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NEW ZEALAND CANDIED HONEY.
,A New Machine For Cutting the Cakes
Into Small Bricks.
The illustration accompanying this
article shows a honey-cutter that does
jits work well. The box of the cutter
lis made of wood, and large enough
ito hold a block of honey that has
candled In a 60-pound can. The tin
I has first to be cut off; then strong
Machine for Cutting Candled Honey.
, piano wlreB are led around the block
three Inches apart, through Bllts left
In the Inside box. These are fastened
to the Arum of the windlass on top,
and after a few turns of the crank,
the wires have done their work
straight and neat. These large blocks
are then put In the little wooden ap
paratus to the right, and cut Into
slices 1.8 Inches square. This gives
you a block of honey 3x1.8x1.8, ex
actly one-half pound. The blocks are
then covered with two papers, the out-
l-'.n.l A ...ltn,1 ...f.V. iV.n n.M n.l
'Biuu uuc iJiiiucu wini nit; iitiiuu tuiu
address of the producer. These Bmall
honey blocks have taken Immensely
here, writes a correspondent of Bee
Culture, the grocers preferring to sell
It all ready in paper, and the 'houso-
wife also preferring it in paper to
digging It out of a bottle.
One great feature of honey cut into
(blocks is that it looks clean and at
'tractive, and the wrapper costs next
(to nothing hence a greater demand
for honey. The inventor of the honey
leutter Is Mr. James Allan, of Wynd
,lhain, Otago, New Zealand, president
lot the most southern bee-keepers' as
sociation in the world.
A GOOD POULTRY HOUSE.
lit Is the One That Will Best Meet
the Needs of the Flock.
The host poultry .house 1b- the poul
try house that will give the best con
Iditions for the care of the poultry in
jwinter. There are several things that
Imust be considered In any model
poultry house. The first of these is
lllght There should be an abund
ance of light; for it is probably true
that health is not possible In a dark
poultry houso with one little window
Ito let in light perhaps from the north
Islde. The windows should be on three
(sides of the houso if possible, on every
side except the north. There should
'be a window in the east and west ends
of the building and a big one or sev
eral small ones on the south side.
Whether there should be a big one or
jfcoveral small ones depends on the
conditions to be met with in the poul
The really good poultry house, says
Fanners' Review, will be so located
and so built that It will be kept dry
throughout the winter. This matter
of dryness Is of such importance that
it may well be doubted if success Is
possible without it. The location of
the house on land that is well
drained is essential, and if theto is
not a natural location near the barns
one can be made by piling coal ashes
or cinders around the houso to keep
the level above the water line.
The good poultry houso will have
inside of It all movable fixtures to fa
cilitate the cleaning and to make it
'possible to sterilize the roosts, nests
and other furniture.
Variety of food is better for poultry
than any one fpod.
Do not feed turkeys for 21 hours
before killing for market.
Dry quarters for ducks at night
wet quarters for daytime.
When tho cockerels become atten
tive to the pullets, separato thorn.
If a hen begins to get very fat, it Is
fair to suppose that she has stopped
Now corn is likely to sour In tho
fowls' crops and causo Inflammation
Every keeper of poultry should lay
in a largo supply of grit before tho
It is easier to keep eggs from be
coming dirty than it Is to clean them
when they have become dirty.
Pullets that are not matured now
should be marketed. It will not pay
to keep them through the winter.
if egg3 are wanted for eating only,
ithe male bird is a supernumerary.
'The hens lay just as many eggs with
out him, and the eggs will keep long
er. ' Food of Hens.
' The quantity of food required by old
Ihens that are laying is not sufficient
itfor tho pullets. If the pullets get
(enough, the old hens will become too
taL Keep them separated.
SOME WINTER BEE HINTS.
Snow Is a Good Thing on the Hives
That Are Out Doors.
Since our fields have put on their
wnrm, white winter clothing, it Is well
for us to consider what Is best to bo
done for the colonies that are winter
ing under this whito blanket in tho
Is it necessary to remove tho snow
from tho hives, or should It be loft
thcro for protection to the bees?
Snow is n protection to our fields
and meadows; it seems to bo n non
conductor of heat and cold alike, and
tho ground under it retains its natural
When tho snow melts, tho wheat
and grasses show by their green
blades that this mantle has been bene
ficial. The hives, likewise, if partly or
entirely burled in tho snow, will re
tain tho warmth of tho bees, and
many of our farmers purposely pile up
tho snow over their hives.
In tho north tho bees live well
through tho winter, and come out
strong and healthy, If a sufficient
shelter of snow has protected them.
Tho conditions in those states, how
over, are somowhnt different from
what they are in our latitude. Tho
sun there has but little strength during
tho winter months, and when tho hives
nro entirely burled, tho natural heat
of tho bees has only a slight effect
upon the Bnow, causing it slowly to
melt away from tho wood; thus the
openings of the hives are liberated
and ventilation secured.
In our lntitudo of northern New
Jersey, writes a correspondent in
Fnrm Journal, there nro but few days
when the sun does not, more or less,
cause a thaw; the snow on the south
side of tho hive changes to Ico, and
an additional freeze-up, or a sudden
change of wind, sometimes completely
closes up tho entrances and air pas
sages. This condition, if protracted beyound
a few days, would lead to suffocation
of tho bees so confined, unless some
aperture or crevice at the upper part
can give a chance for tho Ingress of
So thero is a danger against which
wo must guard; and a little Bnow,
enough to close the air holes with
Ico, Is much more dangerous than a
drift in which tho hives are entlroly
Hives should never be faced toward
the north. In northern latitudes, a
northern exposure in winter is almost
sure to result in the loss of tho colony
from the rigorous north wind blowing
In at tho entrance and tho confine
ment of tho bees, cnused by the en
trances being shaded on mild, sunny
days when the bees in hives facing
southward fly freely.
So tho snow is not to be trusted too
far, and tho south side of the hives
is in danger of being quickly uncov
ered of Its shelter when It is of this
Acting upon this experience we have
been In tho habit of banking up tho
snow, when there is plenty of it, on
tho north and west sides only, and
carefully cleaning the alighting board
on the first warm day after a snow
fall. If the weather gets mild enough for
a bee flight, the bees then find them
selves dry foo(ed In front of their
If the bees are confined when the
weather is warm enough for them to
fly, they will fret and worry; and It
their abdomen is loaded with fecal
matter, they may be compelled to dis
charge it in the hives to their own
We have invariably noticed that the
colonies which take the freest flight
on warm days and consequently seem
to lose the greatest number of bees
on the snow, prove to be the best
colonies in the spring.
It is much better to let them fly
and run tho risk of their not return
ing. All things considered, a heavy snow
is to bo taken as boneficlal rather than
as injurious to tho Interest of the bee
keeper; for if it is a sign of protracted
cold, it is, also an Indication of pros
perity, since It shelters the land and
promises a healthy growth of grass,
clover and other plnnts, and adds
moisture to the ground, which slowly
penetrates to the roots.
ACETYLENE TESTER FOR EGGS,
Bicycle. Lantern May Be Utilized For
An acetylene lantern has been dis
covered by a poultry dealer to be Ideal
for egg testing purposes. The lanUra,
which gives a clear white flame of
great brilliancy, was first used on an
incubator full of eggs by a corres
pondent of the Poultry Journal as an
experiment. A piece of black enamel
cloth with a hole in It was fitted over
tho lens and the eggs in turn held be
fore tho len.s In the manner illustrated.
Tho intense white light rendered the
eggs nearly transparent, so that at the
end of tho third day of Incubation the
fertile ones wore easily detected, th
minute blood vessels showing distinctly.
GIVE FARM TOOLS AND
MACHINERY GOOD SHELTER
See That the Capital Invested Is Not
Rust and Neglect.
With high-priced implements, ns
with high-priced stock, they hnvo to
bo taken care of If wo aro to got
tho best results, henco the necessity
for good shelter for them whllo not
Most of tho tool houses arc con
structed In a way that Is Inconven
ient to get the tools In and out. Such
houses usually have- tho doors In
tho end of tho building, ami you
have to run probably half of your
tools out to get tho ono wanted. Not
so with this ono. You can put mow
er, plow or any other Implement In
or take it out without disturbing tho
rest of machinery; a wonderful help
when you are In a hurry or tired and
think you will put off running that
binder Into tho dry.
Tho houso Is oho erected by an
Indiana farmer, and Is 18 feet wldo
nnd 32 feet long, but he says ho
would prefer ono longer if nny dlf
feienco was to be made. To build
tho house, he says, cut ten oak posts
niiio feet long and of a size as largo
as you would use for end posts of
wire fence, or sninller, will do. Mark
your site conveniently near barn
yard for building, 18 feet wide and
32 feet long, set post threo feet In
ground and ten feet apart, except
ing the last, which will bo 12 feet.
Of course you will have to put ono
post in center of each end. I filled
around each post with bowlders
iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiii mini e s i 1 1 i - iitt
Plan of a Small Greenhouse
To speak of a greenhouse suggests
tho Idea of an expensive building that
requires much labor on tho part of
some persons to keep in order. While
it is possible to spend almost any
amount, a very practical houso can bo
made of hot-bed sash, using the south
phizza as a basis for operations. Hot-
bed sash, all leady for use, cost from
?3.25 to $3.50 each, and measurse 3x0
feet; tho glass in these frames meas
ure 10x12 inches.
Buy tho sash first, and then build
according to tho number of sash.
Cross Section of Greenhouse.
This little greenhouse can bo heat
ed by a smokeless, blue-flame oil
stove without injury to the flowers.
For a beginner somo of th6 bulb
The Busy Business Hen. Make
tho chickens work for what they get
by scattering the grain in, clean lit
ter. Feed bone and green food fre
quently. Keep fowls fieo from lice
and kill off any roupy ones. Arrango
for all tho sunlight you can get In
Cooperation. When tho farmer de
velops confidence In his neighbor, co
operation Is In sight, and cooperation
In marketing means that control of
prices will fall Into the bands of
oa effij pa ry,
Eutcn Up by
which makes it solid nnd needs no
bracing. Put a 4xt on top of posts
entirely around the structure and nlso
two sets of stringers 2x4 on sides of
pests about throo feet apart. Now
sldo your building In with somo good
lumber (mine- Is rough oak). Go in
sldo and nnll on braces for doublo
doors between every post on each
sldo of building, but not In ends.
Outsldo put hinges on plank over
posts; saw your two stringers In two
to correspond with your doors nnd
swing your doors open. Don't nail
siding to top platto ns you could not
open doors if you did. Cover build
Ing with V crimped iron roofing, no
danger of Are then.
Throw all of tho doors open on
both sides of new building run clover
cuttter in wide npartment and steel
rako in opposite wide doors, Inp
tongues, run tho rest of implements
In, In same v. ay, lapping tongues In
center. Whenever wnnting nny im
plement open doors Immedlntetly back
of it and back it out.
Tho good points of a building of
this kind, says lndlnna Farmer, aro
Its cheapness, convenience nnd dura
bility; it is almost as easy to store
Implements as to leave them in tho
field, nnd It ought to last almost a
llfetimo If roof Is pnlnted occasion
ally. Tho accompanying diagram
represents houso closed up and all
farming tools In tho dry.
family will bo best. Of late years,
Roman hyacinths, narcissus of vail
ous kinds, freeslas and tulips have
had a great sale In the winter months.
When grown for cut llowers they art
put In low boxes of a convenient slzo
for hnndllng, at a distance apart
equal to about twice their dlaceter,
and so they will just show above tti
Special Seed Train. The Canadian
department of agriculture has follow
ed out tho plan of running a special
beed train through Manitoba with
great success. One of these trains re
cently made a long tour and wns en
thusiastically received at a number
of points. The cars were well decor
ated with Interesting exhibits of grains
and a great number of farmers came
to the meetings.
Cut the Bedding. Run all the bed
ding through a feed cutter nnd cut it
not oer two feet in length. It will
absorb more urine in the stable and
will rot quicker In the field. Corn
stalks, or sunflower stalks, if cut short
will soak up stable urine like a sponge
and will give it off in tho field as tho
plants want it.
Milk and Cement Paint. A good
paint for dairy work can be made fiom
Bkimraed milk and Portland cement,
with somo mineral coloring. It Is nec
essary to stir this mixture very fre
quently as tho cement will sink to the
A Frosted Comb. A frosted comb
should be treated nt once with Ice wa
ter or &nov to draw out the frost.
Then apply kerosone and tho comb
will quickly Improve.
producer, who alone knows what Is a
just prlco for his product.
Wintering Chickens. A few chick
ens can bo wintered on the lee sldo of
a manure pile, but it Is hnrd on tho
chlckons and not a good way to win
Don't Let Wires Snap. If the wlro
fences are tightly strung, loosen thu
wires somowhnt to prevent their be
in snauned by frosL
GATE WITH A WHEEL ON IT.
The Swinging of a Heavy Gate May
Be Made Easy.
Mnny times for vnrloiiB reasons it is
necessary to havo an extra long gate
on tho farm. Generally a wldo gate
Is heavy and hnrd to handlo In open
ing and shutting. Tho skotch which I
nm Bonding you lllustrntes an easy
way of overcoming tho difficulty of
handling a heavy gate, writes n cor
respondent of Prairie Fanner.
In attaching tho wheel to tho gato
I first take a pieco of 2x I about three
feet long nnd slzo ono end down until
it will enter tho hub of nn old cultl-
Wheel Attached to Heavy Gate.
vntor wheel. After the wheel is fast
ened to tho end of tho 2x4 I fasten
the lntter to the gato by two or threo
strong bolts. Plnco tho 2x4 and wheel
just high enough bo tho gate will clear
tho ground when swung to one Bide.
When tho gate 1b shut tho wheel
stands between the end of tho gato
and the post, as shown in tho cut.
When a gate of this kind is arranged
properly n child enn open and Bhut
It without difficulty.
GOOD SOIL FOR CROPS.
Some Comments By J. F. Wojta, of
Gii6tavus Adolphus College.
An Ideal soil for tho growth of
crops should be one containing tho
property of being friablo, loose and
porous; one that retains a reasonable
qmount. of moisture and heat; ono
that will nllow Itself to be worked ovor
easily and of which dralnngo Is good;
ono whose nerntlon or vontllatlon 1b
good. To get such n soil wo would
recommend the following composition;
1. A certain amount of clay, enough
to regulate the capacity of tho soil for
water and heat as well aB mineral
2. A certain amount of humus to
supply nutrition and regulato capacity
for moisture, heat nnd chemical ac
tion. 3. A certain amount of Band to In
crease capacity for drainage nnd till
age. This would, in brief, furnish a good
mixture of tho various boIIb for such
climate as is found In this middlo
Coach horses aro rapidly Increasing
In prices notwithstanding manufac
turers of automobiles are full of busi
Tho Kafllr corn introduced for trlnl
in the arid region in tho southwest,
whore It has succeeded remarkably
well, makes very excellent meal.
'it Is a' 6plendld time, these cold
days, to sharpen up the saws, grind
the axes and fill tho box with kindling.
While you are at It, don't forgot the
butcher knife, the shears your wife
uses and tho chopping knife.
A correspondent of tho Rural New
Yorker tolls that paper that a flock of
seven sheep brought him In $100 In a
year. If a large flock can bo made
profitable In that proportion, thetc
should be no question about the advis
ability of keeping sheep.
A common wlro brush can bo used
to remoe the rust from farm tools.
lt a finer finlbh is desired a bit of
sand paper will answer tho purpose.
After this treatment apply some good
metal paint. This will prolong tho
life of any Iron or steel tool.
There is a demand both for little
pigs nnd for hogs Therefoio poik Is
not likely to decline In prlco In the
near future. Tho conversion of a
large part of tho enormous corn crop
Into pork Is sure to be profitable to all
who engage In it. Farm Journnl.
Fall Seeding of Alfalfa.
The Pennsylvania expeilment sta
tion has gained much experience In
fall and spring seeding of alfalfa, and
says that the principal objectloji to
spring sowing Is that weeds oomo up
and choke out the young plants before
they can get a good start. Tho fall
seeded alfalfa on dry land was ablo
to withstand tho severe winter climato
perfectly in fact, better than tho
common red clover. Undor averago
good coudltlons from 20 to 30 poumjs
of seed should bo sown to tho ncie.
Manuro gave bettor rosults on Penn
sylvania soil than did commercial fer
tilizer. Lime did notlvo satisfactory
rosultj. In somo Instances it gave- no
appreciable results, and in othors it
was decidedly harmful, but in no case
was it applied to advantage. Deop,
well-dralnod soils are tho best for
Husk in the Barn.
When corn is xo bo husked from tho
shock in cold weather, tlmo may bo
saved and comfort added by hauling
part of It to tho barn. Cold and
stormy days may then be used to ad
vantage in husking corn In tho barn.
J r ' II I
ItP K ?Hf
THE SIZE OF FARMS.
They Should Be Smaller Rather Than "
Larger For Best Results.
Tho American " farmer has always
had before him tho temptntlon to
grasp n largo amount of land. Thisj
Is not surprising when wo consider
what IiIb education has boon. It has'
been seven or more generations slnco
our ancestors settled in this country
nnd during all of that time tho de
scendants of tho old settlois havo hnd
tho thirst for land bred Into them.
This wnB because In thu beginning
of tho development of thlB country
land was very easily obtained, nnd
tho most common way for men to,
enrich themselves was to get posses
sion of large tracts of land. '
Hut todny tho new conditions nro In
conflict with the tendency to own
lnnd for tho mere senso of owning
It. Uefore a mnn buys moro land he
should first sit down and consider
whether he can uso that land, says
Farmers' Roviow. Ho should nlBa
consider moro carefully the question
of whether ho can not moro fully uso
tho land ho hnB. To-day thero nro
multitudes of fnmllles thnt are made
miserable by the possession of too
much lnnd. A man known to tho
writer hnd SO acres of hind located
within n few miles of a thriving town.
Ho hnd only himself nnd wife to pro
vldo for, nnd ho found It hard to
get help even to tako enro of the
80 ncrcs. But he had alwayB owned
a farm of from half to a square mile
In nrea, and he wns miserable on hlB
little piece of 80 ncrca. His wife
wanted to stny thero, for sho had been
overworked on tho big farm. But ho
insisted on selling tho nice llttlo farm,
and then moved to tho city whllo
wnltlng to get hold of n big fnrm,
What tho country needs Is a largo
number of well-tilled smnll farms.
That means moro Independent farm
ers nnd fewer hired men. It mean
a Bolutlon of tho bird help problem.
It means more fnmllles In a township,
nnd thnt too of families that own tho
lnnd on which they aro located. Such
make the best citizens In tho world.
Such people thrill with tho delights of
ownership. Thoy nro a help to tho
communities. Their children do not
havo to rush to tho cities to make a
living. More farms meanB better
schools. It moans moro electric
lines running hero and thero ovor the
country; for tho electric HncB go
whore populations nro sufficiently
dense to lnsuro them patronage. If
tho American farmer does not got
down to this Idea tho foreigner will
tnko his land. Tho foreigner comeB
in from hlB little piece of lnnd In
Km ope. Ho has teen accustomed
thero to farm Intensively a llttlo piece
of territory. Ho takcB a small pleco
hero nnd Is contented with it. Ho
works, and his family work. They
havo no hired help problem. They
soon own tho land on which the
American farmer wbb lord, but on
which he had a mortgage. Tho thirst
for mere ownership of land Is a thirst
that can no longer bo gratified with
out tho danger of losing even tho land
necessary for the Bupport of tho farm
DURABLE WATER TROUGH. '
How an Old Boiler May Be Given a
New Lease of Life.
A useful and durable watering
trough can bo mndo of n 30-gallon
galvanized boiler such as used for
holding hot water and connecting
with ranges. Tho openings in each
end are closed with plugs. The boiler
Good Use for Second Hand Boiler.
Is laid on ltB side on a suitable foun
dation, ns shown In cut, says tho Farm
and Home, and an opening cut length
wlso about 8 to 10 Inches wide. Tho
edges are turned smooth. Wnter can
bo let Into tho trough at either end
or wherever desired nnd a shut off
can bo screwed into thobottom for
a clenn cut.
Manure and Corn.
Experiments continuing for three
years at the Indiana experiment sta
tion with barnyard manuro as a ferti
lizer for corn, showed that while threo
tons to the aero Increased tho yield
14.9 bushels per acre, six tons made
an Increase of but 1C.2 per acre. ThuB
the addition of tho second three tons
of barnyard manure estimated as hav
ing a value of two dollars per ton as
a fertilizer, or six dollars for tho threo
tons, increased the yield only 1.3
bushels or about C5 cents In value.
Trees naturally grow where there
Is molbturo. In tho fall leaves fall
from the branchos because they are
not needed thoro any longer but aro
noeded to protect the roots and retain
tho moisture In tho soil you always
find a llttlo riso around tho base of
trees. Tho raise around the trees
Keeps the water away from tho stem
and also keops tho ground frozen and
mice or worms are no attracted to
Take Care of Plow.
Whon through with tho plow,
whothor for tho season or for a fo
days, always cover tho share and
moldboard thoroughly with linseed
oil. An old brush or cloth, a very lit
tle oil, and a minute's time, are all
that you need to keep tho plow free
from rust. To remove when ready for
work, use kerosene and rub vlgoronv
rl D d FfKp. . --M '
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