Newspaper Page Text
The People's Journal.
PICKENS S. C.
THE NEEDS 01" 011T FAlRM EIls.
'TM : NEORO IS TIIl-: ni';ST FAI C31 i AN)
-- '. wAMF.S SYSTIO Dii Til E-: 13-:1
WAY TO M':31PILAY 11131.
The following address was made )y v
Mr. F. J. Merriam at lie summer 1
meeting of the Georgia State Agricul- h
tural Society, and it is worth reading b
by every farmer Im the South :
Mr. Presidtetd fd 1"kt I/ole me P rs: p
ti) well aware that this question ,
of farm help is one which agitates .
your iminds for i considerable portion a
of the year. It aqgilates m11y mind all
the year rouid, sometimes with con- ii
sideraible violecel, as we keep between W
ten and twenty men employed all tlt
time. This mattel is, however, onle of
Very groat impot,'antc, for it meanis
your success or failure inl n1any in
Stances. 'an I get silicient help to
work iy farm properly ? Will they be
etticient ? Will they work for my in
terest ? These are iust ions whieh hi
are of costalit I(rceurrence', ald while o
their successful solution depenads i) ah
grent measure on the supply of, avail- e
ablu lhellp, it also depends largely oi
thie ability of the faitier himIelf, to m
ninage this help: . .
With us at the (itl the question ot I
farn labor is essentially a <question of'
negro labor. There are some aiiong1
you, I know, who woulhi like to -ve the '
negr0 eleaedlout of tite coitry ; but if
Ie were, who would take his place'.'
Probably you thiik you coull outltivaYte
your farms yiourself, with what white k i
help you could pick tip. And this is bi
abouti what it would con1e to : You t
would have to depend almli ost entirely \
on your Own effort, nutil the foleigni
element came in to take tle plhee of I
the blacks-a calamity I trust we' sla1d
never be called upon to endui'. The
South is toda alo Oilst - the only parit of
our country which itly' A tuerican,
and I hope we shall learn to keep it so.
You go North, and in city anI In
try you hear almost any languvnage on
the globe spoken, except th lughshli3l.
It is true that tw Notrtt shows a
larger agriculutiral wealti blot the
South; 1but this is not 1herausne itey hin
white help, but because ofl the reater
enterprise and editcationii of tile alid
ow 1ts tell youl, 1 valli take muy lle
grTOes and4 do as 111u11 01 Ilini or wIrk
and dto it as well as with any1V lot if
white ieni you call pick itil. You taie
the black min aidi pay Ililm wagt's, '11
IXpect hin to tarn thei In lie will
not disappoinit yolu. Th in-1 ne r, (1,(.n
na1tural labtor of' the southl , 1 ) ith
thet proper managemenil t, e l Ianli.
inade to paiy.,
I have htil soint 114-nn1, in h
perieninl.has not beIn iiiiron r.
The first white 1ini1 I lun.id was dii
s44ni, I belielve. W\'e gave hm :,0 vieit4
p'' day anLI hi., boai. lIe ta.i
tile long.est waisted man.1i 1ver aw,
andt the way li iOuild uid' Pr'ow isitlns
was a ation, I- itie er ht had
r'ceintl y r'''everd from'n an at tat'k tot
'hillls antI ever,. If you eve'r hi:o I thei
chills y on know what ant appeo't ite' a
inan hais when lie is ini the cionvailt's
cen'lt state. WVell I hal uman ato' lunlii
Thleni we hiad ,Jothni I 'liru n ain lIn
hand, buit slow, a~l oi eni I ii 1o
hiui'ry himii up oue ttay, lit tohtl me it I
dhid not like the' way lit wo rked I coul.t
give him his mtiner'. which I inmmedi
at ely did. A fle t'in Is we wer'et iiI fou
ate ini obtaining a briighit y'ounlg mn
Iromi Norvthi ('ollna. Ihe waisa hutst.- a
ler aiid kniew~ litow to get overi worik,
and a v'ery ie fellow aill ar'otiil, the - i
tly~ tioubile binlg that lit was soon
off'ered a better joib withI a huigr al;t- b,
arly thanii we toublt atllard to pay. a
nee1c we novettlI ti eiria Ii ave
hir'd niegroes e tutiively uitailI last"
year', when a whtie nini canme to ourii tI
plac~e fromi the c ivty lokinig for wirk. ~
He hadi beenl (out if i'mploiymienittt r a at
Iong t i rpe, except tfor a triw ottbi jobils,
anid was in a dleplorahhl <h-'stitmet cotl
tditioni. I wasi1 inl netid itt hti at the hi
tune antd thitoght it oinly fair that :i I
white man who was wiliing ti wor k Ii
shlouild have aii equtal shi~w with te Ii
ntegr'oes. So I decidetd ti give in m a
trial. 11ie and his two Ihoys wo rked "
fthistrate tior the lit st moth i or i tw W t
unltil they iecovered Iroini thleir hi' i
ger, as you might say. andl be bought It
a few new'l clothes antd some1 tfurniiturie. W'~
TIhien I foundit timit my unt oua bieen 1:
drinking when I senit hitm to thlie city y
with vegetales to sell. I eports, not
lie best, of his chiaracteri had comie to hi
me, anid ildeteiinietd to have a talk ni
with hiim. I told hun of the rep~orts, n
but also that so long as hie treated me t<
straight I would give ti m a chance, I ly
also told himn that 1 kiiew lie hiad bieeni h
drinking, atnd wvhile I did not proptise
to dictate to himn in any way, stil if
hia drimkminjtci eteed with my busi- C
ness lie must see that I shoul not be
able to kcep huim.
T.Lhinigs wenit along better aftet' this
un ttil one day I heard that the fonily
had been takinig vegetables withot
pemhissioni. 'Thlen tone tof t ho boys
stoppedCt woirk mi the miiddle of thie
forenoon atid lied to mue wh eni accubsed
of it. So I turned him t off , when, to
miy surtprise, the old iiani got nma' Imn!'
askedt for his andl the other hoy's
mioney. So off they wvent, antd have
been living from hand to mouitth ever'
WVe have one white man who is
toler'ably respectable, but lit is a poor~i
farm hand and cannot begin toi hiol
his own with the negroes ton the place.
lie is one of the mddlt kind who standl
ar'ound~ aind seem~ to for'get. whlat they'
are doing. But lie is honest , andl thi's
covers a mnultittude or shorteomings.
Since this mani hats beeni withI us hei
has beeni br'inging in his relations one
by one. Fir'st there catme in ai coutsin,
a smart. younig man, who stayed with
us about six months and then obtainied
better wages thian we could paiy, and
an opportunity to learni a trade itn the
-city. Then he brought down his
v:, brother, oiie of the gawky boys from
the~ mountains who look at yout with
their mouths open. We gave him a
trial, but he would not do. lIe dIidt
not even know how to work.
We had otne all-r'oundi good white
na, lit heI had the *uisforttire t
lave a little money, and ho is now tr-Y
lg to throw it away ill tle !roceI
itsiness in Atlanta. It is the str.In''
at hing what makes a young Iai, W
0011 a8 he has Illatle a little iionev of
lie farm, want. to rin to town to spem
t instead of inlvesting it in the coun.
ry, where it would be trafe and brin.
This yotiing mnan1 wisVi honest, a good
Porker, quick and intelligent, and if I
ould get eiouiglh like himii mI uighit b(
'illinig to part with Iny negroes. Bul
ot otherwise. Even then I1 shouh
aite to do it, for 1 am11 prouid o)*fin)
ys---as I call them. They ate very
mdy and willing to do aIuytliilg to
ease me ; always celterrul anid un.
>mlaining when asked to (10 little
ctras or work over time. When Wt
;et in a tight"- -as the old farmeiti
id---tlicy will rush like figh ting firt
necessary to get thiigs il shape,
it hout thinking about, their pay tilt
castiring every little act, to fit tlt
illars and cents they may think ther
orth. When you get at white Inain
(do this I waint to see him.
Your black man lives in a cabin
nat the house, where you cal alloo
himn. When you wait your horse
telled up Suday morin ii g you call
it : I'lere. Mloses, vatch ipl 1113
>rse, % ill you," and shortly the horse
illes .11o10 l1d well-groom ied ani slitty,
ith Aloses hohing iim, hat in handil
id smiling as you come out. You
a4y give lh1n ai Cigar or toss him a
:kel, yo llay not give lilm anything
-it is all the same to him. The
loss" wants his horse, anld that is
Hiw dilfe re'it with our white iani.
he is wh'lere y0ou canl gel it him,
u say ' N 'r. .IohlinsoI, will you be
tidl tnough 1to hitch the hlay till to the
iggy ?" and Mr. .Johnsonl goes about
e tskmodiy, mlutlering thait hu.
i-it hired to wait on leoile. I it
hn Ima iy day corlnes., he expects all
vske littlie extras to be settled for.
You m:y Iin off your negroes it you
ill : 1but( Im lifrm , I will kte4pi mile for
w4'4hil- vet. for I coisider the niegroes,
I tile whole. very much ulllerior as
3r111 hlihorers to the class of white
in you will bet able to hire.
We have nivtleOPS ()In our place who
lt dlo anythin.- in ur gardIel or farm,
nichin. t senin. ut p antssu pru
arnI'mt or nu arket, anoi 41
as I lda I woublii llt tnyel. Thl4'ey
Ve Ill hon's 111 thhe and board
n11u,11414lIs. I : h- t u mI y lil d
ln l 1 1 r111 uied thau im t wife 'Ihouh
tever runl at negroi boarding houlse, mr
hie ne, it he ilor itIa t u1.T , I11i
ha1\' nev r had r ll I' n t Ii thi k i Ie lru
1 1 lilt I . i i ll -'li b lt, 111 1)1 1) a s
ay1 th1ern4 calish i Th I 'll1ike t 'avea
ll I I i 4I, t I .etI ' as te I IhI I.
Ill ) ' II c L Ilairs sl t 'cI : t I . 'i (-.
1r~ 11111- tltlt5 1i V4 .1 4 1,1 1 dit-v a t. 4"t
ol nithis thil' (111l tha thle an-itel-l
ll :eIn 1t11 i I1o thi air k 14441 -ve it
W\ iIit Itr it 1 i4w v ;,, 'dI ;I s heity
lt'11: he esier1-4rst (41 tpen afrth
I1tie. i W 111, thlgi' i v4) lit-Iiyeb m 1e
mevt. I ziegleet your .* di tll 14 yotisl fIll1
4ti1fIctory tlh n l sine rat.n , r
iv hi rl am c ii he stor t- f wl-h
1u do ti thS e Ieilen a11 ;hire to fiel
ha they e' baeing 1) chrI tooi111 mucht
Thes 1 oar hIhlar iusin i l-allyh as
iuh t1 4 a 1estio t eluyr tiattet
11uploy'elfhto the Soth' feeds b
lc nl to rusein theig frm ;oui
Ie it i Ik' a oth IuIc esru
o .i u l ke t. .- I .'a t d i hi
el ars winidapr uhh- ood 1n401z~ ; 1n1.
Ihedtronblendow hnere ~'i wehav. id-lt
litill ya eali ltti iiv tld~t
ldril S iti the Ir iie. ieWs is
il en awshavcom' heriellt prepi-l
hi urhe farmins id who aro justa
le of woking them 1(4ld lit'cssfull when
ild atvay e incaph alets ot'lnaie
'oild inis l'essarly th a t wa(geslt)
liei fhis hl uy tof11 the inteen
>thern iln~d awngifto so kinana hilwI
trllasi~ meui oldlt(tS llike 1411 le fo4' I'
imset, but441 tolfurn''sil h oimtab(1lea
1ymen for',i the laorftst Ilag'lity
tuay be04 eint tt it~l o ah frot'1
>reh ead.ing yourl impe whle you~ii4)i,
'tes managie h tt folafpr thesele hui
>u)11 ')1 n sle toe41our y ro oprl na
tot' nelthb o wheni you doi.S i
Wh4 ilek am on g the subjectay f llik
rdl o employer litwa to ay alt ifew
3osto 11 tofe peophlhie who1ire elp
oo everg tmve nyroublI anwtith
mr)I haoni t I t soa~, ho1e faut illt
kourw 3or1 the and ? Onile tol thies
aiilce a to el ing fromt yhaom
wantt dloneo, anti how you wtlt it (one.
- 11llnds have Uo respect for ti employel
who hesitates Whent giving hi.4 comIl
11114asand isi twcertaini how he wants
them carried otit.. e cheerful and
I pleasan10 t with yo ur e1n1,1 without bieingr
too fanilliar, and above aill (o niot. fret,
follr this ruins your ow) disposiotinli a
well 11 y11tr 1n111141. It )uts the lie
gro in a sullen state inl which condi.
tion little or nothitniig tan hie gotten
out, of him. If1 thinga go wrong ex
plain is clearly as' possible exactly
what you want dn1e. If the offense
is repeated correct your. 111111 sharply,
but without s1h4wing temper, and let
him unldertstand that if you have to
speak low him againii about the matter,
3o4u will have it) lispense with lis sWr
vices. 1 lie wants to stay with y41u1,
there will lie very little trouble.
I have(. een Inen hill) we contili
ally discharg-ing. then harnds al hirinerg
11IV o4e.is. They w.IL on I1he theory
11111 a - new broii aIlVayq sweeps
ch-an1," andl for them a1 111n seldom
worked w ll Ior 1111re tha l a imionth at,
a tinic. I have always t rhougt.t that
there inIist he soielhinl I.;4 i(c:tIly
wri:.i Wili ti'se Ntp ly r, aII that
thle t w I-, IIh t elitirely w ith the
M wn '4II CXI)'iell(e hts been vpry
h4Ifre'lt frn lliis. Thet! ho4)tger We
to pl ; uI ,411 tile better littid he be
4ome)-. 1Tim is, iti el re is anyihma
ait Ill inl him. 1 If not we drop himi
pretly quick. I Ilave li1tni 'who have
been.1 w-ilh Ime ovI' six yeara38, it they
are the lie hain(s fill tilo plarv .nd(1
etl tilie Iil st1. it t1 . This t- as it
shohti14l lo-. Alter' a hail has lieii with
'filIl f Vw yt'ars he lev3 Iis ytpur by11s.
1T'en .(Ill U tlil-t'rbSald etachi titer andj
Ii''w jlSt What 1ip 'xp c'et,
I au r mind Iere oi nIIIther ad.
vamale the neroI'44 has overt' the white
i a4 il ll d. i. '., le is satislied wl[ 4443..
teniteid with his po'sititln, aild h for this
le;tiI4 I tti ;ire a lie 1 1 4 t 4 ) l '-ep II4 II. The
t Mi 't I)11 Whit(l 4 il l, 04 ii 1 |iil [li veX
cept(icill tol thet ruI, 1iyti, i gleyer
satisliedl With anlything".
I think Iw- F4.:roract. is eVinnin'
tlt understal it- pois f itin fr th11, pres
'11t at IIast, is essnltially anll illustrial
Ijsiti'll. al'd viat till- wilite itnll is 'n
li bl ti ioi I i c Weg e erlie i lih.I
olli his iIt4ret4 , I 11-t tilt-w ng'rk4 P4ri
ft hiiself as ai and131 bit, 4ou.
- 'it 141) 414bih up hi- I tI:4io11, 1441 Inake
I is I l t I;l . I v l i I II)i r I 4ItI th I It -
l I I I t .tni, i h-I ay c a h;ew wvIds to
line ofl wo rk, whet her y-ou be a car'pien -
Ier, a brickayer or. hiat a hand, study
yomu n\ mrk. I )o not be contenlt %\ ith
sIlllllu l I IIIII.1 ill tinme and tiaii il
you lity, |-very hahort'l shloulbd Ie
eivek s1e:inething ' outsile f Ik wa-s,
1trough his itae-rease-d kni lebdie of his
leisille-ss :hult t4 (4 th s h u
his idill till the11. tor) '11111 1i t 11114CI
try ill 3141111 \3 itt. e
34T1 ll \\" 11 is &11 1111, Ile( li1 ili ai
w444k4 alli 413:st 3l(t4'
work 1long, vvery line,
lii lis u iii o paY for it. It I'Ihere
s at young, white tuanl inl tbis audtience
n-41iced tlo th e nce ily of "lartna as
14:51 f 13t 'II i, l hi/ArM i it't lespai r of
likin'as'. plct: fo'rt1 hi3uself ill the
t"y, siiV in. 1!11 A'nprov. I );_ _i . li se I
for344 ionting botter.t 1'1 Ie fti ill
notlo- in tvint Ile wh'o.e ih
S iTl'tli ' I'etNi l i V iNtl y-'.:t, t. . e
14 . i I :4Nit4 I. t i~p~t
l'I)t is always .tt144e w h wpend the
les for4 34 eti lier who SI fertile i O stCii
wllreo slbli lti l' 1114, 'ev , i orpe as:1J
para(1they 011o esh1 uttly, ae jth inholec
mucOil so heoeliec. )thohe
ha nt i l no thet' i a who (pen moti t s It,'
fori~31 fertilies annual who(e4 fertlize
4icon4oIl1tnc a etilizing is ethe most1(4
scientite ('lofertilii'4g and ye4,et, a t t
saet' tjimef rt311w~e it is, toc h simeste
anti~ mos1t ttCounon' sesilettplantI ta
3Ionomical( :18 fert.lizt'lo hatu whani
tu til hand a hand -at.re1 i nrale
an heeti i one Iu hardfly I~ be put i prae
ate wit ot.th theri.to;teat
5i0roni410calft iliti'bone 1emnd thel~
ra:4isige ines ownll needed truly of ht
isn~itp v byiens by the legunnn~gohs
rpasclove",cow-peaei s, etc.,0(11113 of hli
atehome.No onl (10 m11and even ton he
aing a eyllC (nnecesaryd all01pend itreo
monet an altso cs tat, hau4'ling.r134
AtI '34tthsae tworg -atheat o can,1by
(4tl riing1 of gIninou eropsi , r aisel
shouhl113 btecotinuall1141 y bon mi m4V~ in d
tha1.i Ittogen i rea l and tatl ll othatli
ies 123 actual ly gained, by' 113 th laies'ig of
loineis.e i Not oldol thy fato fur-'
whtienever1111: ths io atter are n)4'botlmei
that 'm~i is, ltterlyo i'apaihtae for04' the1
we mayl i t'i o'afelv 4 hle fanyt ther enpli..
vtedI 01 crp. nnio n~l:lo'~~3~ t'Phis ct fo
th ieso hat 1'1so ay o ourbrothat.
farIemyrs stw coerte or11phat. towpeas
-wot making ~e80111 any appuintI5ion o
, eith' phtIgofhtes orepotash and wiut
- thei lebIst ppincrasedio bt possiby a hun
t dred4 potar cetterey, at4 ihe n-n
f andm thuei eholdo ethait 101 welt
Oe enuh to tit ell iensutghcien ne, ~)tsand
- tdion of ipolsimtg mliply oisun
It 114is 11hel no'eessar Into ad that1
'm i)ever i'nsj)tancl e te 31ind1 ouxeir
yi Bie(oicl mttethod of fonterciftilizain -u
zIr, and if' we can maintain ouar needel
SUPPly of' nitroge ,(I edlo e ven incrve.tm
it wiich can recilily he donle it' We so
detei'nliue by iealns of' clover, cow pea
or other leguimmious ci*ops, or by baru
yard or staible manure or cottoni see<
aid purchase such phosphates and pot
ash as haay he4 nieeded, we will havt
accoruplished a great saving and wil
have inauuguratedi a systelit of econo
tlcal fertilization that Cannot pos.
sibly be excelled oil tlie score of eco
The sowilving (pi plantiting of legtuinii.
Otis crops, while at the samile Ii 1ime oimiit
tig tlie application of* phosphates an1
potash , is a species of oniie siled fertili
z/ation arn i III) systeiml of fe itilizatiot:
that is one sided I call possibly lbe ml1at14
permanient ly profitale.
Whdie on thie subject of one Side<
fertilization, we wih to call attentioi
to a system of tiltiI.izatioll that has be.
coMie altogether too populari, we sip
Pose on account of its cheapnliess. WI
refer to te use of phosphates aloiie
a1111( ind iserii i inately, lor' ill clops, an14
on all soils. 1h i,1 not ani economincal
system, but 4)1n the ciontrar'y, Ole very
re3Verse of it, for th w retasoln that if Ipi
4isted il, It eventtinilY alIls to ha rien
ness and absolute sterility.
Now let us examine iito this a little
and see if we cannot fiiid out how tlig
sterility is brought aboi t. I losphates
contain but one plant t food, 'viz. phos
phioric acid, now if tlie application of
phosphates alon iniicre-i se the yield Ill,
a crop say :25 pr ceit. ilore jotal'i
aid phosphlorw' acid aid niti'ogenl
than if I lfertili-zing agent had I 1 been
alpplitea, hence it ha actuially imover
ished the soil to the extent of aIlollIntj
of potash aid introgen taken from the
soil by said crop.
It does more T haI hiis, ceid phos.
phate consists inpI ly of' Iinievy ground
lime-phosphatev rock treatdwt
about n eilua weigh4ta of strong sul.
pilliric acid. ThiS lic aid om
bines the lime-moakin- ie-upht
gypslumtlu1 oir aliil plaster', s that il
fom1s micar-ly (.ne half I of the total
weight, of th4, :id phosplate. Ihal
without its applintionl %l wouhI hav'e Iv
mlalined inls( '! le; hience, acidl ph1o
phate supplit phosphol('ie aCid diret
lV and PIotiaIh uiiirectly ma l henct
agail phosphOrie 1c acid get.s ce d it. to
ite increased ivhi whel it. is often
times not inIutIled to it, ani a greal
41eal of it wa., -wviiually dIe to ile pot
ah so lileawl. Anyhow the soil i
depileted Ill thev extenit of'aon
NIotash So iihur.avie.
Now no( possible objePction oul
broughtim m:;mmnst it ori its use 1no laattel
how iuch hint 1ood it might set f'ree
it only ihlie iiwer, inexhauistilile ston'e
of' said plant11 aood 4)1 driIaw 1im, but
miimfori'iiat..lv ill the Souith ait least
this is no ithe caie, and IilorIeepec
ally inl tlie sanditr po'tions of it.
We :it well awae olt the tact tha
there are soils. s4'attered habout her ;u'4.1i
thner vr the colint'y thal ari Illeii
'iit, spie pIsphoric acid, someI 41 il
Iotash ;ia simie in litr'og'ni, and sonm
ill va'cll aii all of these t eluially v'al
abhl, t-i llly implor-tant, andill facLt
ejItlly misihenlsabe feililizing' sub
stances. Now it staids to in.astioni that
h~emit eIconmiical system, that coliuh4
po)51~ssilie purlstld ini Iertilizing thlesi
wnki1.ly dIissiilarki soils would be 1 t'li's
to supply , correc.r ma'iiuke goodl anuy am
all known deliciecies in thie so il itself'
a1114 secondi suipyly each anid every eroj
such1 qutillities as shall insure' nuixi
ing or' ('ontro'llinig fatilors are favor
inl facet the moiust ec'onouimical systeml o)
at .least, im thle presen il tate. ot' agrFiu1
1It wouhl lbe .just as re4.asoabl at i
iut. a pair oif gr'een g ggles on 4a1 hors<11
441 ('0ow and iinnllertake toI fatte then 14'i
on pi ne slhavin..gs , utlier t11hel et'e tha
youii were furnIllishinig the wica ithI al
ahnnd1ui~ance o f e xcellenlt forage, asi
wvou ld lbe to1 und4 ertake to1 make a gooi
crop)l of any d escripti on whlen iied 01
phiosphat'es aloine, ori potashi alone, o
oin nitriogeni alone. All threeii. sut 1
stances ai'e needed in the mnakings. of
goo 1 c1r'IOp, all thrmee aret etiuallyv impjol
tanit, all, thre ie are as abhsol ut ely iitaIis
pienlabile, the one as the i othler I'; aln
the' ani m al cani lie nmad e 1(4 thiv e o
pUine sha vinigs j ust as eas ily as thI
phlates, w~hien used to the exclulsioni a
imai'ket , and14 ire bein.. Ii hwkedl abou
the streets as C.alif'orniia fr'uit. As
imattei' of fact, hlowev'er, it is al togethle
toI early for' Califor'n ia or'anges- most 41
those whiich are now bing sipped to
I'hiihldelphia come from .lamlaica an<(
Mex'ic'o. The latter' countr'y is raptjid ;
growving' m irnportanice as a producei' I
thiis f'ruiit. An authority in thle trail
says that withiin thriee y'ears thme great
er' par't of our or'anges will comeli froti
Me&xico, as the many new~ trees whIic'!
havel' bieen planited there will 1beginl t,
hear by 190:;.
Most farmers ini shllI ing.. ears of se44
corniI, throw out the kernels frlom b ol!
etnds. Th'le apex ind oubhted ly produice
imilperfect kerneols, but a mnumber' o
go4vermenmt, 'x pelrimnts show t hatI th
lower' kernmmels, whiill' theuy imay lie i. i
shiapen , have hiigh vital ity and Icoi
stituteI godl sceed.
Thr'l ioughi thlie medhu o111(f the Stait
IFair all branehies oIf imilust r'y, inehlidn
live stock, haive been Iral imnprove(
'1'hme State Fair wvillI pay thle freighit o
all Ietxhibits rallised orii prodhuced ini thI
S-tate shiipped by railriowl , r'eleased.I
Ariranige your1 plans e'ai'ly to at tein
thie :d Ainnl Sla'te l-'aiir at ( 'oluilmbiz
tOct. 0th t.o NOV. 2d, inc4luisive4.
The map whlo milks good cows is al
to take better care of cows anal miil
thanu lie wh mn uilks poorli cows.
helaparipnece andl observIation ar :me 1)1
blest. teacher's, hence the imuportlance<
'lsitinig the State Fair.
K~eep plenty of cleain purie wat e
where the fowls can easily get it whl
ever they want it.
Liberal railroad r'ates fori theo gt(ei
State Fair will be made for Fair' WVe
T'idMAN ON THK RDl'AGI.
Tho Moiatr 11on Ilim Pitchiork h
lilinois --lo Makes (Chaages o'Cov
Aupi on Against McKiniley anst
The St. Louis (hobo- Democrat printE
the following special froumi Carrollton
III , giving some C oice extracts froa
Senator Ti I I man's , peeh ii that city
"A vitchfork is a mighty handy thing
to have around. t 6a good to handli
hay witi; it Is good for straw and grain
it Is absolutely necessary to handle-(i
pause)-manure. I don't com1e here ti
abuse Reiublicans or the Republicai
party am a body, but in talking abou
"olmu of the actions of their l'residen
i shall he compelled to use a pitchfork
because I don't like to use my linger
Thus ioejanin it. Tiliman. of Souti
Carolina, made his opening im pressioi
uponl tibe grand Democratic mass meet
ing at Carrollton. L1e was ch oeret
This is one of the Democratic strongy
holds of Illinois. The attendance wat
large. The Senator said: "This is tin
nos4t homelike audience I havo ad
dressed since I have been among th
Northern people." lie went on to ex
plain that his former speecties hat
been naade in cities and towns whern
he hadn't that home-like feeling that
lie had when lie talked to farmers. "
am a farmer pure and simple ' the Sen
ator said. "That is the reason the
word pitchfork is atached to m."111 Am
then the Senator sprung his manurt
joke. The reception of it sc'ned to In
crease his home-like feeling, for he le
himself out as he had not done previous
ly in any of hie sper Ches in the N irtlh
One of the statements with whii
the Sana or opened wide the eyes of the
Democratic farmers of Illinois was hi
bald assertion that N a-k H anna hat
raised $2,000.000 or $3 000,000 (from thc
ariorplate makers and was using i
in the campaign. "I was on the nava
committee with William l.' Chand ler,
the Senator -aid. "and I know some
thing of the armorplate business
Tnere are two concerns in the countr3
w hich make this arniorplate-Carnegli
and the tIethlehem. We lid a con
tract on which we haI been holdin1
them live years. We had been Reep
ing them down to $300i a ton. This year
on the last day of the session of Co.i
gress, Mark ianna took charge of it
Lie wenut in and ordered his henchmci
to give, authority to. the Secretary o
the Navy to make ait contract for armor
plate at what lie saw tit. Twelv
R epublican Senator., who had stool
with i. blefore fell down and voted ti
give Carnegie and ilethlehem this coil
tralct for $17,000.0110 I'T sweari that
Mlark Hlanna, to the be-st, of my helle
and krowledge, hau an agreement witi
thm-- two tirts to tgive him $2 000,0m
or .,00,011U for the l'residenti. cam
paign. So you see you send me.. t
oi, gi ess to vote for contracts whic'
irni--h the mioney to buy our vo:.e
Skinle (ofS na r ii '. de ay
tions about briwry aid corruptlo
wer1e rekies-' even heyond his iiua
fri. euOlmn of speech. "Ilre are
aent lauy miloInIs of goi ..pub
Sans," sitid Senator Tilimani. t.
ily trOUlC With them is thbey ar
wrong III here." Tle Senator tapp_
nis for-eheal. "I can say .u Jlally," h
continlucd, "th itsmiie of our l). imocrat
are wrong up here." Tht.e Senator til
ped h1 is dome again. Tlbc( , rowd I aug
ed, and wait-d for the apolication. "
wish to say of the 1: t000,000 voters wh
will march to tL polls in Novelmibe
IIi .000,ti00t are so narrow and iarticat
Ucicy wouId .see you in hiade.-, biefor
thbey woulId vote for' the par(t lthe
iwnteone they belong~ to. They ar'
lI :pubI~icans andi Demiocrats liec tu
they were horn si. 'The re are 7,0001 00i
- uchi Ite publicanis. TIhere ar~e 7,000,00
of such IDemolcrats5. Tlhere fore. I ar
makithng my appeals to the i ndependen,
voters, to those wi'.h sullicientL intellIi
gence to vote for what thcy believet
be for the best iinterests of the couLntr3
I want to make an appeal to the indei
Spenldent voter, because his vot-e, eve
if he votes for a dollacr a dlay, counit
for just as miuch a: the vote of .1ohn1 i:
-Ilhekefe! Ier; that is if John I). I tackt
fel ler's millions can't Ii nd some in(ert
al scoundrels among these dollar-a-da
"No a.reamn can rise hiigher than it
source," the SenDator' went Oil oracular
ly after' his a:-toiuishing left-hundIe
lick at the dollar-a day man, and be
gan to talk of corruption in Congress
"I wish you could see those fellow
who sell themselves in Congress as
have seen them. I have not seen th
-money actually plassed, but if I ha
been on a juiry and had had the evidene
before me as I saw it I would hav
found them guilty.
S:,nator Tillman111 q uoted from l'I
Ident Al~nley's letter of acceptanc
Ithe paage declarinig the d ut.ylmpo:
ed by honor toward the I'haiippIne:.
"ThIliat meansfl,"' said the senator, "th
I 'resident will rely u non Mark [Iannat
mroney to buy enmu&'i votes to enslav
you and your child ren forover.'' Th i
was the Sena or's starter oni the sul
ject of impe)rial ism. lie prioceedet:
"Duglas and Lincoln went up an
do un thliis State. D~ouglas co)ntendle
tl at w een we said government derive
itb jub', po0wers from the consen~it of th
governed it, was intemded to leave ou
the niggers. Lincoln said it was th
o ther way. 'The North arose en mass
)in 18ti0 and sided with Lincoln's view:
And now you's got I10,000,000 n i ger
,down South to projiek on, to exercis
-your ingenuity on. [Jut you are turi
lag them over to us to shoot. end kil
I low will you old s'Ilirs, wvho nmarchI
ed throughl South Co olina, and didn'
leave anything but the chllimneys stanu
ing, answer the Confederates you kille
w hen you meet them up yonder, an
they ask you, WVell .Johnny, how ar
things ? You',I have to say tune liepul
lican party nlow say's D~ouglas was righ
and Lincoln was wrong. You've gt
to go to God pretty soon1 anti answe
'for your votes.
"T 'ihe most damiiabie pice( of dil
hon 'ur," a'd the S nato'', in sp 'cking
r.IO Jlotl(st trc
orI go to D~r.
~ ~ great reptiltatl
Bloo0d Poison t~r sv o a
the hair o'r eyebrlaows '. decay of the Hfls I
bon'es. 111o ltltliy andlt foreve'r eradi tall
the1 sy'stein ini au pure, stronig anid helt'~~
(Ir enilargeid veIns, whhii
- liC0ia tI' 'r a i ti o aI yl ro ulorl
GI leet.* Strh'i lire and all i'rivate ande \llnerl
DiseassadWanss.o e ue
tile Philippine pOlicy, "Is that we have
bet'ayd them. We have disgraced our.
-ag the til republic. Now, we call
-tile l"illpilios rebelsit ~ aywtir
I carrying Christiany to say we are
God have mercy upon the Christian
who hopes to miss hall by such doctrino
as that. What IS liberty?"h Sontor
Tillmanl asked. "My ideaof liberty Is
to let me run my husindes to lt illy.
ielf, and to keep your mout.h rd hand
out of it. Why 18 every S'atu In the
South oipposed to this Iniquity ? he
asked. "lecauso you shot It Into us
and now we want to tell you if you
propose to vote it out of Us, we'll see
you In hell first.
Mr. Mcinle~y rfused to receive
the o r envoys eepIt as private Citte
zoe because ho was afraid of oinaditi
his friend John Bull," the B3nator am
sorted. " And yet they tell u- tht, the
Germans and the Dutch are going to
vote for this d-d cowardly .3aoublican
Senator Tiliman's homelike feeling
stayed right with him for over an hour.
.1 ust before he concluded he said to the
Illinois Democratic farmers : " I've
told you nothing but God's honest
truth. if any man comes along and
says it ain't so, tell him 1. say he lies,
and I can prove it."
Tile S nator concluded amid mild
EiXPOSlION D AY AT THE FAllt
Th1c state Is AskeI to Co-0Operx.Ate inl
tl Most Colpilete and Altractive
E'xlibit ',ver lokl Iln the South.
The -oultih Carolina luter-State and
West irdian Kixposition will be held
in the city of OnarIeston next year.
The calitail stock of the Expositioni
i Company has been fixed at, $250,000,
and the resources of the Company are
estimated at $1,000,000. It it proposed
that this i'xposition shall ba.,fully rep
rebentative of the material resources
aId manufacturing and commercial in
terests of South Carolina and the
Southern St.tes particularly, and of
tee whole United States and their new
possesbions in the 9Vest Indies and the
Uni1ippines. The most encouraging
pliedgCS of assistance and co-operation
- have been received from the authori
ties ait WIi asiangton and froin the Gov
ernor and Commissionera if Agricul
ture of neeriy every State it, the Union.
The k*4ldinx! commercial ora inizations
f of the principai cities iln the United
- Statet' have promised their active co
operation, and it is expected that the
l'Ixposit.on, in all its varied featuras,
will be the most complete and attrae
Live that has ever been held in the
L South. The subscriptions to the capi
t al stork of the I.'xpoitionx Company
made in te city of Charleston aggre
gate nearly $200,000, and as the IEx
)ositionl is to be of dircet ouneil to
every county of the StatO, it is hoped
that there will he a libel a1 subscrip
L ion Made by the nanufacuarers and
merelhants and bus'ness men of the
w io:e State.
S Arangembents have been made for
i an " 1 xpiositioan DAY "' at the aannual
It ar of the South Carolinta State Agri
-i ultuiral Rad iiehian icail S.c iety to bei
j hlId in the City of Coluhiaiil durinu
Lhmoat tao of ( )Otober, and tie oppor- E
., Lxn ity will It thati time be presented a
to th people of the State to subscribe
to the [tll extent of theIr ability and ,
iispositLiOn to the capital stock of tane I
Spoition CJomanxTy. The shares of
I lCy position Comxipany have been plaeod
at $.0) each, payable iln in:talnents
rt upon ab cal Iof the Boaad of Ihrectors,
1 and, as every inidustry in the State ant
LI the peop:e of every countII 1y are inter-est,
ar ed in the attraction of capiiaal to South
Li Carolia for' investment anid of intelli
(a gent and progressive p~eople in search
0 of homes, it, is thought that, there wilt
0 be a liberal subs.:ription mazde, dutring
El th. St at l''a ar. tn the stock (af ,i. e l~x.
t, position Comipany. Millioans of dollars
- are going out, West, everay year' for in
1) v atmenat. and hundreds of thousands
i- 1)ofJopl itn search of homes are arriv-t
ing in this c'ountr'y every year. Th'ere.
n i:- no ra'; on why tmuch of this capital
s anid maay of these settlers cannot, te
- brougaxi, to Soutn Carol ina and the
Soutla a Ihe p~eopl'e who are interested
-in the iunprtovement of ouar oppor'tuni-.
y' ties wix make thie most, of the advant
ags hi,"h will he. ahforded by t~e 1l.5.
a pottion at, Charleston tfor t,e full de.
- veloin~t1 of their' resoures.
:1 )uring, thbe State "i~ir at Columbi~a
San impj ertant iconferencet will be holu
.by tihe aepressentatiaves of the IExposi.
L ion C am paIny witn the cotton mill men
I of the Staite, maearly all of whom have
e~ signifiaed their wise and disp) sition to
I aid-In making the textile featurts of c
C tehe ICi ,ositioni comnplete in every do
LI tail. Sat~ Carolina, which is today
the largest, cotton manufacturing State
-In the South, and thu sou'nnd lar'ges. a
SmaniauLkutrinag S tate tn the Un ion,
ough lx t prest nt a study ini progress at
,the l'sp;ositiona w hich will impress the
y isite:s to the I'x pxositionx and resualt In
s the e.% ansiont of outr co nercial r'ela
LI tions wiath the counta'i a of South Am
5 crica and the West, l adies,
l)uxo.; the month of October', the
:Noth Carohana Stata lPair ill be held
I at I~teigh in that Staite, and the Geor
.1 gla Sz,.te 'i ar will be hold in Attanta.
I A rrangemnent aI- be:1int g tmaal fit' the
afull presentati -a. of tihe 1. J2rposes of the
t great enterprise at CJharleston to the
LI cottoan mil I mcen of Noxrth Carolina,
a which rantks econd to this State In
. cot0tn miiI decvclopmnt, amnd imnprove,
anont, and of G ;eorg ha, wvh ich is a gooa
LI thiard in the raae foar manufactur-ing
-suapreacLy. Ana opp'ortuitly will lbe
,pr'esentecd thae manuaceturer-s of these
t wo States to join the te xtile x -
t bibit at Chadacown ; anad with thbe.
-tharec-with the Caarolinas anid Georg ia
I working together up)on a definite ana
well-consIdered plan, the great Ts xtile
LI I3uilding at, Chxarleston will .cointaia
the rilchext, treasury of mtanufact~urtci 'I
t cotln goods that, has ever' been proe'
r Gen. N. W. Moise, of Sumator, has
been appxointed the State Comanission
Caer for South Caraollna of the IExpositiona
I C )any-sn, tan-] will miake ta tihorough
atmenit and a speedy cure write
J. Newton Ha~thaway wh'1ose
on is a sulffic'ienlt guarantee of
suts onulaio y",';;;; Iee.
'; Kidney and Urinary na, aT;~
,j emilt, To I-'requienta, IBloorly or taaciy lt-rine,
,, all f'xalloal cht-:ses iof thea lxvart, I,mtngs..
,f iera :andu Stoa 11a ls txi Cattarmah, Rupature.
'ar linti~axaxisrn, t/iles, I ituala aaad tall JIhood
,t arii Skian )jisxa,,e zandaltl I-Iamle I lsaxse's
t I treatd acEordlian to thae latest axai bta
x. aneitahods kntow t inexdical 'scaenai.
Home Treatment E~a
'f-ensful. W rli for fret'hooxk jus.('publishedu ')d F
S, tpnain blanak af youa annot Vtall.
il J NEWTONHAT HAWAY, M. D.
y D. axthawiay & Od.
2%NthBroad Streeot. A tlanta, Ga.
MKNTaION aiml ai 'APRai wtIKN'wiirrto
so bad for a cough
so good for a
cough as Aycr's
The 25 cent size is just tight
for an ordinary, everyday cold,
The 50 cent size is better for the
cough of bronchitis, croup, grip,
and. hoarseness. The dollar size
is the best for chronic coughs.
as in consumption, chronic bron
chitis, asthma, etc.
afnvass of this State in the interest of
he enterprise. Ile will be prepared
o receive subscriptions to the capital
tock of the Company, and to answer.
uestions as to the scope of the My,,
>osition and its incalculable bene.ts,
o the people of South Carolina. The
irogress of this State during the past
wo decadeh has been without a paralle4
n the history of any country, and the
'ixposition at Charleston will serve to.
impha4ize this marvellous growth,
and to Impress upon capitalists and,
mm11e seckers the chances for future.
levelopment in a State w hose undeve
oped wealth has, with all our growth
nd prosperity, scarcely yet been,
-Orange growers in Flor'ida now
over their trees with tents soQarranged,
5 to ad mit the sunlight on one~ side and
eepJ out frosty winds on the other. In
achi tent is an oil lamp, which is light,~
d on cold nights to keep the trees
varm. The growers are warned of the
.poroach of un favorable weather in a,
inique way. As tihe mails iLraven tww..
y in somne of the thinly populatedi di.
ricts, the Government requires thbe
ngineers of express traiue to bleva
heir whistles six timew~ in every thre
niles when a "cold wave." is known~ t
- In thirty-seven Status of this union,
married woman has no right to her
wn child ren i in sixteen no right to her
wo earnings; in eight no right to. own,
lroperty after marriage: in seven there
s. no law compelling a man to support,
us wife; in all except, four women* 4
[Iscriminated against In the mMtar oh
mpl.oy ment and co -ap.-rQaten is onl.
our States can she. ex..-rein the tight
' franchise. And yet we talk nabo,. -.
.-Mexico is om, of th~ e ost bemintifuli
itles in the worn.l its broad, opog
'lazta, adorened by line trees and nl
ow-'rs, is the fashionable resort.ia the
vesmnogs, when the milItary iga playsg
nd the elite inuulge in a promenade0
round the plaza. Thi thatning gardena
nl the lake are world renownd.
-l'eopde of St. L[luis have ref-son to
hink the millenum is in hailing die
ance. A citizen of lhat, town has
oluntarily added $146i,000 of proport~
e hs tax returns, whizh wans overlookr.
.d by the assossors.
Tihe Liand o.' tlo Siry
louni ainus ih \s chm t to the bill head' 1 on
,akes whore thne stars see themselves in
iil vall1evs of beauty aind love,
\'here eartfn seems so close to lihe lieaven,~
'on can hear thne faiunt echoes c. serapihim- -
A nd( t he musical beat,
)f ltne hearts of the angeis-the. songs
in their vnadencees sweet!
a ik world of mountains that dri ft in to
'he rip pie of rils and tihe dasing og
lhat sing to thle sea ! A ndl thne beams and
'hat Inure you to (saidens of bneautiful
If beaut~if~U lirams that hnave lifted your
To thne thmnader's high roill
Vhnero you slip from life's care, tgnditjj
enrse andC control,
Withn tine joy in your soul. r
ld1 (rowinedl with old1 glory these mnoists
taints; lie iplantedi
lie sk v-reachning hilis in these valleys eni
hosue streams in tihe hollows by flhystety
Ihaui n tedI
hlese oaks that still wave their green ban
nnd dlare line storm's uinier! . . . and
pnaeans of praise.
Mounntains-riv'ers, still raise
o line Heaven above them, wihle rose
Wienthne theo beauntiful (lays!
lan( if all beautly.--lovedi hapdi of the
Vihere I,ovei breallhes " (-oodi mnorning,'"
and~ nievenr " goodbny F
'here song% on each wild( windl in melody
itd timesnu thne bright steps of thne gods of
herose of tine morninog Is white on tiny
Thnou art crown-uedi - Ihou art blest
romi' line seas ton tine east anid tine seas to
With the rose-wreathn of rest!
liat tery I'ark, Asihevile, N. r,