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The Greatest Musical Treat the Tri-Cities Have Enjoyed in Years is Coming to the
EHE ROCK ISLiAXD ARGUS, SATURDAY, MAY 20, 1011.
1 i M
The War Fifty Years Ago
Military Activities Increase on Both Sides Federal
Troops Cross Potomac, and Confederates Begin Mass
ing at Manassas Colonel Ellsworth's Assassination
Stirs the North Grant, an Obscure Ex-Captain of the
Old Army, Makes Application For a Commission His
Wonderful Subsequent Career and His Character
Analyzed John C. Fremont Becomes a Major General,
While Grant Acts as a Clerk Butler Coins His Fa
mous Phrase, "Contraband of War."
By JAM A. EDCERTON.
Copyright by American Press Associa
AS the time of m tual armed con
tUot drew rear military actlvl-
XSL ti on 1,0,11 sldes Increased.
Troops were pouring dally Into
Washington and Kirlunond and were
bfiug uiusstxl at convenient points
along the border. Iloth combatants
wore facing much the same difficul
ties. F.ui-li had to create an army and
navy, organize the flnauces to meet the
hiiruen.se outlays of war and prepare
to equip, feed and drill hundreds of
thousands of flfchring men. It was a
supreme test for both, a test that In
the end weakened the north and left
the south exhausted.
The week ending May 27 saw the
first definite movements of troops from
the two capitals. lO.ttX) Federals
crossing Into Virginia and occupying
Alexandria and Arlington and 5,000
Confederates concentrating at Manas-
CiTS-KS F, GRANT. WHO ATVUXD FOB OOM-M-S-IO
IS A KMT If AT 21, 1S6L
fas. These were the beginnings of
tlie two armies that on July 21 fought
iU- trstSajile .of IJuU iiua. Other
70 Musicians 70 Assisted by 20
important Developments of tne week
were the secession of North Carolina
on May 21; the popular Tote on se
cession In Virginia. May 22; the as
sassination of Colonel Ellsworth, May
24; the first application of Ulysses S.
Grant for a command on the same
date; the announcement on May 26
that In five days the mail service to
the seceded states would be cut off; the
Union uprising In western Virginia;
the commissioning of John C Fre
mont as major general and the appoint
ment of General Irvln McDowell to
head the army of the Potomac on May
27; also on that day the meeting of
the border etates convention. During
this week General Butler took com
mand at Fortress Monroe, pushed his
troops forward to Newport News and
refused to return fupiflve slaves on
the ground that they were "contraband
of war." The campaign was now be
ginning to assume form on both sides.
Border States Retained.
The going out of North Carolina was
not unexpected. While voting for the
Union up to the firing on Fort Sumter
and Lincoln's call for troops, these two
events, as in the case of Virginia, tnrn
ed her In a day. Tbe boundaries of
the Confederacy were now certainly
defined. While tbe people of Tennes
see did not formally ratify secession
until later, it was admitted on all
sides that she was out of the Union,
making eleven seceded states In alL
As for the border states. Maryland.
Kentucky. Missouri and tbe part of
Virginia west of the mountains, the
north bad won her battle to bold them.
Daring this very week the border
states convention met at Frankfort
Terrible Train of Troubles.
Lake Charles. La. Mrs. E. Four
nler, 516 Kirby street, says: "The
month before I took Cardul I conld
hardly walk. I had backache, head-
! ache, pain in my legs, chills, faint
ing spells, sick stomach, dragging
feelings and no patience or courage.
Since taking Cardci. I have no more
pains, can walk as far as I want to.
and feel good all the time." Take
Cardui and be benefited by the pe
culiar herb ingredients which have
been found so efficient for womanly
ills. Cardul will relieve that back-
; ache, headache and all the misery
j from which you suffer, just as it
J has done for others. Try CarduL
and Enjoy This Great Treat
with John J.' Crittenden In the" chair.
Only Kentucky and Missouri were rep
resented, but the preponderance of
sentiment was distinctly for the Union.
The people of western Virginia were
already moving for separation from
the Old Dominion, and General Mc
Clellan was preparing to throw his
troops across the river from Ohio. As
for Maryland, she had again become
quiet, and troops were passing through
Baltimore without molestation and
were even bt-ing cheered.
There was still to be trouble in Mis
souri, including one campaign in the
summer of 1801 and guerrilla warfare
throughout the contest. During this
very week, on May 22. a mob at St,
Joseph tore down the stars and stripes.
While there was little of the spec
tacular In the holding of the border
states, it counted for more to the north
than tha winning of many battles.
Had Maryland. Kentncky and Missou
ri seceded, who can tell the outcome of
Some of the more radical anti-slavery
men at the north were disposed to
criticise Mr. Lincoln for not taking a
bolder stand against slavery in the
beginning of the war. But Lincoln
faced this very problem of the border
states, and in the light of subsequent
-i -rx -r5
iOEN G- rEISONT, MAPI MAJOB-OKirEEAZ.
MAT 27, lo6L
events history gives him full credit
for having handled a difficult situa
tion in a most prudent and states
On May 22 the people of Virginia
Toted on the ordinance of secession.
While the poll was not heavy, It was
strongly in favor of the proposition
east of the mountains and as emphat
ically the other way la what is now
Union Troops Cross Potomac.
Immediately following this election
the Union troops began to move for
ward all along the line. General Bat
ter assuming command In tha ex
treme east. General McClellan in tbe
west. General Patterson with his
Pennsylvania soldiers preparing to at
tack Harpers Ferry and the main
body of troops, forming the Army of
the Potomac, crossing the river from
Washington. This movement started
on the night of May 23. and the next
day there were 10.000 boys In tine on
the Virginia side of the river, chiefly
iJ Alciajgrla tM Arlizioo, General
Direct From the Metropolitan Opera House.
eanarora was nrst in command, issu
ing a proclamation to the people of
Virginia, but on May 27 he was sup
planted by General Irvln McDowell,
who later was to fight in both of the
battles of Bull Run and who was to
retain command of tbe Army of tbe
Potomac until supplanted by McClellan.
One tragic incident attended this
transfer. Colonel E. Elmer Ellsworth
with his 1,200 firemen zouaves was or
dered to occupy Alexandria. Seeing
a Confederate flag flying over the
Slarshall House. Ellsworth entered
the hotel and asked a bystander whose
flag It was. The man. who afterward
turned out to be Jackson, the proprie
tor, said he did not know. Ellsworth
thereupon mounted to the roof, took
down the .flag, wrapped it about his
Ixdy and descended, only to be shot
dead by Jackson, who was lurking in
a dark corner of the hall. The assas
sin was instantly killed by one of the
soldiers accompanying his colonel.
Ellsworth Hero of the Hour.
The deed sent a wave of grief and
indignation over the north. Ellsworth
became the hero of the hour. I sup
pose more babies were named for him
than for any other national idol, ex
cept four or five of our greatest presi
dents and Ilenry Clay. Ellsworth was
given an imposing funeral in New
York city, and a regiment was made
up in bis honor, composed of one man
from each town in the Empire State.
At the time of his death Colonel Ells
worth was twenty-four years old. He
had aspired to West Point, but poverty
prevented. Managing to procure an
education, however, he studied law;
but military ardor getting the best of
him, he organized a company of
zouaves in Chicago and trained them
to such efficiency that they gained
prizes throughout the land. Ellsworth
was an ardent supporter of Lincoln
and accompanied him east. At this
time be planned a reorganization of
the militia. When the first call for
troops came Ellsworth hastened to
New York and organized his famous
zouaves from tbe New York firemen.
In the excited state of the northern
mind the romantic character of Ells
worth, his youth, his gallant deed and
the manner of his death caught the
popular imagination. Perhaps we are
all sentimentalists at bottom, and this
tragedy, like the firing on the flag at
Sumter and the massacre of Massa
chusetts troops In Baltimore on tbe an
niversary of the battle of Lexington,
appealed to this latent sentiment.
Grant Applies For Commission.
On the same day that Ellsworth
was shot an unknown ex-army cap
tain working In bis father's leather
store at Galena. El, applied to Secre
tary of War Cameron for a commis
sion in tbe Union army, ne modestly
said be thought he could command a
regiment, as he had fought already in
the Mexican war and served In a Pa
cific post. Afterward he had resigned
and farmed it for awhile, finally grav
itating Into the leather store because
be Lad not made out on tbe farm he
called "Hardscrabble." The name of
this man was Ulysses S. Grant. He
afterward got his commission through
tbe Influence of Representative Ell ha
B. Wjshburne. On this particular
24th of May poor Grant was serving
as a sort of extra clerk in the outer
office of the adjutant general of Illi
nois. He knew many things, but was
stoop shouldered and almost shabby;
hence was rated by his outward ap
pearance rather than by any inward
aptitude. God knew him. and perhaps
in a dim way he knew himself.
To us Grant is known as the silent
man. To his Intimates In Galena be
fore the outbreak of the war he was
anything but silent. He could talk
OEKZBfeXi JOSSFH K. JOHKSTOlf, FAMOUS
COVFED1KATE LEADER, WHO OX MAT 17,
1861, TOOK COMMAND OF FOSCES IX ASD
ABOUT HABPEltS FERBY.
long and Interestingly. Moreover,
when be did give way to loquacity he
had information and ideas to impart.
As an Instance, be once presided over
a war meeting in Galena. Instead of
indulging in the bombast and froth of
the average speaker of tbe day, mis
called eloquence, Grant got down to
brass tacks, talked about the actual
hardships tbe soldiers would have to
undergo, bat still convinced them that
It was worth while. Superficial people
could not measure such a man, but
history bas measured him at least In
Years ago I met an old man who
said that while on an Ohio river steam
boat early in the war be bad observed
an army officer of striking appearance.
The thing that distinguished him was
tbe manner In which be closed his
mouth. This friend, who was a rath
er keea observer of men, said be bad
sever seen a man shut his mouth so
hard. He was so struck that he In
quired the officer's name and was told
It wss Grant, though It was not till
year later that he Identified him with
tbe famous general.
Personally I cannot get over a pecul
iar feeling in regard to Grant, a feel
ing that I bold for no other Americans
except Lincoln and Thomas Paine. I
cannot explain it wholly, and yet I
cannot argue it away. It Is that
Grant was a greater man than any of
us have yet understood. I never saw
him, was not Impressed by his politi
cal associations and beard most of the
derogatory things said about him a
quarter of a century ago. Yet the feel
lag for him grew. It was at .first !
t w it
vague, but with the passage of time
has become more definite. It waa tnat
Grant truly belonged to the family of
ETeat souls: that he bad a supreme
work to do and did it. Grant's fame
Is of the stnff that will stand tbe add
test of centuries.
War is a stern winnower that sep
arates human chaff from wheat. Oa
May 24, 18G1, Grant In the eyea of
men was a nobody. Hundreds of
thousands of his inferiors made more
6how and more noise. The war wind
blew, and tbe fame of these went with
it, but that of Grant remained. Grant
never could make money, but neither
could Lincoln, neither could most of
the supremely great men in history.
"Fremont Hade Major General.
While Grant was trying for even a
small chance to give bis military ex
perience to the country John O. Fre
mont, who had been the Republican
candidate for president five years ear
lier, was appointed a major general.
Great hopes were entertained for hla
future. He bad been a notable en
gineer and explorer, the respected
standard bearer of a new ca,use that
later bad succeeded, and he was the
son-in-law of Thomas H. Benton. Yet
Fremont's military service added lit
tle to bis prestige. Truly war la a
sifter of men.
This week saw little actual fighting,
except a skirmish at Arlington be
tween some New York troops and a
few Confederates and a handful of
f i f
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prisoners taken at Alexandria. Yet It
ended notably. On May 27 occurred a
cluster of events of first olaae impor
tance. That was the day oa which
Fremont's advancement was announc
ed, likewise that on which definite
new came that the .western and of
Virginia was determined to break
away and on which the New York
Herald named it "New Virginia." On
that day Butler's men took Newport
News and McDowell was made head
of the Army of the Potomac. Oa that
day the newspapers announced that
the end of May would see the discot
tlnuano of southern mails. Oa that
day the border states convention met.
Moat fateful of all. on that day earn
news that the Confederate troops
were concentrating at Manassas.
Saved Child from Death.
"After our child had suffered from
severe bronchlel trouble for a year."
wrote O. T. Richardson, of Richard
son's Mills, Ala., "we feared It had
consumption. It had a bad cough all
the time. We tried many remedies
without avail, and the doctor's mede-
clne seemed as useless. Finally we
tried Dr. King's New Discovery, and
are pleased to say that one bottle ef
fected a complete cure, and our child
is again strong and healthy. "For
coughs, colds, hoarseness, lagrlppe,
asthma, croup and sore lungs, its the
most infallible remedy that's made-
Price 60c and $1.00. Trial bottle free.
Guaranteed by all druggists.