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The free citizen. (Orangeburg, S.C.) 1874-1876, October 30, 1875, Image 1

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^^^^^MMM,^W??MMM??^??*?^*"*M*M>^I?^???W?M'??M??????^ ?'l -I HM--?mi-??J'ffc,.?milli. MIHI.M?WI ? >M | .,".,,.,,..,
E. A. WEBSTER. Editor and Proprietor. A Weekly Paper Devoted to Temp?ranos, literatura and Poliii??.
_ _ ,. i _ _?
VOLUME IL ORAN GEBURG, SOUTH CAROLINA, SATURDAY, OCTOBEK 30, 1875. NUMBER 12.
TIMELY TOPICS.
Tili: compulsory school law in New
Yorky which promised -<? much a: inc
limo of it< enactment, lias already become
a dead later. Out ??f lin l?.OOO children
which were known in January lo lie tru
ants, only SOO have beeil coin jud led to
attend school, and theil' attendance lor
six months has cost the city $14,000. It
It lakes time to learn, but sooner orbiter
people must learn that lhere are social
wrongs which indirectly ailee! the stale
that laws alone cannot cont roi.
GA?.IOXAXI stat' -that the soundings
for thc submarine tunnel between ling
laud and France are being carried on
actively. 'They are at this moment di
rected to the part of the -traits near the
English coast, at a few miles from -hore.
Each evening the vessel which carries the
commission returns to Dover; Calais ur
Itoulogne, and work is recommenced the
next day. The engineers charged with
that important labor, MM. Larousse and
Laval le, are perfectly satisfied with thc
results obtained ; ami so far nothing hits
occurred to destroy their previsions rela
tive to the depth.
Ml. Flt A MIS WllAllTOX, in an article
in Lippincott's Magazine, discusses the
relations of spiritualism and jurispru
dence. "What attitude.-' he asks, "is
un-prudence to assume toward a person
who, charged with an invasion of the
laws ot the land, sots up a defense that
he was acting under the constraint of a
superior ipi lit ual power.' What attitude
is jurisprudence to assume toward those
who exercise such power for an ilk gal
end?" Dr. Wharton has no doubt that
mediums are responsible for acts dune
while professedly entranced, and lor the
acts ol'persons whom they may get un
der their control.
AN appeal is now before the Now York
supreme court, involving the question ol
the right to asses- churches lor street im
provements. Three chu relies of New
York city unite in endeavoring to escape
tho payment of certain assessments for
paying streets. Il was decided nt special
tenn of thc court that, under an act
thirty-five years old, which has been once
repealed - the repealing act being after
ward itself repealed-tho churches were
" exempt from assessment, at; they wer?'
free from city tax. Tho prom i nonce
given to this case may stimulate tho gen
eral discussion, which has not been in
frequent of late years, concerning tin
exemption of church property from tax
ation.
'IT i: K KY is a Ira id that lluissia will
take Constantinople and kick tin
Crescent out of Europe. Kassia is afraid
Prussia will lake Finland and Poland,
Austria is afraid Germany will take Ans
tria. Germany is afraid France will
take Alsace-Lorraine, and France i:
afraid thal Germany will take lin
province of Champagne, as Voil Mobla '.
soldiois got such a first-class taste ol' it?
sparkling wine dill ing thc LS70 campaign
England is afraid her scattered province
will take themselves and leave her only :
nutshell to crack in her own little isle
Spain is afraid tho United State- wi!
take Cuba.
Tun he-t on (Hi from Palis is thai tin
Empress Eugenie lately requested Pres
ideni MacMalion to penni! her to visi
Paris for twenty-four hours in th? mos
private manner, and that the result Wa
a prompt refusal. The Kreuch Govern
mont, permits the bourbon Princes ti
reside in Paris; has placed the Dm
d'Aun?ale (one of them) in Command o
one of the eighteen ??grand divisions o
the French army ; permits the Princ
Napoleon (Jerome) io reside in Parn
but, in the most peremptory manner
forbids thc Prince Imperial, il penibles
young gentleman nineteen year old, am
his mother, a widow with narrow mean?
to set foot on French soil 'flic ohl;
plain reference for this i.- that Presiden
MacMalion and his, responsible adv ?soi
have no fear of the Bourbon or th
Orleans pretensions and'pretenders, h
arc infinitely afraid of young Napoleo
and his brother.
'fm: floods which desi dated Toulon?
ind its| neighborhood last spring, afti
the inciting of tho winier snow's, ha\
been equaled, if n ii surpassed by dio;
which followed eight days ol' rain la
mouth.1 i corn |> in icm ol' the Ne
York llerald estimates Ibo loss inti
valley of Ile- A Hies at .-'.ono.,ino fra lil
and that iii I h r..uh. the < lard and tl
'-"/.ero, at 2?,00(l,000 a total >>i' near
??7,000,000 in American money. Foi
hundred houses base boon demolish
and one hundred live- lost. The ll
burst on tie. Abbey .?f Imiitfroid wh
fie monks were at player. < lee of tie
was killel, and another I- : an eye. '!
dania:-, lo Mu- abbey will reach # |i),lH
in various neighb.>rhoi.\.nvhe crops ha
i hoon completely destroyed, and even thc
j earth in graveyards lins been so dissolved
I hy ihf water that colli ns have lina ted
away. There is -ti!! milch distress, hut
liberal subscriptions arc being taken up
in l'? ris ?ind other cities.
C'llAUI.KS t'itA'NCltf AOA.MS, in his able
re j H ir t as railroad commissioner ol' Mas
sachusetts, expresses thu opinion that the
only course lo pursue inward railroad
corporations is to bring to hear upon
them the jmwer .>! publie opinion, ?ind
suggests that this ho done by tito appoint
nient ol':i board ot" arbitrators, like the
one that has proven so cllieient in Mas
sachusetls. Thc duty ol' this I ?on rd, he
says, i- to hear complaints, ami if they
prove just, to suggest io thc oiliOcrs ol
thu eoi-poratioii the pinpi ty ol' correct
ing them. If they refuse, ?in appeal fol
lows to thc hoard ol'di rectors, and should
their response proveftivnrableun|the mat
ter is reported to the next legislature
lin' such action as it may deem proper to
take, 'flin- l'ai this plan, M r. A ?lams
states, has worked well: the board ol
directors have complied with the siig
gestions in a frank and liberal spirit,
ile admits, however, t hat. in Massachu
setts thc railways are owned by the Com
munity, ninPthat popular opinion then
would bc prompt to sustain lin- commi:
shiners, lhil it is hinted that the popu
? lar opinion of .Massachusetts would thnvi
no ?ilbet nit railways outside the limits o
that state.
AT the recent meet inn of lin- Sochi
Science association in Bristol, I'rofessoi
.levon.- returned to the subject nf ex
hauslion of thc coal-fields, am! very (nih
supported thc views titat have boon re
peatedly luged on thal important topic
Ile showell thal the annual rate ol' in
crease of consumption, sn far from bavin:
been overrated in his previous caleula
lions, was uni actually in excess of thosi
calen lat ions; and that the actual increasi
ol' consumption is at tin- rate nf ;\\ po
ci nt I HM'ti nu tl in, not in arithmetical hu
in geometrical progression. The tota
produce nf 187.*? is estimated at I i's.csu,
ISO tons, according to the rep/*;
inspect ors of mines, "'fhe-quantity coi
urned for domestic purposes was cst i
mated at one ton per head jier annum o
the whole popu ?at ion, or iietwcen thirl;
am! linty millions of tons. The lota
exports of coal arc only from twelve ti
fourteen millions of tons p,-r annum
Thus some i iglity millions of tons repre
sent the motive and manufacturing pow'o
of tin dimitry. Tlc waste in consum?
lion, whether for manufacturing or do
litest ie purposes, i-. no doubt, cnorinou
lt was lamented by thc presiden! in hi
address, mn! admitted hy all thc speaker?
The most economical compound engine
only obtain one-eleventh part ol' (hi
theoretic value of coal, measured in fool
t toll lids. At tin- -anic time, when w
consider what i- tin- result ol' the con
bustion, in round numbers, nf a i j un rle
ufa million tons of coal per wiirking-da
throughout tin- year in the production ?
mechanical power, wo can form -on:
faint idea ni' thc service ri adored by i!
sleam engine to the country.
Whence This Tower.'
Mr. .1. \?. Itrown, better known as i!
" mimi reader," is in thc eily, and <
la.-i Saturday gave a most extraordinai
test of his power-. ?'nile a party
gentlemen, including a number of new
paper at taches, met him at thc Tromm
house, with a view ol' experimento
with tlii- strange forc?, of which he
ixissesned. lt having been reported th
lie could read thc ii i i ii* I ol' a person
some distance, if properly connect!
with bim by means of a wire, it was il
lemoned to experiment in that di ret ii
hy means ol' thc wire connect ?mr the Ti
mont house with the operating room
thc Western Union telegraph oiliee, a .!
lance of nearly four blocks. Having i
cieved their instructions ns t.. tho ina
nor pf .procedure, II purl of the expel
mentors repaired lo the Western i'nii
oilice, while others remained willi M
Brown in tia- telegraph ollice ol' i
Tremont; Arri veil nt thc main oli'n
one of thc geni leint-, u took nula trohl pt
e l. wrote on ?1 slip of paper in a -pint
jocoseness, "How is this for h hrh
wrapped the pencil in the paper writ I
upi.n, mid deposited both in ?j draw
Word wa.- (hon sem to '.''lemont. ".
r.'.-i.ly " Quickly tit either end ni t
circuit the wires were detached, tal.ei;
hand at one en i by Wv. Ilrov.'ii, ai t
oilier hy the party who was to transl
the inossar c, and (his position was ma
taine ! for several inimit?s. Tito gent
mau sending the message kept his mi
intently on the fact (hal ho had place
gold pencil and ? aper written upon i
drawer, and in about a minute niter .'
I'.i'd WU had taken hold of ?he wirti w
one hand, he !.. gan to write with
other: '-(i-.i!i! pencil wrapped hi pai
with -omething written on it, in a dr,
ter. The writing i-. " I low Mii
I for high .' ' "
Wim can "s plain (lib phenomenon : :
wdittl i ? ?..'HIM. that in " solid form," ti
! wen-, iii-- i ti tell i j!< nee evolved (roil
j pilli lie pa-e-I along a celnlll'HI w i
j Verily ile In Iv not to say science
ipsvcholo'O tn ii- inftiucv. ('/iii
! Tims .
.* i: w ? " *.r" ss AK v*KS'i*
A (armor sal ul Iii- kin In n ilmir,
Smoking Iii? mumlav i ii j
Awl liver llii' llvlils hSs'eves wi re as:,
\Vlldc tile traill sn u-ilili-n ii|"-,
N...I I. .I away
Tlii<iut:li lin* siiiiiiuer "lay.
Willi >>li:nli>w< mel .uu-liiiie lianl iii |>lay.
I??i\vn l?y (he nate Iii? i'ariii?-ry iw
I IA iel li?- iii i i<-k li 'I ?.nv in ul.
, Twn, win, wlil>|N-if<l in^vilii'r IIn-re.
I'S?!" ? ii.I tin- itu uni. '. 1 - ?..
li I jaii-s" :iiii.-li:.
An.I llii'lr *kles :in- Inijln.
There'll l"- h.ir vi-i im: -..?.ti willi main ami m 14lit.'
I The ui-i k-- weal liv. ami t!.l-l Lain ia..am .1
With tti-- nii?hl ->t harvi -i shir?'
Uni lin* inriimr lau^liiil. i'm v i ii
Thor?1 ri-iiiaim-<l mu- hurvi si mon',
sim i-1 H|-ii| hail sn? ?,
\V itli grain nf Iii- nwii,
j A ? rup (hat hive mitsi hui v??.?i ali me.
Th'- far.rsa! al his kiti-hi-n iim?r.
When lin-1 v. iiiim m.. il wa-.li.m..
An.I hi'lael a kiss on hi-.lauuhli-r's I trow,
.\nl u. I-..nuil his m-w-l'miii'l son ;
Ami lin- harvisi |lnu>.
Willi weililiti'i !.. Il-' i-hiiiie,
S'uiii: it- .lay- ?mu mi-rrv rhynn-.
( ' 11AI? A ( T K11 r< > X X OI ss i : U J {S.
Sat imho lli'vti'w.
'I'lie vulgar toinleney t<> simulate :i
knowledge :il?iiit Illings whore the reipii
site conditions of ?leeurate information
are clearly wanting, has ever hoon :i
(heme lin' philosophie satin', lt is tho
recognition nf t ! i i - tendency which has led
lin- thinking lew ru despise the opinion ol
the many a- a spurious and counterfeit
kimi ul* recognition. From IMato, who
distinctly excluded mere opinion froni the
category of certain kiidwlciige, to i'm- mod
ern itlculisl, who pays no heed i>> I he
strongest assurances ol' common sense,
philosophers have made light of prevail
ing convictions; on the j:ii nt nd that they
are formed in hast??, ami willi nu due ap
preciation nf tin' conditions of a rational
certainty. Noi only sn. Inn science itself,
which might he supposed tn maintain a
more am ?eal ile altitude inward prevailing
heliiT, has long since learnt to imitate
philosophy in its eon tem pt fm- vulgar
ideas, and a scientific lecture would now
he i!i e?ne?l wanting in spirit and point if
it failed in illustrate, liv some startling
example, the wide opixisiiion between the
habitual bifcrcnccsof common minds and
the verified coucbinions of the savant.
Nowhere, perhaps, does popular belief
exhibit its liastiiicssaud bindee,liney inure
conspicuously than in the readiness nf
n los I persons tn pronounce an opinion re
specting tin- characters and motives nf
others. The confidence with which manyi
a man and woman will talk alvont the de
siri's and habits of a coiuparativelv new
. *. . . -- ... ...Un .i ...IOT
m ino as a signal illustration ot thc'c?igci'
nessof mankind tu seem wise. There arc
many whose modesty and gund sense
would prevent their giving an opinion mi
any point nf scientific knowledge or
a'sthctic. appreciation, who. nevertheless,
?n i un hesitation in passing judgment
respecting mat tors of conduct, nf which
their knowledge is infinitesimal. Nant
hers of people, who du nut in tin- least
seem tu be ashamed nf ignorance respect
ing inosi matters nf discussion, are quito
sensitive a- tu their reputation for knowl
edge, with respect in the intricacies of
human elia racier. When, f- r example,
thi ii' is an addition lu the .-..'-ir'.x nf a
-mall town, through the arrival of a new
family, there is thc greatest impatience
tu have a definite and fixed opinion re
specting the idiosyncrasies nf the new
comers, fhi ie wil! certainly he more
than one knowing person whose sup|>esed
quickness nf perception w ill at once ena
hie them, satisfactorily tu themselves, tn
define and characterize thc mau or
woman about whom curiosity i- natur
ally aroused, ll i- CliriollS, tun, tu lin
lice the readiness of tithers to accord to
these persons thc special faculty for iniiii
lion which they claim Ibivthenisclvcs. lt
luiii orien been remarked, that tlc- first
condition ul' winning the coiilidcnce of
others, i- tn display a fuir union ut of sclf
conlidencc, and this truth i- fully illus
trated in lin- case nf the people whom wi"
arc now considering. When a hely gives
mu among her acquaintance that she i
an expert in mailers ofeharncter and dis
position, -he speedily gain- an enviable
reputation lui- this kimi ul' prescience, ll
there is any new character in lu- deci
phered, about which lhere hang- a cer
tain mystery, she i- tin- authority in
whom all repair, in order to ac? pi i re defi
nite information. If a scandal is ju-t
germinating, and cyerylwidy is on tiptue
respecting ils real lint li iv and results; it
is this connoisseur who is resorted tu fur
a liual .-nliitinn nf thc problem. In this
wilt |H'oplc arc sustained in thc pleasing
holiol thal they possess some easy avenue
tu the mind.- and hean.- nf their f. Hows,
thanks tn which lin y are enabled to dis
pense with tin- tardy methods of observa
Liol i. com paris 'ii ami analysis, ami tu read
a new character as coniidciitly a-au un
folded letter.
Yi ! it dur ie,; e.di for any remarka
'..le power nf leJlv-ctioii ;.' that the
intuitive kind of knowledge of othci
inii-i he .very delusive. I'm. first ol' all
hiinc'.ii character is an exceedingly emu
pies ano variable thing, and can not IM
known except after patient attont Urn
The facial perusal ol" cha rael er. ol v liicl
we now speak, alway.- involves two ?ttl? r
ellees, cit her ol' which may he a mistake!
one. In thc firs j pince," thc sclf-stvlei
observer argues, I hat certain things wliicl
have held g?'od of oilier people will liol?
lg'Mid ?if the new cl ia rac ti r. and since ii i
exceedingly easy io mistake a < j 11:11 i t \ <
il certain miler of minds for a uiiivcrsii
j attribute of lUiiukiud, there :- always
'chance uf a wrong induction, lu llicne.N
pince, i he observer "is compelled in jud?
t!:e wholi of ii character from a very ("et
' Itt; and herc again then' is ample roo'i
ii err? r in reiisouinj! that, ln'cause on
felt or acted so and so to-day, ihi< mu:
he hi- characteristic mode of feeling i
acling. In other words, human nature
dm variable, both ?is a whole and wit Iii
the limit- of a single individual, tu..Hu
nf tie- vapid kind ol prevision of whit
j we an- speaking.
HiiMv is a second Obstacle l<> tlii- in
stantaneous rending ol' character, which
?fills l'or special notice. Not only ?.
character a phcnoniciioii ot great com
plexity. I ni t it is abo one in a high degree
inaccessible. I'..r. in tit?- ii rsl plneej all
thc thoughts and purposes of another
have io l>c i n I erred from external signs:
and tlii- process, however carefully car
ried on. must alway- he liable t.. error.
The ?eal uniformities of connection be
tween feeling and expression, for exam
jilo, eau only lu- kn..wu approximately
altera wide and careful comparison of in
dividual peeiiliaritie-. This icllcetioti
iii ver occurs to the confident connoisseur
nt' physiognomy, wie? fondly imagines
that every morai peculiarity is distinctly
indicated by some on.- form of facial
structure or movement. li. thc second
plaee.it should bi' remembered that all
nf us have a certain |>uwer of dissimula
lion, ?ind most ol us aie accustomed t"
put sonic kind of watch "ii <>nr word- .uni
actions. This is especially liar case when
we have to confront a new obsi ever. Wi
do inn care, in m..-t instances, lo !".
conned t>.astly by our fellows. Nearly
everybody is accustomed to sonic mens
ure of reticence belbrc strangers, while
there are lew who. from a certain kind
ul pride and force nf individuality, are
vont ?veil t-> mislead casual observer?
i< -peet i Mir t heir real aim- anil sen t ? men ts.
Thus it happens tba: a person win. i
nady al a glance to classify ?my hew
variety nf*character, run- the risk td"tic-1
r-opting, as an essential ingredient of tin
|>hcnnmciion, something which is wholly
ulvenlitiou<. Ii may IM> said, of course,
that the instances we haye selected .ire
exceptional ones, that the groat majority
if |K'opIc are bulli ton much alike ami
iou t ra ns pa rent in their \v< .ni- and ?nt ions j
to occasion any serious difliculty t<> a
lioterol in.-ii'- natures ami ways. That
there is a certain force in this coii-iib ra
tion may be readily granted. At the
billie time, this l'ai', does not alter the
[ruth ol' oitr contention, that in every
'tasty judgment of character, there i- al
lays hu clement ol' risk which forbids
thc process being described as an intui
.ive ene. S... ton, w.' may conced? that
l certain few possess an indisputable lac-'
illy nf quick |tcrccptioii of the complex
licit of human character. Yet. when we
.onie to analyze this facility, we lind
bat it resolves itself into a happy skill'
ii conjecture, which no doubt includi - a j
ertaiii range of past observation a- well'
LS a quicknessof imaginative insight into
ther per.-.MIS' feelings, but which, m ver
fel. kl wa vs remains ?1 n l'lato
ruilHlll.ne :n .i i...,- o - j., i
rjiolly destit ute of the exact certa o.'i nf|
cicntilic inference. Those who see in
ids conjectural -kill a mysterious power
if intuit ion, are dazzled by the instances
if eon.,; prediction which tiny happen;
o have witnessed, and fail to take account
ii' the errors to which this pron -?. i- cor
ain to lead.
li would probably bc an intciv.-ling in
|uiry lo trace ..ut the various impuls?se!'
in mau nat ure, which serve lo sustain and
lister this impatience in thu.observation
if other-. Some ol' the principal inilii
.lices at w ork, will readily suggest thoin
elvc- to a thoughtful mind. It isobviolis
hat i in met e gratification of pride which
it tends all consciousness of knowledge,
val or imaginary, will not account for the
?cculiar torce (.i' ili?- tendency^ That is
o say. though it i- true that lite motive
ifviinity leads liicn lo inmginc thal they
iri- conversant with many matters ol
V'liich they are, in reality, profoundly ig
lorant, ii dues not explain why they
lo H i b 1 be especially liable to a -nine this
ippcarancc of intelligence with ri -peel m
heir fellow-, lt i- evident thal these
pecial influences mus; be looked torin
he peculiarities of ibo relations which
n ilpie bold to one another. The follqw
ng suggestions may. perhaps, roughly iu
licate the character of these intluences.
Kirst of all. it i- manifestly of practical
niportniice to everybody to vain sonie
hing like a definite opinion resjieetiiig
hose w hom be has lo meet in social intcr
.oinse. li, as some philosophers contend,
be first motive of ail inquiry i- thc need
if a definite basis fur action, wv may un
terstand bow it i- that most people arc
.o eager to conic to a decision respecting
he dispositions nf their acquaintances.
"Nothing is more embarrassing or annoy
Hg, for example, to a hospitably-di-posed
tidy, than to have to do w ith a person
vh?se tastes ami idea- arc -bron.led in
itystery. Hythe very painfulness of thc
filiation, she is driven t.. frame soniehy
lolhesis as tn the [KM'SOH'S real character^
lowevcr little gr?iind she may have for
ilausiblc conjecture. Inthi.- way. people
.onie t.? delude themselves that they have
isccrtaiued a man - real character, when
hej have simply been driven bj the in
oiiveniejices of conscious ignorance lo
.oiisi ru et a purely hypothetical concep
tion with regard to the object. Another
lill neme a! work in these cases i- a torin
. I the primitive fetishistic impulse lo in
terpret evervihing outsideoiie'? own cnn
-'.inn- li!'.- in tenn- nf ile -ame. 'I'la
-ame teiideiiev w hich ace,nint- for tin
?avago projecting his own feel bigs ?ind in
ientioii into tree or river aivouuis foi
peuple I .?ill-terri ny their own mode - ol
thought and -ciiiiiitviit to n erv new min?
whieb conic under their notice. li i
;piile euri.,u- io remark lite invel
i:a?iy of this habit, even aflei ample ..;
poi! unity b:.- I-ceil tri veil (br d ?-co yen ni:
the i'iid less di vivait ic.- ol' i Dili \ id lia I fem
pei'.'men I. I'os-ibly lhere is a charin le
many pcr-oiis in the -pcctnclc of : mimi
lett, ?ninvr up '.. -I'IO.M' vi'.r. il.. ..:.?,
belief lila! ali In- I? of the world m,, .
feel an I act prcei-oly ns ii does, tin.' jil;
icsUietic consideration may irv.- sti
furl lu-i to ?oiilii in th? bal il. I'eop ;.n
CHU el laged ill Mic ciittii ali.if ll,'
nenie ot' regarding others, h inc .
lion hat it is taken t-> indicate a dngu
lar innocence of nature, nuil:! touchim
imf ttu-ss to deal with thc harsh intiieti
cie-aii'l contradiction-i of hiinian charae
LI. However this may ! I he habit doc
prevail in ?nany iuiml<, and i- a fruit lu I
I source of hasty inference an i delusive
misconception. May lint ono soo illus
| ti alhms ??I* (Iiis W'iuloncy in thc*gron< lia
[bility nf lioth no n anil women t?? delude
I themselves willi rosset to tho clt?i:i?'ters
[which they chy??so for tin- matrimonial
I relation V I; is nui nilly the in. ??cont girl
which i < OM mit- iliiscrmr. by fondly ?in
ugiuiiig in thc absence of cvidcnci . thal
lier lover must necessarily share her ow ii
I Hire thoughts; thc highly cultiva tc?l man.
ton. may fall into ii. hy toking ii for
granted that tin1 young woman whom
; lu- selcctsashis most intimate companion
i fid tin- same hhrli aspiratioiis that lie
! himself feel-.
I Thc other infliiciicos which appear in
I favour lin- i in pa tic if ec of belief with re
spect hillie characters of others arc npe
cial emotional forces. Thc operation ni
feeling ii- sustaining assurance even
when lhere i- (lie minimum of evidence
ha- hoon a favorite theme oi'philosophcrs.
There are two modes of titi- operation,
according a- thc feeling predisposes to
belief in .?.ny shape or favors -onie par
ticular \a ' ty <>!' conviction. Moth ot
these modes ma\ he illustrate?! in thc
. .la-- of heiief? of wi i ?ch we are now1
speaking. An example of the li rsi i
given II- in t li? ? ucl ion of a hive ol' power
. .!> our ohscrvation ?if oilier-' characters
A readiness ?a unravelling tia- threads ol
lin 111 :t i ? sentiment and purpose ha- al
way.- heeii looked on a- a ir rou ii? 1 lor sell-1
gratillation and for the ndihiratiou of
other-. A man who think- himself ca- ?
pablo ol' divining instantaneously an-,
ut lier's unspoken thoughts ha- no; oidyj,
t lit' pleasing con cmusncss of power j |
which every supposition of know lc? Ige L
tirings with iT. hui als?i a gratifying i'd-',
ingot ctptalil.v with tlii- sec??nd per on. I,
Thal i- to say. ?ie think- himself on a .
level willi ?hi- oilier ?ll resp?-cl lo the',
li?owl?'?lg?' of any thoughts or impulsesK
ivhich may occur tn him. Not only so,I,
mt thc assunipt'um of this omniscient I,
nsiglit into character will pretty cor- L
?inly inspire a w?', if not dread, in manyi,
? I her minds, so that the mar, or woman j.
vim ciin make any pretensions to this ?
i:ie penetration will he able to indulge ,
II ihc most delicious ?'motions of power ,
? in! superiority'. A -np|ios?i?on so in-N
cicely gratifying a- this must he willi j
ind i y certainly he 'eure from that ,
.lose scrutiny and i vivi ul verification .
Vilich alone would pnive its validity. ,
Thc feelings which pre?lispos? ?nen to |
'titertaiii u priori i\ eortain kind of notion I.
vspeeting tin- character ol' oilier- ?tren
.h."...1 mta?Wj .vu utrwiikti
liiere i- thc desire for sympathy, which!,
is very st nmg in must minds, andI which |
prompts a person tn anticipate that ,
.very new character will respond in ?I ?
kimi . ? grateful rosonaii'V to iii- indivi-j
ilna! sentiments. Then lhere are thc
impulses nf love alni ai 1 ii i i ra i ion which
predispo-c the mimi in boliev?' in human
L'oodin--ainl render it npliniistic in its
['onecpiioiis of charai't*'!'. (hi the Other r.
hand, lhere atv lilt' (e.-- pleasing senti- ?
monts of distrust, hostility, and con
tempt, which sustain the conception
thal everyhmiy i- mea ii mid ignoble lill
he has proved himself t?i he lin- contrary.
These and other feelings always dispose ,
their |M)ssessois to form certain opinions !
:cs 1.1 ling any new character l??ng befoiv
ihe- have the necessary foundation for
-nell opinion-. To any one who will
?rive himself the trouble ol working out
thc many and complicated inlliU'iicos
which tend to pniducc conviction iv
-peei iicj mai ter- nf elia tact c r, 11 uite apart
inuit the Ibm; of evidence, it can not he
surprising that people'- jiulginonts on
thc idea- ami motives of ?Ubers hiv often
-o crude ami inexact, and s?i li'.ile de
serving to he called intuition-.
CO-OSMMtATlON IN KX?iLAN?.
1 lu Civil Sifl'<<??' -lilli'':. 4 ?Mili:! I iie.i nu?!
Its WorttlugM.
This institution, little licar?! nf iii tlu
lTnitcd ."Male-, is om- of the peculiarities
ol' the I'ritisli capital. The object i- tn
supply families with articles lin- consump
tion and genet :;! i -eat ihr lowest possible
prici s. lt originated in n combiualioii
anions pei? ai- holding subordinate pn.-i
tions limier thc government, municipal
ami national: hem e the lille. \Vi:h their
compar?t i vesniall -alarie.-, ami their anx
iety t.? live iv-pectahly. i hey found ii
inipo-?lalo in pay i he high charges fi?r the
various necessaries of life, ami so they
adopted a i -o o j tera t i vt; syM?'in, a lillie
like that at tempted hy the granges or the
pal ron-ol husbandry in -onie part- hf
Vindh a. oi\ in ?ither ?uni.-, sonictbing
like thc old-fashioned plan of ord? rs
adopted iii many ol' thc manufacturing j
town- in ourown coli h try, the ililli renee
here liebig thal ciish mn-i he p.:i'i ?or
everyihing oii the spot The in.-liiittioit !
issues '1,300 -baie.- (.? ?is members, each
of whom pay L'?or'Si? jiev aiiiiiini, which,
beside.- securing the lieuetit of lhe>?u ici v.
entitles tia- ho'idei '.. take p.iri in tho
mei'ling-? of th?1 association ami t?? hav. a
v?>icc in the management. Tickets may
lie -oh1, tn ni her- on Ut?' payment of half
:i - rown(oi'.' cents), which liekci
lin- purchasing of good* ai 'he si ire- ad
from i he Innis ? ounce: il willi I hr ;?.
ciat iou, hui ?hey cammi at trial the iin-t't
im:- or lake pail in ?hr hianiigciiienf.
Ticket- may tl Iso he 'obtained by ile Wid
?i'.vs??f civil servants upon tim payment
n' h::'.'.! clown \ cai ! >\a:t<! by lin; widows
of member- without payment. NVh?ii
\ on are o h! thal 'hi- organization colt
-i -' s of li u ia I red- ot' I liousauds ?if person -,
:;?:;? Usa! .!". supplies ;:!?. f::n:i-!>.ed hy
I.oii.-and ..fi -taiili-hni' u?-, and thal no
i; h tjiitig as a jie?'tiii>ar; loss has over
'...,,? . . -i .. lythiii'' rd;c ?li.-houesiv in
. line of t he bi?itieh. -. yin: ivnli/.e now
nm -?ai ii t a. -'it i.. A nd this fa? t i
nt-iic appareil; as y oil examine th? price?
p.'.ul .b; ?'a. wini enjoy-.tho hcncfits nf
?he.sysi?m, In l.i'.k .er tiver t?ie lisl ol
articles furnisht d; I porcrive that ii ?::
? litdes lite.'a'i v everything "groc?'iies
wines ami spirits pin-, isii.ms. t?d?a< i'o a" !
I
I cigars, hosiery- drapery Agent's and lad 'us
I clothing, limey -roods, dru irs, plato, furs
! stationery ami jewelry, hooks uud-uuis ie
household lu mit na- .; in fact, everything
in tlie way of* m.ssa ri es and luxuries.
The price list tor the quarter ending
tlie "'l-t ol' Au-list, 1S7?, showed a re
duction ol* from "> to 2? jier cent, on the
prevailing rates. When you rejleet that
thi- organization iu not patronized alone
hy tlie poorer classes, hut is really sup
ported hy persons in tlie very liest cir
I eunistances, and includes,as 1 learn, very
; many of the aol ii lit y. you will sec at once.
not only how'useful it is, hut how neces
sary integrity is essential to its manage
nient. At-lirsi there was a decided pro
[test against it among old establishment-,
luit now it has become so powerful thal
it includes thousands ot" cooperative
stores, and. ol' course, compel- hy the
very nature ol' its competition reasonable
prices among those who are not connected
with it. During thc christmas holidays
sinne nf these civil service stores received
over their counters as much as ?200,000
ina single day. and it is a noteworthy
tact, as illustrated, tor instance, hy Mr.
Porst i r. M. P., in his speech on thc odd
fellows, which is in Kngland a kind of
mutual relief, organization, t luit the co
operative system as applied to working
people has been a triumphant success.
/.'-/itloii Letter
Tile Destruction ol' Lisbon.
\ writer in l.ippincott's gives tlie li./
owing description ol' tin- destruction ot'
.?-bon: Thc morning ol" November I
la wited seteno, but the heavens were
lazy; since midnight tlie thermometer had
ison one flegrcc, Keaiinor As it was
In- least ol" "all saints," thc churches
icre thronged from an early hour, aud
II their altai's brilliantly illuminated
lilli thousands ol' tapers, and decorated
rilli garlands of various tinted muslins
nd thin silks. At a ijiiarter often
'clock the first shock was felt, lt was
o slight that many attributed it to the
.tissage nf heavy wagons in the street,
nd even to mere fancy. Three minutes
ftcrwanl a second shod; occurred, so
iolcnt thai it seemed as if thc heaven-;
nd earth were passing away. This agi
atina lasted fully ten minutes, am! ere
t diminished the greater poi lion .ul the
?ty was in ruins. Thc dust raiScd (th
cured the sun; an ICgypliaii darkness
ire va i led, ami to, add lo tlie eniver,
orror tllivfcjirfiil sereams of the liv'
nd the groans ol'tliSrmn ro?c-t|ir
lieair. In twenty uj?i^a
' IJ ; ? ! 11 ti "; 'i ? . M iv/?V corr.-*!
f escape. |?omc were
tills, bul were soon disent?,
loing by the rumors thal those who nail
lnady gone thither were su fibra ting
loni I lie etleets of thc dense fog of dust
vhich -'.ill rose from the falling buildings,
flu n they rushed toward- the quays
ihich lim' a part nf the Tagus, hui only
o ?carn the horrible news that these had
link into thc earth with ai! tlie people
m! edifices upon '.Inn.'.. Those who
bought to put out tu sea were lol'! to
r>ok at tim river, and lo! in its centre
luv behold a whirlpool which was suck
ng in all thc vessel- ami boat- in it- vi
inity, and not a fragment of them i vcr
eilig seen again. The royal palace had
teen entirely swallowed up, ami over the
ile i- now the vast square of tho Paco,
i'r illack Horse, one of the largest public
ibices in Ku rope. The gn at librar , of
he holy ghost wa- in Haines, and its
iriceless Moorish and Hebrew munti
cripts fast hcconiiiig ashes. The opera
nut-, had fallen in. the inquisition was
m nunc, and lin- great church of San
Domingo was lui; a heap of stones, he
ictith vhich lay crushed to atoms the
.ntire congregation. The Irish church
il'St. I'aul was the dealh-place ol' one
housand persons, ami the palace nf Heni
.o-la. where Catharine 'ol' Ihaganza,
widow of Chillies H., lived and died,
had fallen over from thc heights on
which it was built, and utterly destroyed
?he poor but. populous, part nf thc tow n
which lay beneath ii. In a word, where
luit an hour -ince wa- Lisbon was now
;MI h highlit di solatium As to thc people,
who itu i i dcscriltu I heir condition"? Al
least 71.1,000 persons had perished, ami
the majority of the survivors wore erii
L-1 Iv- wounded .uni in nguri v of mind and
lindy. Sonic went mad with fright,-onie
lost forever the power of speech; sinners
ivent about con tessi ug their secret crime.-,
ind fanatics, hclieving the last ?lay had
lome, cried ont lo tin? horror-stricken
mill; it mic in "repent, for thai Christ was
.oming in judge ihequick ami the dead."
Politeness in ("real Men.
Politeness is alway- the mark nf good
? H ed ing, ami .-onie of tlie greatest men
m vi been noted for their ci m rt csv. Many
. t ihc\ have owed thc popularity that
wns ,t r?cognition "f thc greatness, in no
-mall measure io their consideration of
?thers. The following i- related nt" thc
I.it.- Kd ward Even t'. : Many years ... ...
the inend hov employed hy a publish
ing house in :. gr.at eily was seii? to
procure from ICdwnrd iC ve re lt th.?-i>r<iof
siieeis nf a bunk which he han been
rxiiniining. The lw>y entered '.be va-;
library, lined front door to ? iling with
books, in fear aid tremhling; he stood
hi awe o'' the famous man, and dreaded
bi meei him. lint Mr. livcrett, turning
from the dede viere he was writing.
.? .. ?ved the hoy with lc; -;;;iag cour
tesy b;u!e him si' down, ci^t teri kindly
us "lie looked foi lite .- . .?. r-heets. and
iiskeil: .'.Shall I put M-I m i round therii
for you?" c.- pulifelv as if iii- visitor
were' the president. Thc ln?y den ed
in verv comfortable hame nt' .?.bid.
?le had been raised in Iii? own esteem hy
\Ir. P.verett's kindness, and has never
l.-rvotti n the jesvuil it (aught him.
|( j-- i'd (hat fu'ly three million cubic
\ ?rd?: nf levi cs wi!) !?. needed foi1 the Mis
sissippi i iver a'.i i.c thc i (lining -ca-on, io
v uni hing of Ked ri vi i. tlie < hitchita
...td ?h.- \tch:ifnhty-.

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