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THE ROCK ISLAND AHGUS. SATDKDAT, JTJLT 8, 1911.
The War Fifty Years Ago
Congress fleets In Extra Session to Consider War Meas
ures Galosha A. Grow of Pennsylvania Elected
Speaker Many Members Afterward Famous In
House and Senate In His Message Lincoln Argues
Against Right of Any State to Secede Without Consent
of the Other States General Patterson's Army Again
Invades Virginia Stonewall Jackson In Battle Col
onel Franz Sigel Fights a Superior Force of Confed
erates Near Carthage, Mo.
Br JAMES A- ID5ERTON.
Copyright by American Press Associa
JULY, 1S61, was a momentous
month in the unfolding drama
of the war. The week ending
July 8 ww the assembling of
the Federal congress in extra session
and the movement of three Union ar
mies and preparations for the advance
of a fourth. It also witnessed fighting
at Falling Waters, Dealington, Harpers
Ferry and Buckbancon in what is now
West Virginia; Great Falls and New
port News, Va., and Carthage, Mo.
Most of these fights were mere skir
mishes, but the actions at Falling Wa-
had been a member of that body for
ten years. In a previous session he
had introduced the homestead bill,
which It became his privilege to sign
during his term as speaker. After the
war Mr. Grow was for a time presi
dent of a railroad in Texas. In 1894
he was again elected to congress from
Pennsylvania and contlmed for ten
years. From the beginning of his
service in the houw to the end of his
last term was therefore more than a
half century, a record without a paral
lel In American history.
Other far shining names belonging
to the house were Elihu B. Wash
burne, Owen Lovejoy and John A. Lo-
i , .f c'
TiK 3 a
L -'-Av -. - tjt i
CNFINISHED CAPITOL DOME AT BEGINNING OK WAR HANNIBAL.
II AM LIN (AT LEFT, I'UESIDENT OF SENATE, AND GALViSHA
A. GROW. SPEAKER OK HOUSE IN 1S01. FROM PICTURE TAKEN
WHEN I1E BECAME CONGRESSMAN AGAIN NEARLY FORTY
ters and Carthage were of enough Im
portance to be cal!ed b.:tiirs. 0;bT
events of the week wre the mooting
of the legislature of western Virginia
at Wheeling: recruiting of "the L'niin
forces In Kentucky, following the ''Ac
tion of June 30, ubkli proved a Fed
eral victory: the definite ussiiunorit of
General John C Fremont to the com
mand of the western army; the ap
pearance at the Lnrbur of Ciufuogos
of the Confederate privateer Sumter
with eight American vessels sh h-d
captured, having burned auotbr at
eea. and the picklnc; up of an infernal
machine In the Potomac, designed to
blow up the Union fiotilla of gunboats.
Congress met at high noon on July
4. Twenty-five states were represent
ed in the senate and twenty-five states
and seven territories in the house.
From Virginia came the two newly
elected senators. John S. Carlile and
William T. Willey, chosen by the leg
islature thpn in session at Wheeling.
Andrew Johnson was in the senate
from Tennessee. In. the l oue were
several representatives from western
Virginia and one from Tennessee. The
remainder of the seceded states were
A glance at the membership of this
momentous congress reveals how short
Is the memory of a nation. Most of
the names are now scarcely known or
are recalled only as names. Only a
few of the most conspicuous have re
mained famous to our day. In the
chair of the senate was Vice President
Hannibal Ham'tin. who, although he
held many important positions, is
noted now because he ran with Lin
coln. From Illinois the chair of the
mighty Douglas was filled temporarily
by Orrllie II. Browning. Ills colleague
was Lyman Trumbull. Maine was rep
resented by Lot M. Morrill and Wil
liam Pitt Fess-enden. Massachusetts by
Charles Sumner and Henry Wilson and
Ohio by Benjamin F. Wade and John
Sherman. Pome of the other senators
whose names may awaken an echo in
the memory -of the averaee reader
were James A. Eayard of Delaware.
James Harlan of Iowa. Zacbariah
Chandler of Michigan. John P. Hale of
New Hampshire. Preston King of New
York. Edward D. Baker of Oregon, Da
vid Wilmot of Pennsylvania. Henry B.
Anthony of Rhode Islaad. Jacob Col
lamer of Vermont and Timothy O.
Howe of Wisoonsln.
Grow Elected Speaker.
In the house Galustia A. Grow was
elected speaker. He was only thirty
eight years old. yet despite hi youth
pan of Illinois; William S. n&man.
GMree W. Ji:lian, iMniel W. Voorhees
mid Srlmjl'-r Co'fux of Indiana:
James I. Wilsuu of Iowa. John J.
t"ritten'l'n of tvei.turfcy, Anson P.
Morrill of Maine. Henry L. Dawes of
Massachusetts, William Windom of
Minnesota. Frsiucis I. Blair of Mis
souri. ClruVs II. V:::i Wyck. Erastus
Corning. Wiliiatu A. Wheeler, Roscoe
Cockling :iiui Reuben E. Fenton of
New York; Georgt? II. Tendleton,
Clement L. Vallandigham. William Al
len, Samuel S. Cox. William P. Cut
ler, Sidney Edgerton and John A.
Iiimrham of Ol io; William D. Kelley
and Tliuduct:.? Stevens of Pennsylva
nia and Justin S. Morrill of Vermont
The party divisions were as follows:
Senate Republican.. 31; Democrats,
11; Unionists, 5; vacancy, 1. House
Republicans. 1(:0; Democrats, 42; Un
ionists. i:S; vai aucies, 2.
Lincoln's "War Message.
The president's message wan con
fined almost exclusively to a review of
the events leading up to the crisis and
to an argument against the right of
any state to go out of the Union with
out the consent of the other states.
Following Lis lead, the congress de
voted itself to the one subject of the
war, voting bonds and revenues, vali
dating the president's past acts, and en
larging his powers to meet the extraor
dinary situation in future, and general
ly providing ways and means to con
duct the struggle, and detiniEg the na
tion's attitude in regard thereto.
No graver problems have faced any
congress in the nation's history. The
members met not only in the midst of
perils to the country, but of personal
danger to themselves. Washingtoa
was menaced by a hostile army only
a few miles distant and was threat
ened with the blowing up of the capl
tol and the assassination of the chief
chelate. Finances were at a low ebb,
and Industry and commerce were seri
ously crippled. To add to the trou
bles at home there was a possibility
of danger from abroad. Several of the
great nations Lad already recognlxed
the south's rights as a belligerent, and
the possibility of foreign intervention
hung like a shadow over Washington.
There was ro faltering in the face of
these real or threatened perils. A half
billion dollars were promptly Toted
and means provided to borrow this
amount or raise It from the revenues.
Congress seemingly was actuated by
the spirit animating 'the closing para
graph of the president's message:
"And. baring thus chosen our course
All t le News
All the Time
without g-uiM'aad with pure purpoee
let ua renew- our treat m God and go
forward without fear end with manly
While congress waa assemblies Im
portant military morementa were In
progress. After repeated urging from
Washington General Patterson on July
2 once more sent his army across the
Potomac at WUHamsport. There has
been so much controversy over Patter
son's Hi starred campaign that it la
well nigh Impossible to get an unbiased
statement of the facta, but It Is agreed
that In this Instance his delay waa
caused by waiting for re-enforcements
The movement began at 3 o'clock on
a beautiful morning. General Patter
eon reviewed the troops as they filed
past The men were elated at this sec
ond entrance Into Virginia, but this
time observed silence for the reason
that the enemy was encamped on the
other side of the rtver. The Union ad
vance was led by Colonel John J. Aber
crombie, and he was on the Confeder
ates before they were prepared to re
ceive company. Nevertheless a warm
reception was afforded for a time,
when the southerners gave way and
retreated down the river, abandoning
blankets, knapsacks and other pro
visions on the way. In order to charge
the enemy the- Federal troops had to
demolish a barn and carriage house.
Stonewall Jackson's First Fight.
Colonel T. J. ("Stonewall") Jackson
was In command of the Confederates,
this being his first fight of any mo
ment In the war. The loss on the Un
ion side was three killed and tec
wounded, and that of the foe is be
lieved to have been larger. This was
known as the battle of Falling Waters.
The army of General Patterson now
advanced and on July 3 occupied MiT
tinaburg, where It was Joined on the
8th by Colonel Stone with two regi
ments and Colonel Lew Wallace with
one and on the 0th by General Sand
ford with two regiments. There Is no
question now that this gave General
Patterson an army numerically su
perior to the opposing force under Gen
Events had been moving even more
swiftly In the western end of the
ptate. On July 1 the legislature of
the "restored government of Virginia"
met at Wheeling and formally ratified
the choice of Francis 1L Pierpont for
governor. There is one anomalous
fact concerning Pierpont. H- was
never technically the governor of West
Virginia, which was admitted into the
Union In 18C3, although born in that
t-tat-e and still a citizen thereof. Yet
until 1SU8 he was recognized by Wash
ington as the governor of the entire
state of Virginia and after the fall of
Rl hmond bad bis capital in that city.
On the same day that the Wheeling
legislature met General T. A. Morris,
leading the advance of McClellan's
army, fought the battle of Buckhan-j
non. General Morris had two recl-
xnents and the Confederates a divi
sion tinder General Henry A. Wise,
former governor of Virginia. The Un
ion losses were small. The Confeder
ates were repulsed and lost. It was re
ported. 23 killed and 200 prisoners.
On July 7 General McClellan ad
vanced to Buckhannon with the main
army, uenerai aioms was aireaay
facing the Confederate General Gar
nett at Laurel hill and, while instruct
ed not to attack, waa thoroughly feel
ing out his position. Skirmishes were
occurring almost dally.
July 8 the Ninth Indiana and the
Fourteenth Ohio engaged the Third
Georgia and portions of several other
Confederate regiments at Bealiagton,
a village at the foot of Laurel hilL
near Beverly. The action was opened
i m i
raAKOTS B. FTRUPOXT, IXTAXi OOVTEBXOB
OF YlBGIUiA FBOM 1361 TO 1869.
by the Confederates charging from the
protection of a wood. They were halt
ed by the Union fire, retired and made
a second charge, but were again rout
ed and were charged in turn by the
northern troops, who captured the
Sigel's Fight In Missouri.
Events were also moving in Missou
ri. On July 3 General Lyon started
his advance from Doonville to Spring
field, and on the 5th Colonel Franz
Sigel' with 1.200 men attacked a su
perior Confederate force at Brier
Forks, near t Carthage. The opposing
commanders were Generals Rains and
Price and Governor Jackson. Sigel
succeeded in silencing the Confederate
battery and by a maneuver prevented
a fianli movement. He retired aud by
this ruse succeeded in drawing th
Confederate flanking party, consisting
of cavalry, into an exposed position,
when he opened on them with artil
lery and scattered them by an infan
try charge. The southern troops then
withdrew to Carthage and Sigel to Sar-coxie.
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EBuSr1 LITTEN & ROBERTS
Crime Unprofitable, Says George Sontag
The first instance of a notorious
bar.dit a bandit of the type which
made the term a dreaded one in the
far west eight years ago turning re
former has been afforded to the peo
ple of New York by George Sontar, a
member of the celebrated Evsuv
Sonfas band of desperadoes, who
bfen tellinp his Interestlng-compe'Urg
story of the uselessness of a life .f
crime in daily pictures at a moving
There were three in the band--George
Sontag, the directing fcep.is,
his brother John and Chris Evans.
George w-as arrested in Visalia, Cal
on Aug. 5, 1S92, after he and his part
ners had blown up an express car
and shot the express messenger. T'o'i
other two escaped, and it was r.ui
until June 12, 1S93, that they were
caught, after a battle in the Califor
nia foothills. In that fight John fcjo.i
tag was fatally wounded, Evans Eh.it
severely, and two of the posse so in
jured that their lives, for days, were
John Sontag died of his wounds 12
days after being captured. Evans a:id
George Sontag were tried, convicted
and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Sontag was pardoned recently oni
Evans laet week.
"I am trying to forget It all," said
Sontag recently. "I am trying to foi
get the horrible story of the trail of
death and other forms of crime that
marked our path for so many years.
"I am 47 years old now and in 1SK9.
when I waa 25 years old, I began mr
life cf crime. Think of a boy at 2Z,
The time of life when the average
young man Is anxious to lay hi3
groundwork. Instead of entering a
promising business, I became a dn
perado. "But It was a spirit of revenge that
carried me away not a lust for gold
or blood. My brother was a brake
man on the South Pacific. He dJ
hurt, but the railroad company did
nothing for toim. That angered me,
but. when some of my relatives weie
defrauded out of property by a rail
road running through Minnesota, I
was furious and determined then nd
there that -some one. aye, several,
must s'lffer, be they gnilty or lna
The face of Sontag, who was clad In
evening clothee, "his whitened hiir
combed loosely down about his fore
head. wa smooth and peaceful np to
that moment. He had looked the p ic
cessful business man, wealthy and
contented, but the memory of the old
days changed his countenance and
heightened the look of hatred that
Hashed from hrs eyes.
"My brother John had felt the
wrongs and injustices just as keer'y
as I, and he believed, with me, that
Tengeance should be wrought. We
went to Chris Evans, who had a fam
lly of seven children. He was in the
mining business, had run a stable, but
fate had been Just as nnklnd to ir.m
as onr oppressors had been to u
Evans and I had a fight over
ownership of a mine. It was this quar
rel j hat proved to each of us that the
other had "sand.'
"We made our headquarters at
Evans' house in Visalia. From there
we sallied for'h. We worked at ni-i'n.
We knew all iho trains, the Mk tryj-js
with the big "swag, and recorded t'.e
time each would arrive at a -statioi
where it would be convenient for us
to work. You may "be sure that t?I
senger, put up a game battle, but ve
shot him several times and I thought
sure that he was all in. But he sur
vived his injuries.
"After that robbery the 'law jot
busy. Thousands of dollars were of
fered for our capture, dead or alive.
The three of us decided that we'd re
safer in Evans' (house at Visalia, no
we went there. A posse surroundo 1
the house and, by a trick, they got
me out. After taking me in they tri-:d
to get John and Evans, but the latiei
opened fire on the bunch, wound
George Witty. They gave up the it
tempt that nisht, but went at it aga":n
the next. Oscar Beaver -was killed in
"I went to jail and John and Evaos
beat it to the mountains. Hundrecs
of officers nnd citizens took to th9
hills after them. On Sep1.. 14, a 'ew
weeks after Heaver had met his end,
the posse got Into a fight with brother
John and Chris In a mountain fast
ness. Two mPD were killed and two
were wounded. Right after that
Deputy United States Marshall S. J.
Ijlack was shot, but ho recovered.
"For months after that John and
Chris lived in a cabin back in the
mountains about 2" miles from Visa!i..
Friends brought them provisions aii
tipped them off when the officers weie
in the vicinity. Often, by taking
roundabout routes, they were able to
get down into town and back aeruj
Picked cut lonely places, where help '
could not bo had on call.
"When the train pulled out cf the
station late at night, and the en1.
neer had settled himself for a Ions
dreary night's ride, that was our mo
ment. Then we would sneak up q.i'et
13', Jump on the tender and worn
slowly and carefully across to the
cab. We worked quietly and, before
the engineer or fireman could tmr
around, we had them covered "wita
"The engineer was forced to top
his train. One man was then left t-x
guard him and another took the fire
man to the express car and made h':a
enter U and disarm the messenger i
The dynamite was then set and oie
third member of the party stool
alongside he train with his shotgiii:
ready to kill any passenger who enter
ed objection. When everything was
ready tne express car was blown jp
and we gathered the stuff and ekipp- e
away on horseback.
"After we had pulled off a few cf
these holdups we remained quiet foi
a while as the railroad company w.ia
putting detectives, good, courage ms '
men, I must Bay, on the fjood tra!n
They began to suspect us aud wlul
we knew they weren't sure that wj
were the men we thougnt it wise to
lay back for a time.
"Then we went at it again. We nal
to do some shooting In the later ca"e.
too. We were wanted, and wanred
bad, and people were bent on taking
us, dead or alive.
"In view of that we took no ch.m
ces. I remember one case, while va
were pulling toff a Job, that a pasn-
I without encountering anybody wuo
June, the posse decided to make e
final desperate effort to get the pair
The officers waited until John aud
Evans had moved 100 yards from 'he
cabin. It was the plan of the lane:
to sneak out, hold up a train whon
it got dark that night, and then 8Ki
to some other point.
"But that day brought their career
of crime to an end. The de'ecti-cs
and the others moved up on taem and
opened fire. Chris and John fired b.ick
and a iman dropped. Then started a
terrific fight, lasting an hour and a
half, ditriug which 1D0 shots were
"Though the members of the po'iso
didn't !;now it then, John had receive!
a fatal wound In that battle. He was
found the next morning under a sta K
He had crawled there to die.
"Evans made his escape from tlij
scene, and the officers thought U
they h.id lo-st him for all time
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audiences that a life of crime does n;t
pay. I am haprier now, save for the
memories of my past, than I have
been before. All of my rights as a
citizen have hi en restored to me,' a ad
IMt 1 1 shall try fiom now on to make up
peppered w'i 'Cor the misdeeds of the old days. Let
Chris had been badly
shot, and he went to 'Mrs. IVrU'.ns ! 'his sink into you; the work that 'e
house in Wilcox- canvon. not fnr r-nnildld brought u 'in. in all of our career
the .scene of the fight. Detective II i.! ! of crime, an average wage nf S3
"One Sunday, the first
was informed of the arrival of Fvnr.a
and he '.vent to the house at 1 o'cl..'U
in the morning. Chris was lying in
bed, a revolver under his pillow, loo
weak to resist he submitted 10 arr: pt
"I do not know how many men we
killed find wounded. The totpl l i
big one. Mind you, I do n"t boasi,
for we shot to kill only when it mcitit
either that or death for us.
"My !ioy, let me tell you, as I have
told those who have made up my
renU a day. Tho cheapest work'.ig
man In the l.'nited States, no master
how young he may he, draws more
than that, and, what is more, he
makes it honestly.
"Kvans. thanks to a kind heaven
has been permitted to go back to his
family to the children whose h itr
turned white when their father turn-;il
from an honest man Into a banrtr..
May he live lenr; to wipe out the st-'n
that Mottod his life."
ger sprang out of a car and procee.'e.I
to start something. We had to pop
some lead Into him for self-protection. 1 1
Now and then we had to take some of j
wound3 in me now.
i recau distinctly biz roDDeriei m
which I had a part. Four were fn I
California, one in Minnesota and one j
in Wisconsin. Those six hold:ps.
brought !n 15,0"0. The biggest of thalf;
lot was that at Western Union Jsmc j I'
cran m;1a frrim Rina XX-. I t
It was a fine dark night and the rpct1
was the most desirable that co Id !
have been selected for our won;.!
Everybody was so surprised that l.'ie
made co resistance, and, after we
blown up the express car, we
that our haul totalled t9.500.
"Well, they got me finally. The
three of jb pulled off a trick at Collis
George D. Roberts, the express mes-i
t l tie t
fo-m'i j rt
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