I
conference at Kansas City with the
Reformed church and finally ia the '
first meeting of the great fMeral coun-.
Marathon winner. In Nvemlxr he
was beaten by uoranao in Jiiiiison
Square Garden, New York, .md oi (Dec.
15 at the same place D' !nud was
beaten by Longboat, the Canadi: a In
dian. The baseball leaders wei the
Chicago Cubs and the Detn -its.
Famous iersons who di-1 In 1908
were: Charles Emory SmitJ:. Ednund
C. Stedman. Edward A. I Don
ald, August Wilhelmj. Loaise le la
Rarnee (Ouida). Redfield Tr ctor sen
ator from Vermont; Willliin Tlnck
ney Whyte, senator from Mar.tnnd:
William B. Allison, senator from "owa;
Francois Coppee, Henry '. I rtter,
Murat Halsted. Joel Chandl r Ilirrls,
P.ronson Howard. Ira I). Sar';
lei Colt Gilman. Charles Eli
Dpnald G. Mitchell. Grover lev-land,
Henry Campbell-Bannerman tnJ.VlO"
of the Year
some still vacant and other marred,
and, perhaps, here and there blotted
with tears, may be put away, and
fresh,- unstained pages substituted In
their place. It is helpful to remind one
self that those broken resolutions of
190S may be renewed in 1909, and.
what is better, reinforced by more of
that prayer and divine grace for want
of which the idealizing resolves of the
past year were soon forgjtten or went
so sadly unfulfilled. The new i year
means, accordingly, a new hope, a new
song, a new endeavor, a new outlook,
a new inspiration, a new determina
tion and a new grace every new
thing that is good appears to be poesl
ble In its gift. A hope like this makea
any doubter optimistic, and give to
existence the character of a life wortlk
A wide chasm seems to intenena
between the old and the new. Into, its
depths should be cast every re
every halting doubt, and every lar
pering fear which belongs to the fast
period of our experience and vjlch
would burden and hinder our wathy
efforts and spiritual progress in' the-
new year. Let us take, up pir lew
duties and meet our fresh ipDocvjai.
ties in free, gladsome an if hopTul
spirit, knowing, that God, wh't has
posed them for our uplift, .wiUMve
us grace to carry us safely throupi-
Happy New Year! The messcta la .
sent far and near. Let the gladteet- - ' .
ing be heard on all sides. Thei is a V.'
prophecy and a promise ln th New
Year. Even to those- who are ber with
grief, or lonely by reason of bitter 1
bereavement it Is possible and imely -to
say, though with lowered toi J and
softened accent: "Happy New ear!"
Every year will be a happy, or,- 5at
least, a peaceful, one In whih. the .
presence of the Lord la rested
which is spent under the protec j ot
his wings, while its duties a -charged
ln his fear and its respi sibb
ities are borne with the assists ce'ofe . "
his grace. For the . . Christian ivery . "
year should be an improvement fi tlJw
past, and offer its additional ppo-'
tunities for growing ln grac4 and .
Christllkeness. The Christian? Ia :.'.
fconvineed and convincing optimist
for, having a heavenly hope whitJi th :
world can never give or take iway
he can in every condition of lif4 find .
a basis for an assured happiness ex-;
pressing itself in the oft-quoted die- ;
turn: "The best of all ia. God la -with
us!'" - ' ' -J1 -V":---.- ..
- j J
. i lUfr, . j i
1 r Furls. A ! I
r'cey. Dan- ?
l; t N rton. . fj)