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THE POCK ISLAND ARGUS. WEDNESDAY, JULY 23, 1913.
The War Fifty Years Ago
General John II. Morgan's Ohio Raid Twenty-five
Hundred Troopers Dash Through Southeastern Indi
ana Ohio Alarmed and Federal Movements Checked.
The Raiders Pass Through the Suburbs of Cincinnati.
Overtaken by Pursuers at Buffington Island, Ohio
River Seven Hundred Captured In Battle Mor
gan Tries to Reach Pennsylvania A Roundup and
Surrender of a Remnant In Northeastern Ohio.
y Cept. CEORCE L KILMER, Ltt U. 5. V
URIXO the month of Jolv. fifty
years ago, the west as well as
the enst was wrought with war
excitement. In the east Lee
bad penetrated tho heart of Pennsylva
nia: tn tlie west John Morgan, the
'raider, was making a cyclonic sweep
across ImV'ana and Ohio toward the
Pennsylvania border. In opposition to
the wikbes of bis chief the rasa caval
ry chieftain galloped f:ir into the ene
my's country. Gener.il Basil Duke, the
jrlght bond man of Morgan, has declar
ed that his' lender . Intended to Join
forces with Lee In Pennsylvania. lie
sent spies to examine the fords of the
upper Ohio for that purpose.
In bis conferences with his officers
Morgan admitted the. dangers In the
way of hU enterprise, but his enthu
siasm overcame nil caution. With the
brigades of Colonel A. It. Johnson find
General Basil Duke he crossed the
Cumberland river Into Kentucky early
In July. His force comprised 2.400
point of the raid. To traverse Ohio
and not to capture Its capital was Mor
gan's determination. Notwithstanding
the fatigue of men and animals after
their fifty mile ride the column march
ed on all night Strong men fell from
the saddle, and It was difficult In the
extreme to keep the ranks from going
to pieces. Beaching Williamsburg,
twenty-eight miles east of Cincinnati.,
the evening of July 10, Morgan halted
to rest his command. The raiders had
covered ninety miles in thirty-five
hours since leaving Summansville. It
was at this stage that the raiders be
gan to lament the loss of the horses of
the Blue Grass region which they bad
abandoned on the way. Horses picked
np in Indiana and Ohio became lame
In a few hours. .
A Running Fight For Life.
When the column reached the east
ern border of the state at Bnffington's
bnr. on the Ohio, the expedition chang
ed from a raid into a running fight for
Mr I I JH . II II f 1 W I v j. - ,.n I '11
m . a) !
:;:rr :.-y V
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1 '4:'.r..ctM; L u.
The Finest Confectionery and Sodd Fountain
in the Middle West
3:00 P. M. to 10:30 P. M.
Our New Store is Completed and we have absolutely the Finest Confectionery
Store in the Middle West. No expense has been spared to make the interior look attractive
and the mirrors encased in the fixtures of Circassian .oak on each side of the room present a
striking appearance. The new store is kept cool by a large number of electric fans arranged to
make a perfect ventilating system. 4
We are located in the building vacated by the Woolworth 5c
and 10c store.
We are serving a noon day lunch that cannot be surpassed
anywhere in the three cities.
Dont Fail to Attend the Formal Opening Tomorrow.
Copyright by the Review of Reviews company.
CENEKAI. J. II. MUBOAN. c. S. A.. AND WIFE, rHOTOCR APHUD
THE FIELD IX 1S(3.
troopers, wfth six flexes of horse ar-J life. Morgnn might have escaped into
tllliT.v. nritiriliii to (Jpiicrnl Duke, al- West Virginlii by abandoning lil ar-
t Inn ic ! the I'eiU rr.ls placed his strix;th
A Strok; of Stratigy.
Knrly In the summer of 1SW me
main l'ii)ff(l-r;it' iirniy T the west,
then lociitifl In cctitrnl Tennessee, was
enpofifd to the rNk nf attack from two
mureiN. Irs Imtiiedl.ite opjionent. the
nruiy of the Cuiuberlund. under Gen
ernl U'. S. Itosorr.-ms. lay a few dnys
tiiiirrh linrtli if Its camp. In Ohio
and Kentucky Gcncnil A. V. Ktirnside
was asseiu'tilini; iitintlier Kvderal force
to penetrate east Tennessee. This
move would menace the Confederate
right and rear. General Braxton
Brncg. the commander, decided to re
treat to Chattanooga, south of the Ten
Morgan's command was attached to
P.rnge's arn)y, and In order to cover
bis difficult retreat southward he sent
the raldnr Into Kentucky to break up
the railroads, attack scattered Fed
eral detnehments and threaten to cap
ture I.oulsvfMe. Morgan wanted per
mission to extend his raid Into Ohio,
and Colonel Sleele of his command,
who was present at one of the confer
ences tetwcen Brnug and Morgan,
stated that Bragg said. "Yes. go where
yon can be most effective to keep back
any force of the enemy." "Even trf
crossing the Ohio riverr "Yes," an
Morgan rode Into Kentucky, bnt only
to get out of it as soon as possible,
moving at the p:ice of a cyclone. The
raiders averted twenty-one hours in
saddle every day. When horses gave
cut they seized fresh ones, sometimes
three or four daily for a single trooper.
Beyond the Ohio.
Crossing southeastern Indiana, where
they eluded a column of pursuers un
der General E. H. Hobson. the raiders
entered Ohio Just north of Cincinnati,
and rode through tho suburbs or that
city In the night To accomplish this
the column traveled fifty miles be
tween sunrise and sunset. Morgan was
accused of lack of enterprise In not
capturing Cincinnati It was weakly
garrisoned, a fact unknown to the
mlding chief, however. General Basil
Duke, his historian and defender, says
that the column had beeo reduced by
casualties in action and hardship to
less than 2.000 men
Cincinnati was not the objective
tillery apd wounded, but he preferred
to save all or lose all. Early on July
ID the advance of the Federal pursuing
column discovered the raiders' camp.
After n skirmish In which Morgan's
troopers won everything, the artillery
begun a duel at Ions range. A second
Federal column under Genera! Hobson
moved np on another road from the
one occupied by the advauce. .and at
the same time some Federnl guaboats
In the river opened fire In Morgan's
The concentrated fire from three di
rections stampeded Morgan's wagons.
1 and they blocked the only road of es-
I cape. When the confusion
1712 Second Avenue
Etock Island, Illinois
A. A. a.
height lu liorgnn's Hues the Seventh
and Eighth Michigan cavalry and part
of the Fifth Indiana charged the raid
ers. Morgan's guns were captured and
his whole command thrown Into panic.
Morgan himself rode out of the net
at Buflington's Bar with l.'.'Oo of his
men. Galloping rapidly almost abreast
of the column of his pursuers, he gain
ed the river again twenty miles above
tho battleground and attempted to
cross. About 300 raiders escaped by
swimming, but the gunboats headed off
the main party. Morgan bad reached
the middle of the river when the gun
boats bove in sight. Seeing that the
bulk of bis command would be cut off
on the Ohio shore, be turned back to
share their fate.
A Race and Scramble.
For the next six days, until disaster
overtook the fugitive remnant with
Morgan on July 20. it was a continual
race and scramble for the 800 wornout
men who clung to the leader. At a coun
cil of officers it was decided to march
back to Blennerhassett'a island. - tbe
scene of a previous attempt to cross to
West Virginia. Hobson was in the vi
cinity with 3.000 men. but instead of
closing in on tbe entrapped raiders he
waited, for the bloodless surrender
which be supposed would follow.. Rut
at night Morgan led his men In single
flle over a bojd mountain, and at day
light riobson's troopers found only an
empty bivouac to mark tbe raiders'
path. They were well ou the road
north to the Muskingum.
The crossing, was guarded in front
by militia, wbo fell back, and the raid
ers passed safely over, with Hobson's
column almost at their heels. Again
the Kcnti:c5:lans stele- uway by moun
I tain paths, where n goat, to say noth
! ing of a horse, could barely get foot
! hold. They then beaded for Pennsyl
Surrender at Last.
Finally ic the morning of July 26 a
battalion o.f pursuing cavalry overtook
the fleeing column and began shooting
nud sabering. Morgau broke away,
followed by the boldt of his men.
The handful struck out across country
was at Its i toward Smith's ford, ieudlng over the
All the News
All the Time
Ohio to Pennsylvania soil. Before
reaching the river bank the band was
again circumvented. The more desper
ate attempted to ride out of the trap
by dashing through the cordon cf Fed
erals at breakneck speed. They were
fired uKn from all sides, and Morgan
hoisted the flag of surrender:
The expedition ended disastrously
for Morgan's cavalry. As an organiza
tion it never recovered from the blow.
However, the main- object of the raid
was accomplished. General Bragg
made a leisurely retreat through soutb-
I em lennessee unmolested by. move
ments on bis flank having their origin
In Keutucky. The Federal plan to
launch such a movement and seize
Chattanooga ahead of Bragg was de
layed two months, or until Bragg's
whole army was south of the Tennes
The state of Ohio claimed to be the
proper custodian of Morgan and bis
officers because they were caught on
Ohio soil. To tbe number of seventy.
Including the chief, they were impris
oned In cells at the penitentiary in Co
lumbus. Subsequently Morgan escap
ed and took tbe field at the head of a
remnant of bis old command-
Personality of the Raiders.
Morgan's men have sometimes been
recklessly and unfairly classed with
those guerrilla bands wbo waged war
more in the spirit Of vandals than of
organized and disciplined soldiers.
Their representative character as Ken
tuckians and Americans Is shown by
the fact that the command embraced
the best young men of Kentucky, many
ef them graduates of the highest east
ern colleges and others of the same
class too young to be graduated.
Among tbe leaders were Colonel W.
C. P. Breckenridge. . Hart Gibson of
Tale, at one time Morgan's adjutant
general: Colonel Griggsby of an old
Vlrglnt family and a graduate of tbe
University of Virginia. Colonel Che
nault. Colonel Tucker. Lieutenant Colo
nel Cicero Coleman. Ieroy Clnke. ex-
Governor James 3 VcCrearr and
scores or others whose names became
prominent as nctlve citizens.
True. Morgan was a raider, but only
a pioneer in the style of warfare which
the enemy was glad to adopt later In
the war. Morgan took to It naturally
and because of his experience in the
Mexican war. where he had command
ed a company. Furthermore, be had
read of the ancient use of cavalry and
not of cavalry simply, but of mounted
infantry, which could move with the
speed of the wind.
When In the enemy's country one
man would hold the horses of four oth-
Kentnckians Imitated mem. " -
They also had the sportsman's pride
and could shoot a squirrel In the head
at the top of the tallest tree. To brinjr
a squirrel home shot In any other way
would have been considered a mutila
tion and laughed at by. the old men of
the neighborhood. They could shoot a
bird on the wing and decapitate a quail
neatly amid the rankest sw.imp grass.
They were always dressed In gray
uniform or the semblance of a uniform
But the officers very rnrely wore In
signia. Morgan had but one uniform
coat a roundabout. Weapons for ofli-
ers while they dismounted to fight or cers and men were revolvers and En
to carry on the work of bridge and
railroad destroying! The chief Idea' of
his campaigns was to cripple the ene
my by destroying Ms roads and bridges,
fighting when necessary, to cut a way
Into the objective point or to save his
'command in getting back borne.
Experts at Riding and Shooting.
Just as the men were highly educat
ed, so were they highly trained In all
that makes good. Independent soldiers.
They bad been taught to ride. and. in
J. --vV-.. -"I j
by Review of Reviews company.
CK-ZRAb E. H. HOBSON. C. 8. A., LEADER
IN" THE I'CK&CIT AXD CAPTURE Or JIOK
tact, had been Imrn to the saddle.
Without a saddle or even a sircingle It
was nil the same. There were men in
the command 'who could reach down
from the saddle and pick a silver half
dollar from tbe ground Thin was a
Ismous trick of tbe Texans, and the
field rifles, the last for Infantry tight
Ing. Swords were discarded . because
tbey made too much noise for Morgan's
style of warfare, which was to slip np
and strike the enemy unawares.
PAUPER SNOBS OF INDIA.
tne faithful workmen among the Hin
dus and eoolieSi and the burden of the
charity falls on the rich English. The
wealthy Hindus will take none of the
responsibilities. They say that the
Englishman created this class and that
on him falls the weight of support. .
There is another cause of this pover
ty also, apart from this strong false
sentiment. That is the insanitary con
ditionsof life which cause the death
of the father of the household at tin
early age. This reduces the family to
pauperism nt oiice, ns the lines of
work open to the Anglo-Indian woman
which she will, accept are practically
none. Chicago Tribune.
machines and microns n nu anaesthet
ics. One fell back on steam, but an
other a reticent man usually remark
ed that the most surprising discovery
of man was that this earth move
round the sun and is not the most im
portant small holding In tbe universe.
When the stomach fall3 to perform
its functions, tho bowels become do
ranged, the liver and the kidneys con
gested, causing numerous diseases.
The ttoniach and liver must be restor
ed to a healthy condition and Cham
berlain's Stomach and Liver Tablets
enn be depended upon to do It. Easy
to take and most effective. Sold by
all igisus. (Adv.)
Beggars That Will Not Work Because
They Are' Aristocrats.
One-fourth of the Anglo-Indian popu
lation In India is supported by charity.
For tbe Anglo-Indian thinks that work
is beneath him. and really at heart be
Is a born snob. It Isn't drunkenness
which makes hlra an object of charity,
for there is comparatively little drunk-
(nness among the poor in India. Nor U
t the seasonal trades, as it some-times
is with us. for work there is continuous
the year round. Neither is It the mo
notony of a dreary home or dally toil
that drives -him to drink and then to;
poverty. For there Is no part of Cal
cutta where there are people of one so.
cial grade, but the homes of tbe poor
are interspersed with tbe rich.
He is a pauper purely nud simply be
cause be Is au aristocrat. He Ins Eng
lish blood in bis veins and be wants toj preserved th
nve like tue r.ngiisu. ana tue i.ngnsn
Were Quite Popular In Paris
the Eighteenth Century.
Parisians have always been extreme
ly devoted to sundials, and it is prob
able that the French capital possesses
a greater number of these (ime Indicat
ing devices than any other city in the
Even in the eighteenth century the
sundial was most popular In Paris,
and fashion singled out for Its choice
the sundial of the Palais Itoyale
Every day nt noon this was tbe center
of Interest of au eager crowd. A writ
er of that period tells of a "great crowd i
in the corner of the Palace Itoyale gar
den. standing motionless with their
noses in the air." each was waiting for
noou. having bis watch In baud, ready
to set at 12 o'clock.
. When the Iuke of Orleans was alter
ing the palace in I7S2 the Parisians
were much disturbed, thinking that
they were to be deprived 'of their fa
vorite sundial. But the duke not only
e sundial, hut added to it
a little powder magazine, which was
BIG QUALITY STORE
Cut Rate StJJ,a
Olive Oil. 51
Malted Milk, 53.75
Fountain Syringes, 51.50 value 63o
Fountain Syringes, 11.23 value 53c
valikj . . .
in India are the successful and the rich.! m arranged that it exploded when the!
They have their well appointed homes.' un'isht feil upon It. thus notifying t-v - j
their servants and everv luxurv. The' "n whf beard the explosion that!
Englishman wbo works with bis hands ! the hour or noon bad arrived. Later a
the men In the factories, the day labor- cannon which was discharged by the
en, the frontiersmen, the farmers are! 8un at ,,oou took ,he P1:,le r ,ce lilt;e
not found in India. The beggar snob! powder magazine,
does not know of their existence. -He; B'Jlon arranged an ingenious dlal'ln
knows only the cooiies and the Hindus. tne botanical garden A globe which
who work with their hands, ami be!'PresHI!tPa lUe arti1 V:1 spended
will not be c.ne of them. He wlslie! b.v n nnir Tne ,i:'lr svn burued
to pattern his life after tbe English j through y th- sun at noon, nud the
man whom be knows. He want to! B'obe fell -ipon a Chinese goug St
have a servant and be waited on. and
If be cannot be will not work. To dig '
with a shovel Is n disgrace in his eyes!
and begging 1 lufinitely more respec
table. - ' ,' I
So the Anglo-Indian pauper Is sup
ported on c scale better than that of!
The Greatest Discovery.
We were talking of tlie greit discov
eries and wondering which was th'e
irreatHKf nnrl miniu r ...t
electricity, ivireles telegrqDby, flying I
Toilet Water, 50c quality..
Perfamo, test quality, 50c
Mtnnen's Talcum, 15c value...
One rlat Alcohol, COc value...
One pint Glycerine, 75c value.
One pint Castor O'l
H'nl'la's Pills, per 100
Cathartic Compound, per 100..
Aspirin Tablets, per 100
Epsom Salts, per pouad 05c
We are telling everything In Uie
druggists' line at a lower acala oi
prices. Try us Just ence cr.d bo
rative Store Co.