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Imperial Valley press and the Imperial press. (El Centro, Calif.) 1906-1907, December 22, 1906, Image 6

Image and text provided by University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92070144/1906-12-22/ed-1/seq-6/

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GRAPE GROWING
With Special Reference to Imperial
Valley
Grape growing ia not a new industry
in California. The first vineyards were
■of the so called Mission grapes, planted
by the Mission fathers when California
vas first visited by them. Junipero
Serra, like Johnny Appleceed in the
legend of the Ohio Valley settlement,
carried seeds In hi 9 pockets. The seeds
wereprobbaly brouuht by the Franciscan
fathers from Mexico from vines previ
ously imported from Spain. Hut the
grape did not interest commercially un
til the fifties, when the leading Euro
pean varieties were introduced. Sever
al consignments of cuttings and roots
were imported the following years, until
now California has imported several
hundred varieties of wine, raisin and ta
ble grains. Experiment and trial are
proving which are the valuable ones
commercially.
The question is asked : Can we grow
grapes in the Imperial Valley? The
first question should be : Will it pay to
grow grapes in the Imperial Valley? If
«o, what variety or varieties? Experi
ence in the past in California has shown
that a suitable and safe market is the
first thing to consider. If wine grapes
•could be grown successfully they would
•have to compete with the wine interests
of the state and elsewhere. If the rais
in should be grown it would have to
compete with other raisins and it is a
-question how much the acreage could
profitably be increased. The few trials
•of the last three years at Thermal and
in the southern part of Imperial Valley
■show that the grape crop is very early,
•with a ripe crop in some varieties as
nearly as June 15th. If this be Jtrue,
Tthere would seem to be opportunity |for
.^a table grape to go on the market almost
-without competition. The table grape
-which has so far showngreatest promise
•■is the Malaga. If the Malaga grape can
>be successfully grown and put^ on the
•market with small competition, it prom
ises to be very profitable and will great
ly increase the value of the ground upon
which it is grown. Grapes in other
parts of California that are considered
-successful are giving a crop worth from
:SSO to $300 per acre per year and '. the
land ia valued at from $150 to $500 per
•acre. Alfalfa land of first quality in the
-came locality is valued at from $50 to
$200 per acre, with a crop worth from
#25 to $100 per year. So it would seem
that more intensive culture is certainly
•worth trying; in a small way at first, in
•creasing the acreage as the venture
iproves its worth.
Climate — In growing grapes climate
is an important matter. Climate in
cludes amount of sunshine, humidity
;and range of temperature. For an early
grape almost continuous sunshine in
the spring and early summer is required
"with low humidity and a high tempera
ture. Low temperature in winter Is de
' sired, so long as it does not go below 16
■degrees Farenheit, as it gives the vine a
period of complete dormancy and rest
■ and causes the falling of the leaves.
The freedom of the air from moisture
■ gives a grape with a skin of fine texture
■ and whitish bloom, which increases the
' salability. The ripening season should
•be free from rain. These conditions
v prevail in Imperial Valley.
Soil— The Malaga grape loves a fine
«andy loam, especially one of granitic
origin, which is not less than ten feet in
'-depth and which has perfect drainage.
' Experiments at the University of Cali
fornia Experiment Station at Tulare
show that the grape will stand'some al
kali, but there should not be'more than
two- tenths per cent, and it is better if
there is none or only a trace. The white
• grape does not do so well in the clay
soils. The raisin and Malaga grapes of
Fresno county grow best in a fine sandy
loam, which ia there called white ash.
Stock — The practice in selecting grape
etock is unfortunately too often {from
anything that will make cuttings. |This
is just as bad as to select fora horse any
thing that goes on four legs, has upper
and lower teeth and will eat hay. A
good dairyman will not think of buying
a cow until he knows her producing
ability and the quality of her milk. A
good horseman wants to know the record
of the horse he in <ibout to purchase and
•ev«»n th< a grower of Belgian hares wants
•one with a |>ediu;reo. Summer boarders
f iave no iiior-H licciiHe to belong in the
vineyard than in the dairy herd. The
stock should be selected from vines that
uro bearing the kind of urapea wanted
and at the time desired or early as pos
sible.
Nursery — The soil for the nursery
-should be of first quality, well tilled and
accessible to irrigation at auy time.
Good vineyard soil well tilled and well
situated makes good nursery soil.
A good garden plat makes a good nur
set y plot.
Special attention must l»o given to the
cuttings, (or this is the beginning of the
vineyard and a good cutting ii the prom
ise of a good vine. There is a right way
and n wrong way of making a cutting.
A hand pruning shears should be used
that has a good blade, preferably re
movable, with a bolt that can be set,
thus keeping the blade from being too
tight or »oo loose, with a coil spring
that is lively and strong enough t« force
the shears open after an ordinary cut
ting is made. Then there should be
some sort of device on the handle to
fasten them shut when not in use to pre
serve the sharpness of the blade and to
avoid injury.
Now to the cutting. There should be
a reason for every cut that is made. The
wood of the vine is hollow and pithy ex
cept at the joints or nodes. At the nodes
the membrane intercepts the pith.
The amateur will probably clip the
branch at any ooint between the nodes.
All the tissues between that point and
the node remaining above will die. The
proper place to clip is at a point about
a quarter of an inch below the bud, with
the blade of the shears toward I he oper
ator and the bud away from him. The
cutting is much mora quickly and accu
rately made ii done in this way. The
cut that determines the end of the cut
ting should benwde in the same manner
a quarter of an inch above the last bud.
Great confusion exists aa to the proper
length of the cutting. Cuttings are seen
varying in length from ten to twenty
four inches. There must be a right and
a wrong length f6r cuttings. The cut
ting should be long, enough to contain a
sufficient amount of plant food tor the
needs of the young plant, with sufficient
nodes for proper root development and
buds for the development of the shoot.
Ten or twelve inches is long enough to
provide these essentials. Anything
over this increases the cost of growing
the vine in the nursery and planting it
out in the vineyard. The wood selected
for cutting should be ripe. By ripe is
meant it should have a brown covering,
which will break away, showing a green
ish cast underneath when the twig is
twisted abruptly and finally the twig
breaks. Any wood which does notshow
these qualities is not ripe. Wood show
ing a greenish cast is not ripe. The size
should range from three-eighths to three
fourths of an inch in its greatest diame
ter. Long jointed or suckery wood or
wood with deep grooves in it should not
be used. The. best wood to use is short
jointed with about five nodes to a cut
ting of twelve inches in length. The
cuttings should be tied in bundles of
about one hundred and fifty with rope
or wire and heeled in, butts up, in a
trench with at least from six inches to
a foot of s6il over them. They should
be placed butts up so that the sap will
be encouraged to flow and hasten heal
ing at the upper end.
There will be some action and a cal
lous will form over the end of the cut
ting. This callous ie the first essential
of a good vine. It has nothing to do
with the formation of roots. It takes
from two to four weeks for the callous
to form and harden, after which the cut
ting should be planted in the nursery.
They should not be left^ in the trencli
until the shoots begin to grow. In Im
perial Valley the nursery should be irri
gated before planting out is done and
should be thoroughly moist, but not wet
enough to be boggy. Rows may be laid
out with a plow to a depth of about two
inches less than the cutting. The cut
ting should be pressed into the bottom
of the" furrow away from the land side.
This pressing down makes the contact
hard under the cutting, thus insuring
an ample supply of moisture, which is
necessary to the formation of a good root
system, which should form principally
at the first node or joint above the cal
lous. Then another furrow may be
plowed, throwing the dirt up closely
about the vine. When the operation is
complete there should be but one bud
showing and if the soil is of such a tex
ture it will not bake or crust, even this
bud may be covered slightly. We ob
served that several nurseries in the Val
ley had failed on just this account.
There were cuttings at least eighteen
inches long, over nine inches of whose
length whs above the ground. Such
cuttings will almost always die. More
over observation will show that the bud
usually starts v.t the joint, just above or
just below the surface of the ground.
The nursery should be kept well tilled,
free from wet-da and irrigated sufficient
ly to grow a thrifty medium sized vine
by the end of the season. The largest
vine in the nursery seldom makes the
finest vine in the vineyard. The vine
should be dug from the nursery in the
fall and the top pruned to one spur of
two buds and the roots pruned to cix or
eight iuches in length, removing any
part that is injured. If the rooted vines
are to be shipped, the pruning should
be done after they reach their destina
tion and just before planting.'
The Vineyard— Having selected a suit
able soil for the vineyard the land should
be leveled to a uniform grade aa for al
falfa, but without borders or banks.
The land should be ditched, so that irri
gation is convenient and easy. The dis
tance apart at which vines should be
planted varies with the locality, but the
practice in Fres.io would seem to apply
in this case and here vines are most
conveniently planted Bxlo and 10x12.
Vineyards 'iave even been planted 6x14,
but this is not considered good practice.
Sometimes the vines are planted in
squares with one in the middle, like the
small boys' game of "fats " While this
gives more vines to the acre than any
other way it is not advisable for the rea
son that it is more troublesome and ex
pensive to cultivate and harvest when
planted in this way.
Great care should be given to getting
it row straight. The best thing to plant
to i8 a wire about one hundred and fifty
feet long, with loops the distance apart
the vines are to be. If the vines are not
in squares, there should be two wires.
A wire should be laid along the edge of
the proposed vineyard with one end of
the wire at a corner of the field and
stakes set up at the loops. A right an
gle should then be turned off by the 3,
4, 5 method, which is as follows: From
the corner measure back along the wire
30 feet and put a stake. From the cor
ner in a direction at right angles and
along another edge of the field measure
40 feet. The distance from the stake
on the wire to the end of the 40 feet
should be 50 feet and forms the hypoth
enuse of a right angled triangle. If the
wire.be 150 feet long at this distance
from the corner another right angle
should be laid off and the direction of a
line parallel to the first one determined
and stakes set to show the position of
the rows. The planter is now ready to
plant the vine at the loops of the wire
with the ends determined by the two
parallel rows of stakes first Bet out. Af
ter being pruned the vines should be
set in place, with the prongs above the
ground. When the hole is partially
filled about the vine it should be raised
slightly to give the roots -a downward
trend. The roots must not be twisted
or looped about, one another. During
the first year the ground should be kept
well tilled and free from weeds, with suf
ficient irrigation to keep the vines thrif
ty during the growing season. Instead
of rooted vines cuttings may be planted
in the vineyard without first growing in
the nursery. In certain instances this
may be good for Imperial Valley, but
the experience in other grape growing
sections is that the stand is not so com
plete the first year and that in the end
the vineyard is more expensive and less
satisfactory than the one planted with
rooted vines. . Furthermore the, rooted
vine is more easily trained than a cut
ting and the moving from the nursery
to the vineyard often shows the vine is
improperly rooted or unhealthy, when
this would not show if the cutting weie
left in place. Transplanting also in
creases the number of roots.
(Continued on 7th page)
DESERT LAND, FINAL PROOF-
NOTICE POR PUBLICATION.
United States Land Office, Los Angeles,
Cal., November 20th, 1906.
Notice is hereby given that ABNER C.
ENSIGN, of Imperial, Cal.. has filed notice
of intention to make proof on his desert-
land claim No 2046, for the W 1-2 of .NE
1-4, Sec. 23, Twp. 16 S, R 13 E.. S. B. M.,
before Register and Receiver, at Los
Angeles, Cal., on Monday, the 14th day of
January, 1907.
He names the following witnesses to
prove the complete irrigation and reclama-
tion of said land:
A. H. Rehkoff, of Imperial,- M. V.
Dutcher of Los Angeles. Lester Salisbury
of Whittler, Mrs. C. H. Bold of Whlttier.
dB-j5 FRANK C. PRESCOTT,
Register.
Notice to the Public
Notice is hereby given that the under-
signed, a citizen of the United States
has taken possession of and now occu-
pies the tract of land described as the
NX of NE^, Section 35, and W l / 2 of
N\V#, Sec. 36, Tp. 14, S, R. 14 East,
S. 13. M., according to the survey of
these lands made in 1900, by the Sunset
Commercial Company and commonly
called Bothwell survey. This land is
unoccupied and unclaimed by anyone
except the undersigned and is at present
in the eame condition as unsurveyed
public lands, as the numbers properly
describing them have been used by oth-
er parties and applied to other lands in
niukiug entry thereon*.- And I hereby
certify that it is my honafule intention
to occupy and improve the land herein
claimed and to file on the said land ac-
cording to the United States land law?
as soon as the survey now being made
shall be completed and the map prop-
erly describing said land is filed in the
United States land office and the lands
opened for entry.
Signed, GEORGE E. SCOTT.
Witness : E. Stubgill.
Dated at Brawley, Calif., N0v. 22, 1006
d-l-d-22 . *
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I Kentucky Stables and Infirmary!
LIVERY, FEED AND SALE STABLES
I Fine Rigs and Teams at Reasonable Rates '
! -j, Sick arid Lame Horses Cured. Horses
Boarded by the Day, Week, or Month.
Don t Forget the KENTUCKY Stables \
: B. W. If ARRINGTON, Prop. Corner Bth and J Streets
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Should be demanded by every business
man. business men do de-
mand it. Qlt produces a good impression.
•I Good printing can be had as cheaply
and as promptly as the other kind. It's
the knowing how that counts. A com-
parison of commercial printing would
quickly convince you as to our ability to
do the beft. We solicit your orders.
I The \ I
t Hoi ton Power i
I Company I
j is prepared to furnish I
| electricity for I
I Light PowerA
T" In all the towns of the Imperial Valley at I]
** *■■ ' m
4* reasonable rates on a twenty-four hourßj
J? schedule. Take advantage of this and pur<B|
4* chase an electrical iron. «
I 6=lb. irons $6.50 eactM
I s=lb. irons $6.00 eachm
4* Motors Installed, Fixtures Supplied anclfil
T Wiring Done at Reasonable Rates. Fol^
<& information, rates, prices, etc., apply to I\J
I C. E. PARIS I
IT General Superintendent I I
| ElCentro, California!
% PHONE 186 I

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