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_ THE. FREE CITIZEN.
E. A. WEBSTER. UUlitor ami Proprietor. A Weekly Paper Devoted to Tempor?neo, Literature and Politics.
VOLUME IL ORANGERURG, SOUTH CAROLINA, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 4, 1875. NUMBER 17
( ? lilliomi's. reniai tis have linn hud
siway in the grave, sifter all. unattended
by rioting ur disorder nf any h ind.
Tin: Spanish government has opened a
competition fm- conijHisers ul' a national
air. ("an il lu- | M issi ble that all this time
Spain has bren without a national air .'
Nu wonder it is constantly in a state of
distraction. What would ibis country
have l'i i'ii without Yanki e Doodle?
Tin: newly arrived daughter of the
duchess nf Ldiuburgh increases <>iiceii
Victoria's tally ul grandchildren tn
twenty-seven, twenty-finir ul' whom are
still alive, and thal ul' her (ulai living
piugcny tn thirty-three, including three
unmarried children and tin- Princess
Louise, wini is married, hut without
WM KN yuii grumble at hard limes and
crippled industrie-, just cast ymir eyes
?iver the big water and look at I*'rance,
with une -hundred and twenty-three
thousand industrial establishments, and
giving work tn al iou t noe million eight
hundred men. At least two-thirds of
these ar?' now hising a month's time and
wages in order In drill fur a future war.
Tin: explosion ami destruction of the
ironclad Magenta makes the second vessel
ol this kimi lust by the French govern
ment within two months. The sinking
ol' the Knglish vessel Vanguard, within
the same period, by the tap of the spur
ol' a neighboring vessel, is beginning to
weaken confidence in the durability bf
IN Michigan's population of 1,300,000
then'arc (K),H27 more males than females.
In Massachusetts there arc 00,000 more
females than niales. Luder such circiim.
.-lances il would seem eminently proper
for the Michigan male surplus lo relieve
Massachusetts ol' her female sn rpi us.
Doubtless the Massachusetts women
would be more than willing.
Tnt; annual report of the commissioner
ol' education contains many interesting
?! . ' " : '.? of fact. "There aro enrolled' in
public schools upwards of 8,000,000 pu
pils, willi an average daily attendance of
1,000,000. 'fhe estimated population be
tween six and sixteen years is H l,?uu,i ll Kl.
To support these children in school inst
last year $7-1,000,000.
Tnt: fate of the passengers ami crew ol'
the Uily of Waco ts yet unsolved, 'fhe
thenry thal the oil slured on deck ignited
fruin thc lightning and set fire to the
vessel, wrapping her entirely in the
Haine- in a few moments, giving the pas
sengers no lime lo escape the awful death,
seems the most probable. If so, it is one
of thc most terrible catastrophes of Jiu;
< 'AK.Vi M lias indulged in tin- past in
sonic exceedingly lofty boasting as lo the
superiority of her buildings over those
creeled on Ibis side of the frontier. The
bursting of the grain elevator at ll?llc
ville, however, is calculated to cheek
Mich boasting in thc future. Thc Struc
ture was ol' the " cheap and nasty" order
of architecture, and ils fall scattered 10,
000 bushels of grain to thc winds and
A NO'i'K'K'AHM-: thing abullt the
monthly meeting ul' (he Massachusetts
Total Abstinence Society, held ?II Huston,
was a lit I le speech by William 15. Spooner
on fhe prevalence ol' drinking among
clergymen, more than one-half ol' whom,
he said, drink wine. A laure majority
of the I lonni n Catholic clergy drink; a
majority of Ibo (Episcopalian and ol' his
own denomination-the Unitarian, some
ol'the orthodox and Baptist,hulvcry lew
ot thc Methodist or Universalist.
Tin: British commissioner to our cen
tennial has suggested, according to For
ney, that thc permanent, buildings of tho
exhibition''should bc kepi lilied with in
teresting objects, contributed each year,
SO that there may be a bi-centennial
ready made in l!'7d. This would be a
gund (bili!.' for Philadelphia, perhaps, hut
theic is no certainly thal the rest of thc
country would lind it either pleasant or
profitable, fhe coming centennial would
be an awful bore if we had debbi rately
lieguu preparing for ii a century ugo,
A little matter of dispute lias enured
thc d'lxroption of li powerful Loni.' bland
camp nietliiiL' a---ocial ion The dispute
arose fruin thc setting up of ?I hilliard
saloon and howling alley on the grounds
Inst summer The advocates of these
sinful games argued in vain that they
would attract to v!?,. grounds jn-t. thc
class which needed\iosi tho spirit ol' a
canil? meeting. Thcit opjMincnts would
nut listen, but seceded ;u,d have formed
Tn ERK is considerable discussion and
difference of opinion a- to how rapidly
fish grow. A K CCIII lotter from Kngland
>avs (hal a salmon weighing eighteen
pounds was ranchi in (lie Severn, Svear
?ng a silver hillel. This was identified
ami proved the tish lo he one which was
caught six molli hs he lb re ami rel urned
bi the water. At the time it weighed
niue |Hiuilds. That is, il hud gained a
pound and a hall' for a mouth, or nearly
an ounce a dav rieht along.
VAI.SIAKKDA has origuinalcd a new
met lu ul ul' st pi coxing money mil ol' thc
loyal in t 'nba in inner t<i provide nile nf
the recently arri veil regiments, with
horses. Ile has decreed that a "sacred
i ont rilmt imi " ol' Hi per cent, un each
individual's taxi s in Havana must forth
with be handed in. As all the I no I icy
necessary to pay thc hills lor the subju
gation ol' the ('lilian insurgents must
conic out til'Cuba, Spain ci ?ut ri bu ting
lillie ur nothing, through inability lo dti
sn, lite arrival of 8,00(1 troops must, strike
dismay into thc hearts ol' thc most loyal
of AI li ilise's subjects and create much
Ooo>.\ tlillors widely from tea and
eollce, in being a food or (lesli Hunier,
while they are rallier condiments and
stimulants. One-half the weight of co
coa consists ol' lal, and 20 per cent, nf
albuminoid material, whereas milk eon
tains :i..ri per cent, nf lat, and I j?er cent,
ol' albuminoid material; beef contains
2.87 per cent, of fat, and 20.7/i of album
?unid matter; and wheal contains 1.2 per
cent nf lal, ami 1-1.0 per cent nf album
inoid material. In addition, cocoa eon
tains starch,.which is absent in milk and
beef, and present in hut a small propr
ium in wheal.
A Huston merchant, who imports near
ly all the gutta percha which enters lin?
United Slates, writes tn the Scientific
American to say thal "the only region
ol' production thus far discovered is thc
Kast India islands in thc immediate vi
cinity nf Singapore." The principal usc
mailc nf guita percha is fur insulating
..j,,. v...'.?U iF nilli tor cementing.
India rubber is collected in localities all
around the glube between thc tropics.
Thc best comes fruin the hanks nf the
Amazon river, llrax.il produces annually
about 1-1,0110,000 pounds, and thc Central
American Stales, Africa, and thc Mast
Indies together al mut 15,000,000 putinds.
The consumption ol' India ruhherjs about
equally divided between thc United
States and Ku rope.
TIM: report nf the commissioner nf ed
ucation furnishes some statistics which
area lair test as showing the activity of
the various religious denomina lions in
thc maller nf theological education. The
Catholic church leads with IS seminaries,
l i l pr.r.c.-st.i's, !,'_!?'!.'> ?tkidC-liis. Tin- ittip
tist denomination has Hi schools, iii! pro
('essors, and ti.!S students; the Presby
terian has IT) schools, with 71 professors
and 017 students; the Lutheran church,
Ll schools, J52 professors and Tili students;
the I'rot cst ant Kpiscopnl, 1*-' SCIUKIIS, fid
professors and 'JIM students; thc Congre
gational has s schools, AO professors and
?102 pupils; the Methodist Kpiscopnl has
7 sehouls, ?s professors and .'121 scholars;
and the Kefurnied church has schools,
PJ professors ?iud SO students; the United
Presbyterians, Christians, Kroc I tn pl isl s
and Methodists have 2 sci int )ls each ; .nul
the Unitarians, African Methodist Kpis
copal, Cumberland Presbyterian, (?crmaii
Mcformcd, Methodist Kpiscopal South,
Moravian, Swcdciiborginii, Union ICvan
gelical, United Urethren, and Universal
! isis have I each.
llcspecl lor Women.
Women arc at a discount w here there
i-> nu civilization. Tims it isa notorious
fact (hat among thc natives of Africa thc
lair sex is mure honored in the respect
which is shown tu the cow than in that
which the heaven-sent companion of
man elicits there. Winnen have unthill1'
tu complain nf in this un thc score of sex,
but may fairly insist thal the particular
member.-ul't heir sex chosen tur special
honor should be ol' their own species.'
The superior rc-peet accorded In cows,
ton, is entirely al variance with thc spirit
ol' modern intelligence; ami until Ihe
men ul Africa reverse thc present dis
tinction against (lie wives of their bosoms
in fstvor of ibu-e who buhl a li .-- intimate
relation with them, there can be no fa
vorable result of uiis-innary enterprise.
Thc d?lcrence is merely a ^inlogical mic
-thc dillcroiicc bel weeli a cow and ;i
Imr.-c. li is exceedingly difficult I'm- tin
nil siunary t" persuade a true disciple ul'
Moimi..?! that In- should dcgiutlc his
luirse m a position in his family inferior
timi of a wile ; Cai .dillicult, in
fact, limn tn convince a native African
I that lie baa transposed lite propel rela
tive positions -ii' ihe mother nf his chil
dren and ber lou successful rival, thc
mu! ber of his calves. In changing his
field ut' ellon, indeed, from the suvage
stupidity of the negro race tn tin- keen
intelligence of.(he Arabic nice, the mis
sionary linds himself further fruin, rather
than nearer tu. the highest civilization.
Full I.INI lll'.SvimlwrM. Itei>i-c-ei?lal i? ?.?. ??.?<.
Thc regular session ol' Hiv National
I.cfiitil.itmr will Ix-jriii on Munday, DIM*.
C., anti thc .ollowiiui list ul" Senators ami
[??'presen ititi ves will he convenient fur
All I he elections lo the Senate have
IKCII inaile, ami thc list |iiil?!isiicd, ainl
all seals, except one (I'lneliliark's) for
louisiana, disposed ol. In thc House
lhere is a vacancy in Hie KIHI rill Tennes
see I)?slriel.eauseil liy the dealli ol' lion,
.lohn \V. Head. lion. Samuel M. I'ile,
w ho was then eleetcil to the seat, died at
Little Kock, Ark., a lew weeks since, ?uni
lhere is still a vacancy; hut ?is there i
no lack ol' candidates il is expected the
seal w ill he oeeujiieil carly ill Hie .session :
'nit: si;NA ri:.
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Tl IK II0U.S1C.
Mcpnlilicuns (marked H.), 107; Demo*
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(marked I.), 15. (inc vara ney exists in
Tennessee, caused hy death. Thc aster
isk (>:) indicates mend HTS nf the last
Congress rc-clecle?. The C. slantls for
A I. MUM \- s.
I .lern HIIIUIMIII. t'll I .1 Mulm ll. i 'il.lu .11, n
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A lt KA SSAS-I.
I Lin ien O Omise. |i ? :t Wm W Willsliire, |)
'.' Wm V Sl.-ne.ns. ll I 1 - I'll..s M tinnier, ll
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1 W A I'iper, H I ::. .1 K Luttrell, ll
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tironui i -i.
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li 'I'lliltp Cook, ll - ?Alex ll Stephens, |l
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li. l im;.-Il Ailinn*. I! lt? N. I ..ii I Nm!. li
17 M I Tu?.ii.l. li I
Noll III i \ It'll! S A V
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:t Ji.lui S Sma-. H , li! .MilL ii I S.mlliniil. H
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7 ?l.nWreiue T Niiil. I? I 17 'I. H W.I?.-ith. li
- .WM I.nw I. II. li I I- '.Lim. - M..iii. . . li
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m 'fluni- I'..-l-l. li I :ii limn lt I'nyiie, I'
i.iiiiiv.'tt- I.II ii-, H.
l-INNSl I V IMA 27.
1 I'tiiililiinti Kr-.II. lt I I Ti .li.se tilt I'..w-ll. ll
J M lurl-sU N-ill. lt I In 'S..I.l -l.i lt - , li
3 'Siinui-I .1 Itiiii.liill. H 17 Jnlili li-illv. H
l 'Wm li Kellet .li ll- Wm S St-n-.r, ll
-. Jud t li..1.1.MI-, li I ly I., vi M .i-!.. ll
r. ?WiitMli Tu? II-ml. lt I LU 1.1'Vi A Murkily, h
7 A hu- Winni. Jr. lt -.'I Jni'iili Timmi . H
- Ml-: il. I I'll lier. H ! .Ins ll ll..|.I.M.-. li
y * A ili'i r Smilli. li I Alex l? i lu mi. I '
in W illiam M m, r. H :-i .lulu! W Wallan-, li
II Kiiim i- li I ...Illus, H I ._.:. ii.-..i A .l-nl.-. H
12 W W K. l. I.nm. li I ._... .l?im-> Sli-.-il.l-. . I'
irt Jnmn lt K-iih. h _.; AII-II ii i:-i-n. li
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I * Helli T Kn.-.li : 2 lin timer: W Itiillmi. I
SMI I ll I'lU.il.lNA
I M..s ll l?iMii-v.l- li I I * A lex S Wallu.-, I?
i: W j| Mn. k-v, li Iteiilwn Smalls, f li
3 -n,,i, I. 11. lt I
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2 M M I'll. >i II I .ii lt 7 *\V I' Wl,illli..rni'. ll
it 11-m - li Hil.i. II. ll .- '.Iiiliii lil" AI Kins, Il
I Vaoai) v ;. Win I' Cnlilivell, li
:. M..lu, M llriulil, H m ll I n-v V.nmi!, li
I .Inlinil lii'iicau, ll I I *Kii?er i) Mills, ll
li lt iliil,,,-,H fi M i iii II llnm ... I.. H
.1 W FliriH-kiimrl. I'I ii Un* Srlileirlier, H
VKKMIINT- . :t.
I 'lilli V H ll Jiiyre, lt I I ?li-.. W Ili lliKi', 1!
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. '.l-l.: li.le, Jr. li 7 'J..Im T Harri", H
.". tailiert i! Walker, li | - ?Kiii.ii Hunt.m. H
i 'Winn II Stilwell, li I y William Telly, H
.'. ti.mi.. (.' t'als'll, li I
v\ rs r vi lull NI i - .'I.
1 Keiijrmin Winton, II .'. 'frank ll-r. ?.u.l. 1)
2 Hl?* ; faulkner, n I
.. *W ??SI'llNHIS s.
1 -( iKuffAVilliniiiH. lt .. S H lim . lim .1. ll
2 ?if ?.. lt Cn-wMI, lt ll A M Killlliall, I!
il ll; ii?), Mimnnn. lt 7 Mi'reminli AI KUBA. lt
I W II i? Uuitlo. JJ s. Geurv-i W (.'atv. IJ
lt ll'.. II I \ i HKLKUATEJ!.
Ai ismiii-lilllAM S STr.Vr.S8. 1
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Illili) Tin.mn ? W Kennett, lt
Miiiilaim * Af ii ititi MiiL".'iiuiis, ll
Ne? Mexiin Stephen lt I MU in-, li
rial, '(irnltili: (J I'WM.N. I
\\ ..-I imUiiii UrniiL'i' Jiifnl.s, It
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.'.Vi./.. ,Vi ?il. i'..ll/../../ /../.
A In lia ml.limul-..H. lt.Kreil li lli-miiln ru.
AL.I...rn,.Williiims, |i.Jain-'I' lia|.i-r. i'll
MlllllllHIl.Iliivs, li.I..- 'I' J.-. 1'
Kim i.l:..I'lirumii, li.Inlin A ll-.i seil.!?
Kli.niln.Walls, rel. li.I - - J Killie). 11
ii-..riMn.Harli iii--. H.I.-Im K Itryiinl. lt
I.-.iii..-mill,. 11. li ll \\ lui. Iv. li
Hin,,,i-.fnrw-ll, lt.I V I.- Mm II-, M
llliti.ils.Willi ill-, li.I.mil I' li - -. H
in,ll:.,,:.?Ililli. I. ii.Hill I ?h..Il J Iii- . H
I inlinn:..linker, li.Ki-.1n.ui Kelley. H
Ki mn, I...M lin-, li.linn i-.'... l.i ill. |i
lii.llisiilll i.M.ir-V, lt.\\ in ll Siien-er, li
,M a rv la ii.l.VVnlsli. 11.Mimi l...w niles. H
M.i ..i.l.ii-ll,..Ki.-I. I!.Insinlili Al.l-ll. U
MUM-. .Strait. I!.K -t Juli, n I'nx, ll
I'eilllH) I iii II in.. Ki-lunn, li.'Iii..- ll Klureiire, ll
l'-iim.iliiiliia..i:-l.-i'l. I>.I'nlll..li lt I lilli-, li
S. I'liriilillll.II-.'- li.Il ll Mi-I.'iltltlll. ll
S. I'nr-liii i.Wulla - . I!.lo* lt Kersliiiil. U
Vireiiiin .il.I-, li.In- ll Hali. .lr. H
Nen Me\iiii....S ll Klkilis, K....l'ei|l'n Val.I-/, ll
Tn thc :IIM>VC number nf Lwcuty-onc
ci ni tested seals may iiossildy !?. added
tithers ol' which we have no |ircsen(
knowdedgts Soine nf the ?IMIVC, also,
ma v not he hroiiuht belitre I he honst vit all.
One til" Hornee (Jrccley's Old betters.
Ni:\v VoitK, duly 21, b>.ri7.
MY DKAKISII: : Heeiii?? in thc Tribune
Um death ol'your sweet child, wlmni I so
well rememlier, im|H'lls me lo write von
a word. I oiler no onsolation, anti I
m ni imi assure you ot' my sympathy,
lint yon and your wife are still voling
' and ho|n lui, other children will doubt
less lie lent you : ami though you wi!'
never forget this firstling ol'I he Hock
nor litil to remember her with a pensiv?
ami chastened -adin--. yoi you will liv?
to realize even in this state ol'lieing, hov
wisely prest ii'iit ami merciful in the
chastisement which "smites hut to heal."
i .ri nu':ri ve von in lids connection ai
leaf IVoill my experieuec.
I have had seven children nf whom
live are gone. Ol' three sons none sur
vive, anti (woof them win- respectfully
(ive ami it hall' ami six years of ilgc when
they were reclaimed. ! need not say
how beautiful and good they were-the
early called an-always 1 hus. Win n the
first of 'them ?lied my youth ended. I
thought ! eon!-! never beso ??rely bitten
thenceforth. Yet in tine lime lhere
came another, not -o delicate, so brain i l
ful, so |Nietie ; yri so loving, so lender,
so devoted ttl nie, that I thought I
had never been understood before. I
cannot rciiicmljcr that iluriiig his six
years' ?diode with mc he ever wished lo
contravene my will.
I left, ilnhuary l l. for that hard
western tour hi bra ve spirits ?iud good
general health. At ( hdcsbttrg after
leaving ymi, I hada letter dictated hy
him, leaving him iii excellent health. I
heard more until i n at bi d Hei a nt mi,
l'a., on my way linnie, when a telegram
reached me dunn" my lecture, stating
thal he was dangerously ill ol' croup, i
hastened linnie next evening al eighl
o'clock only lo lind him dead nu hour
before, al'lei rr,.imbi:', a severe i>|icratioii
ami extreme suffering. With him I
buried my last earthly aspiration. 1 have
two lilt jo daughters, one eight years old,
ami another bul foin months, having
been born -ince his death, bul they are
very diU'crent from ?ind do nol replace
Did you not mean to see nie lids son
son V Kind regards to Mrs. - . Yours
linc MT (?HI:I:I.I:Y.
" (itilirioi Conrnj
Ilrel I IMI IO'S Iiis! novel lukins ?is :i !
serial in Scribner's lor NOVCIIIMT, nhill
opens willi the following description ol'
llic Sierras in wi ti tor.:
Snow. Kvcrywhore. As far ?i? Hie!
eye could reach-lilly miles, looking
southward fruin the highest while peak.
Killiiig ravines and gulches, and drop
I ?i ? * tr lunn the walls ot' canons in while
shroud like ?Iril'ts. I/nshioning the divid
ing ridge inti? :i likeness ol' :i inonstrotis
grave, hiding tho luises of giant nines
ami completely covering yoting trees ?mil
huelles, rimming with porcelain mid IKIWI
like eilges ol still, cold lakes, and un
iluliiliuir in motionless while hillows to
the edge o|* the dista nt horizon. Snow
lying every where over Un1 California
Sierras on the l/ilh day ot' Mareil, IS IS,
?ind still falling.
lt had lieen snowing for ten days;
-mowing in finely <_rr:inul:iieil powder, in
lamp, spongy linkes, in thin, leathery
illumes; snowing from a leaden sky stead
ily, snowing fiercely,shitkennn( of purple
Mack clouds in while lloeenlent masses,
?r dropping in long level lines like while
luces from the tumhled anil hroken henv
.ns, hut always silently. The woods
iverc so choked with it,titobninchea were
.o Inden with it; iL lind so permeated,
lilied and possesed earth ?ind sky ; il hud
?n cushioned and mullled the ringing
'neks ?iud echoing hills, that nil sound
?vus deadened. The strongest gust, the
icreest hlnst awoke no sigh or complaint
ruin the snow-packed, rigid liles of
i i rest. There was no cracking ol' hough
lor crackle of underbrush ; the over
mien branches of pine and fir yielded
ind gave way without a sound. Thc
silence, was vast, measureless, complete.
Nor could it lie said that ?my out
ward S?LCII of life or motion changed
he fixed outlines of this stricken latid
icape. A hove lhere was no play of
ight and shmlow, only Ihe oceastonal i
leejHUiing of storm and night. Jlelow,
io hird winged its Hight across the while
'xpanse, no beast haunted ihe conlincs of
he black woods; whatever of the brute
ultu re might have once inhabited these
olitudes lind long since flown to the low
aiids. There was no track or imprint;
vhnlcver foot might have left its murk
i|M>n this waste, each succeeding snow
?di obliterated all traces or record
livery morning the solitude was virgin
md unbroken; a million tiny feet had
Pepped into the track and filled it up.
\nd yet, in thc center of this desolation,
ni the'very stronghold ot" this tri':iit for
tress, there was the mark of human toil.
A few trees had been felled at tho en
trame of the canon, and the freshly eut
l?hips were but lightly covered with snow.
They served perhaps to indicate another
tree " blazed ' with an ax, and bearing a
rudely shaped clliiry of a human hand,
[toiuting lo the canon. I'elow the hand
was a eipiare strip of canvas, securely
nailed against the bark ?iud bearing thc
following inscription :
M n u r..
('apt. Conroy's party ol' emigrants an- Inst
in lite - ito'.'.' ami camped up this ranon. Ott!
ol' providions and slarviiic. !
Lett Si. .loo Of Inlier Stil, ls 17.
IMU Sall bake January Isl, isis.
Arrived hore .March Isl, isis,
bell hali' otu- stock mi lin- Platte.
.Munitioned mir wagons February-'Jth.
< Mit' names are :
loci Met Wmick, .lane bracket),
Peter I'nmpiiv, liahricl t 'onrov,
l'aul D?values, .lohn Walker,"
( ?race Conroy, Henry March,
illympia Conroy, Philip Ashley,
(Theil in smaller letters, in pencil):
Mamie died November S. Sweet waler,
Minnie ?lied December I, Kehn Canon,
.laue ?lied January '_', Sall Lake.
James bracket I, h isl Kehrtiary 'J.
The language of sn Hering is liol ?ipi 1
he artistic or studied, but I think lim
rhetoric could not improve Ibis aclu:
record. So I let it stand, even as it sion
this billi day of March, ISIS, half hidde
by a thin film of damp snow, the StlOV
whitened hand sliHelled and pniutiii
rigidly lo Hie fatal canon like the Itngt
ol" dca I h.
The Woes of Herzegovina.
The full lexi of the proilUllciamcnl
issued lo ihe F.nropean Knvoys by tl
I lerzegoviiin chiefs contains an clotpici
statement of the grievances which le
them to revolt against their Turkish .1;
pressors. It is brief and concise, hi
full of dignity and energy, and forms II
indict mint against Ibo cruelty, injustii
and oppression of their Turkish tyran
which will command for I hem the syi
pathv of the whole civilized world, ai
the decision thal (hey are righi in lakii
up anus io lu e themselves (Vom thc
miseries. The catalogue of these ni
eries is a fearful one. Under pain
being scourged ami sent lo prison, eve
eu I ti valor of the ground must give li:
his produce to the Agil, ol' official wi
allows him to cultivate, aiid four time*
year he must entertain the Aga, I
followers and horses. Th" owner of
farm in Herzegovina basan agrccine
willi the -tale ollicials by which he e
acts ten times the amount of rent lix.
by the law. Tlie Turkish census cn
niera tors let lue their own eo-religitmis
but tn ble lin- amount of imposts Up
Christians, thus making them'pay II
only their own bul also the Turki
shari'of laxes. In litigation, ?ts Chi
lian proceeding against ?1 Turk mi
have two Turkish witnesses, and if
looses his c;i.->e he is thrown into prist
The wives and daughters of Christin
are carried oil" by Turks ?md compel?
by force lo adopt the creed of Islam,
a Christian bears witness against a Tin
lie eau only live three days. The Chi
lian ch ii rene* arc publicly defiled by l
Turk-. The Christians pay au cdualioi
tribute to the Sultan, bul are not ?ll low
to have any schools. Repairs it} M tn I
mad- niii-i bc made by the Chi istia
lui! lin" Turks arr freed fruin lliis duly.
If Turk isl i tump- need horses, they are
taken linin tin- Christians without ro
i-mu pense. If a 'fink complains before
? tribunal, hu can gut ?inmediato justice.
If a Christian makes a com plaint. he can
uni gel a decision witliout hrihiug thc
mtge len times the ainounl of (lie claim.
There is nu integrity or justice and ii"
security under Turkish rule. Such is a
brief summary ol their grounds ol' nun
Hopeless as thc casi- ol' llerzi.vina
may appear. lighting single handed
igninsl lier |M>\verl'ul ly ra ii ts, and dc
hai red fruin the active sympathy of Ku
io pea n nations by their own prejudices
uni sehenies lor nat ional aggrandizement,
I is i in pi issi I ile not lu admire the manly
?pirit ot* their statement. They may not
nrin freedom, but they deserv?' it.
Changes in thc Karl h..
Thedale iii* mail's appearance on um
rlohe (lo say nothing ol thc beginning ul'
irgauic life) will probably ncverhc ascer
amable beyond a rude approximation;
nil this much at any rate is certain, that
f creation" is to he spuken of at all,
t must be taken, nut asa single isolated
ict, but rallieras an unbroken series of
traductions, extending from the dimim -t
mst to our lime, and destined doubtless
o extend beyond us. Kveryliody know-,
ays the West in ist er Kcview, what th?
latlire of the record is. everybody knows
hat thc crust of our planet, so far as we
lave sounded it, is composed entirely ol
nuil, deposited in gradual successive
ayers under water; that these layers
brough the slow hut constant undula
ions of the crust, have been upheaved
gain, un lated lo thc enormous thickness
f sixty or seventy thousand feet : and
?nally, thal each dc|M>silcd as il liarden
d, preserved imbedded in tlie mud the
hells and bones of creatures which died
t the time of its formation. Similar
urinations ure continuing al present ;
he soundings made in the A thin ti cocea II
.repara to ry to thc laying of the tcle
rapllie cable, prove that over the whole
f the immense area explored (I,non
niles from east to west, and about 7<M>
liles from north to south) an exclusively
ino chalky mud is bein;!; deposited, con
isting solely ol' the hard parts of animals
rlii?li have lived and perished in these
egions. Thc chalky mud will pr..doaiiy
larden into limestone rocks ; p'ssil.iy
onie day these, rocks will bc i:',:l,inally
iphoavcd, just as thc llimalay. ..rCj
-.-l ll.*; "..?_ . ?:-? " .. . r.
. I?. \.ll,. ?.V.? i i 11 I I I _.
cctcd to thc wearing influenceof'air and
aili, will furnish thc mud which is lu
airy new creations. Let us nut, .-mile
ncrcdulously, far greater changes have
.cen wrought than those, and as far as
ve can judge, by the same ihllueiiet .4;
When Scotland stood higher than il
Hands at present, it was covered with ?ce
leseonding from the ( ! rampians ; later,
t became an archipelago, and marine
?and with shells was spread over the
briner glacial drill ; later still, the laud
?merged again, glaciers were rclonncd.
hough probably lo less extent, and
llrilan) was connected with thc couti
lent ; lastly, minor changes separated
langland from thc continent, and Ireland
!>I ii 11 II in ia I'ni'vti.
No legacy is as rich as honesty.
Urn les leave ingratitude lo man.
ScU-lrus! is ( he essence ul' heroism.
Light and 111-t ure deadly enemies.
Luau oil loses both itseli and friend.
When all else is lost-, tin future re
Life is thc ai l of heirn' well deceived.
Jealousy dislikes the world to know il.
True joy is univ hope pul o ul ol' fear
A knavish speech sleeps in a foi di sh
Laws are the sovereigns nf sovereigns.
Diligence is the mother of good luck.
Wo forgive loo little; forget loo much.
I lupe is a light diet bul very Stimulat
If all were rich, gold would be value
Many good purposes lie in thc chu rel i
Human knowledge is thc parent ul
Hale no one; hale their vice-, inn
(?nuil nature is stronger than toma
The innocent seldom lind an uneasy
AN A I'TI'MN Om;-A ri KI; TUNNY
SON.-Thc grasshopper creaks in the
leavy gloom. Ano the humble-bee
huiiiblcth the live-long day. Kui where
have they gone with thc brand new
broom .' And what has been done to tin
buzz-saw's play ?
( >lt, it'.- lillie he thinks ol the cold
mince-pie. And it's lillie he seeks ul
thc raw ice-cream ; fur the dying yeal
with its tremulous sigh shall waken the
lingering loon from his dream.
(?li, list for thc cricket, now far and
near, skillfully singeth his roundelay,
md thc negligent noodle hi- noisy cheer,
ind where the doodlebug eats the hay.
Ob, thc buzz-saw so busily buzzes I lie
a irk, and bumbling the bumble bee bum
lilliuhleth his lune; while Ibo cricket
?ricks (trickling down at the creek,
iud the noodle call- noisily mu ?
is noun '.' "
The dog fennel sighs, " -he is heir ! ?bc
is herc!'' and thc -marl-weed >ay
Ircani'ly "give usa rest!" Thc hon
rino speaks tenderly, "give us a lit er,"
md the jimson-wced hollow-, "oh pull
low II yen r vest."
Mn-t ol" lin- sporting men are < .
[ ri bu ting 850 toward a nioniiuieuf Ibr
Ann rican (Jill, and niosl of the groa!
dutcsnicn wo, in a spb'il . d' rivalry,
niing- lo contribute I own i'd a inouu
liienl fur Washington. So.fur, Anieii
.an f?irl's chances are two hundred
I'eet higher than Wa- hington's.