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The people's journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1891-1903, April 10, 1902, Image 4

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ROAD 1MPROVM1!IEN
Ecorlornical Met1ods 'I'l
of E'X)
The following article was pub.
lished In a recent number of the
Engincering News, and is from
the pen of Mr. Chas. 11. Scott,
of Elkins, W. Va. It appears In
our columns by special permis
8on, and the accompanying cuts
arc used as illustrations of the
description given of the road,
which will be found helpful to a
b e t t e r understanding of the
writer's meaning. Readers who are inter
ble to study the article, as it is adapted to
is not theoretical.
While enjoying a vacation a few years
ago, the writer was for a short time em
ployed as Supervisor of Public loads
for Warren Co., N. C. A road law
specially enacted for the county had
abolished entirely the old plan of ''call.
ing out the hands " to do free work on
the roads, substituting therefor a tax on
poll and property. This tax wats vey
small, netting not t'.lite -$ 1,000 per an
nun during the two years of my service.
There were about :-'6 miles of roads to
be cared for in a territory of about 500
sq. miles Of this mileage a consider.
able percentage, of eourse, wias not much
used. Of the niain roids, soime parts,
lying on sandy or gravelly surface, were
never very bad. A large part of these
roads, however, lay on a surface which
was either wholly colmposed of clay, red
or yellow, or of clay covered with a thin
layer of light sandy limm which when
not drained was easiiy cut through or
washed oil, exposing the clay.
These parts of tlh- roads in winter and
in wet weather generally became uln
speakably bad the clay clittilig upl) to a
depth of from I to 2 feet, nlid some
stretches of road becoming wholly im,
passable.
The very limited money available for
road work led to at careful study of the
conditions of tile case, wvith the follow.
in g resilts :
it was observed that many parts of the.
roads which wvere always good l had a
surface covering of sand or gravel, often
very thin, covering clays, red or yellow,
beneath. Careful examinatioln of the
thickness an1d Itture of this covering
and its relation to the underlying clay
disclosed several interesting an(d impor
tant facts.
It was found that the covering of
sand, gravel or sandy lomlli was often
very thin, on sections of road that were
hardly ever cut up or inl had( order. In
011 cases, in which there was (o
notiecthble deterioration of tile roadway
in ses.ions that were quite unfavorable
tile sandy covering wats not over. an inch
thick over a yellow and rather porous
clay. It was also noted that an ordinary
sandy loam, or "1 soil," ats it was coml
ionly called, ofteln iiade as good at
covering as any other -the varying line
ness of its materials causing a closer
Packing. This appeared to make it
superior to a titne sand of uniform grain,
which was more apt to cut up when (Iry.
Many panrs of the roadwiiy h-td alter
nate sections (If d1enud1(ed clay and of
sandl or gravel surface, while othlers iln
which the clay was muore generally ex
p~osedl, had sand, or gravel, orI sandly soil,
nearby. 1I, was dleterminled to try the
plan (If shaping up the clayey parts o~f
the rolads intoI a gooId surface, eithber by
hand or muachine, and theni coIvering the
roaidway witht the best, materials pr
curable, by tihe use of wheel scrapers.
This plan proved signally successful.
Parts of the road way thuns rep~airedl,
which had been for years nlotoriouisly
bad, and1( almo1st impassable during
Winter and( wet seasonsi1, haIve becen so0
entirely changed ini character that a teami~
may1) be dlriv'en over thenm at a troIt any
day inl the year. The material, when
properly selected and1( appl iedl, has comn
pacted intto a 1lirm, hard surface, whIich
shledsl water freely and1( raplidly, is dry
sooni after rai nfalls, an d is scarcely ever
cut to anly applreciable dlepth, ando ofteni
hardly marked by the passage of vehicles
even whlen heavily Iloadedl.
Tfhe writer has recently visited and in
spected some points lit whIiich tllhis work
wvas dlone four or live years ago, and1(
found them still in admirable order,
while lie is assured by those in a posi
tion1 to know~ that (only a very trilling
a~imut oIf money has11 been ex penided ont
them ill the interval oIf time menltionedl
The results have been surp)risinlg even 1,o
the writer, although he hoped muhl for
the wolrk . Of the estimate placed onl it
by citizens generally, the accompa jnying
letters from an ex county colmmissioner
who has1 al1ways talkenl a deep interest
in suchl matters, and1( fromn a re
putable physician, who has frequnent oc~
casioni to pass8 to and( fro over the work,
will testify:'
W.a muu:N'moN, N. C., Nov. 27, 1901.
I am1 thoroulghly conlvine al'.'llfter live
or six years oblservation (If the red hlills
graveledl under you11r directloll while
Buperintendent (It liads oIf Warreni
county that it is by far the best and
cheapest method that can he adopted
Ilills on which you had1( gravel placedl
live or six years ago are now~ as goiod as5
or better than when the woIrk was ti rst
done, and1( in many caises lire n~ow~ tile
best part of thle roadl.
'1% A\l(IRiN'oN N. C . Nov, 15, 19(00
Your roadl work still remainis iln almlost
as good condition as when first dIoneI anld
in the mleanltjime has1 requtired~ very little
repair. Only omi.e has1 it been necessary
to fill in a fewv ruts and( blreaks or wash
Outs 0on the side oIf the roIadbed. I have
Often blessed you wvhen dirivinig at a
brisk gait instead oIf tugging thlrough
the mud, a toot dleep. at a1 snail's pace
'rho samel system, 1 am11 glad to say, has
been used at sevierl ploints iln the county,
very much to the benetilt oIf the roads
andl comfoIrt of thae traveling plubtlic. Tho
cost is a1 mere trifle comaparedl with tile
benefits derived, 1and( when thle gravel is
obtainable it is the cheal'est and1( best
road for the expenlditure.
110Al)wAv enIoss sI. *'"N>: Am> I oI m'~II 1
In ilg. 1, thle lower line shlows thle
shapo which was given to the original
clay roadbed. T1hie rise in the center is
made as light as will secure drainage, so
thlat the greater rise niecessarily givell to
thle covering will not cause it to wash1
off in hleavy rains.
The covering Is put on to a deplthI of
from 3 to 5 ins., when paucked ; (It fairly
uniform thickness, for a widlth of aiboli
8 ft., thence taperinig out to nlothing in
2 or 3 ft. more :thlough somnetinmes under
favorable circuimstances, and( 0on more
used roads a little wider. Fig 2 shlows
another section where thle old road ms
wider. The dimensions of thle improlved
part are the same as In Fig I thle unim.
proved part being shaped up amnd left for
passing. In Fig. 1, the road is in a lnar
row cut, such as is often found on our
older roads; the cuts being gradually
made by washing, and often being 10,
15, and even 20 ft. deep. Passing in
those narrow places is often dilnicul~t andl
sometimes Impossible, one team having
to turn out at a wider point and wait for
the other. The cay in-es paes
Faaniliar MethotIS Used )y Of.
lest ficils F stVi(i Gitilty 111 11-.
vana.
The verdict in the postal fraud cases,
as given out, liade C. F. W. N(ley
%V. 11. IReeves anid Estes G. ltathbonie
guilty of the minti charge of eonlbezzle
ment of over $100,000, and that Neeley
- and Reeves originated the idea of
burninlg tho staups, to which Itath..
bone consented, profited thereby,
though to what extent could not be
specilled. Neeley and Reeves, accord
.Ing to the verdict, appropriated $2,
817.22 by a series of entties, charging
to the Postal fund certain amounts for
roita- lighterage, wharfage and other matters
g and for which there were no warrants or
vouchers. lRathbone also was found
guilty of participation i) thiK. These
drain- entries were made in what is known a
r and the miscellaneous account.
every IRathbone, it was alleged, charged
ith of the departnent of posts with private
ar on 3XIpensCs, such as washing, repairs to
3 and his coach, express charges, three boxes
ed to, of liquor, Japanese lanterns, gas and
,erted certain household accounts, atuount
gsldo. ing to $1-57.25. Ile was found guilty
cet on this charge, but wis acqluittedIon
that of paying for furniture for his
lently house. the bill of a New York store
for furniture and other articles, on the
n red ground that a nuinber of army ollicers
liand, in Cuba had obtained similar articles
large. at the expense of the governiment, and
clay that these expenditures had been
%ila it
y ani. passed subsequently by the Senate.
soft., Neeley andit Reeves were found guilty
3finlto of having issued diplicate checks for
f road the salaries of postollice employees,
ace in and fori payment to the lIuiiz company
lpg and the gas company, tle aliount iln
iraiu volved be-ig $1,027.618. They were
ch also held responsible fo' . 1,8518-:32 for i
6y be- stanmps sol.
>r Bill- Neeley alone was held to be guilty i
ly to of fraud inl tle i.ssu11111in four dupli
on a cate warrants for $8,(57.1 for salaries
is ap of clerks in the Ilavana postollice and
place for the pirclhse of mules. Ile was 1
C fouud guilyalso of having drawn a I
dutiph~eae heck for $1,000, nonlinally
good issued for tile trausfer of funds froni
sand hI le postal account in the baik to the I
oarse account of the tri asurer, an4 of hiavinie
t. A given (C. M. Itich, hlis forinier as~sistatt
,ravel -5,000 worth of StaumIps to sell, lie
ut - took his salary of 1 251 before going to
water (ihe United States the last time. It
S aleged also that le received coin- I
cilly imissions inl connection with tle Neeley i
!(d to pIrinting comupany and tle Keyless
cavy, lock coipany, proliting by thlis means
form to an -amount, greater )than $:.',292.
At UP For this, however, Neceley was not in
early dieted by the fiscal, as. 1he was extralit.
ads 1 d Oil the cha'rge of enlezzlement. IL
a was also charged that lie asked lIeoves
ply in to arrange the hooks, giving him 5 I,
pene 600 to (i so. I Ic was actiuitedi of this
os out for the reason given abve. It, was
charged that Neeley also ippropriated
S1(00 in muoncie - rev Ltinmg from thie sales
even of stain pa by M oya anid M leceara, statnyp
i, has clerks at. IIavana.
gang liathblonte was foundl guilty of hav
it, has ingv paidl the expenlses of his ifie and
vl yd fatniily on a trip to Soilnilgo and1( Oil a
gravel seconid voy age to (lie Ii nItal SIltes,
mmon~ hei being iinil e to sepa;rate his iv ii~ate
d, al. and~ oflicial ex penses, and al1so issuing
work two walirants for S500 each.
d (lie I eeves apprloprliated 8-i 7: , whIiichli
t was svas rettirnedl to hu1i' bi !thlbonec.
sed ini The hitter w as ace puitted on the1 charge
ligh of hav inlg unlIa wfully taiken a da ily all
IowanceL~ of M5 after thle Il'ostinaster
probay COseneal ha~d <tisalIlo vd hlliis cla inm.
x penri lath bonme, lieeoves andit Neeley wvere
luice d. founud jolintly gu il ty, un mder thie li(.stal:
ern, a code I 1 oihle eniubezzldei nent. of S I12,t 7 ,
tused. a fine ini whIiich am 'tuna, was div ided(
ondtedl betweeni thiem. Neeley was guilty
al al alone of embhezz/lemaent of1 .21,857;
l,, ve of 8E;7:t, anid liathblonec oif
I n -N IOn111, while N 00ley andii I ceves join t
Iti siumnnniig up) tihe 'ourit saidt the
idwiay facts brought out showed that. var-ious
r with schemes huid beeni used by lleev'es,
-or by Neelfey and1( lat hbone to apphropriaite
ens on the' posta~Ilins, but t hat these should
bt(lt eIa tiaken to conist itute only omite in (i
Sside tionu of (lie huw, each itein not,being'
palck regairdled separately.
rig, as5 laathbonie's attornleys haviie appiflied(
in one0 to (he courlt for a wit -i of habeas cor
a ra- puis.
Shiopper " I liut a ren' t thlese hose0
from rat her lo'ud ?"
roved Cler-k---"Ys, sir. T1hiey are in
r-oved~ tmtuled onily for1 perOia whos fee a
.iint thle habit of going to sleep."'
ing a
d anid ~
ile,'"n ON FIRLE
Att explodinig lainip the clothing in
based a laze;- a paragraphii ni thie l~ap-r tl-l-.
11ts of ig o~f hiorrible su l'inag fra iin burins.
ccen. Tragedy ini this foriii inoves aS . uan1 to
oorest tea rs. IBut for
chi the wouant who are
lar to) daily being coil
ad u- auiiied by the
I that stuoulering fire
to all of disease- there- is
ought littlec sytii athyv.
t part In flaittiination1,
tithorn w i (Ih i t s ficree
Caro- huiriiing; uleera- ,
ansas, t ion, oat ing intio (
the t issue s ;li the
Litupor.- nrv-ous sy ste ii al-j
rapers iliost shiatter ed by
trpose sutTerinig , Itese
derate are only Par't of p
teams the daily agoniies(/
se, or borne biy inanliy a
coun. wtnanli.
two, Dr. Pierte's Fa
thers)F vorite P'resciptionl
puts out the fire 151
addl- of ililattitiait on,
used0( heals lilterationi,
ns are and cures feniiade
m often weakness. It traii
'nestly quili/es the nierves, restores the ai~ptite,
3ed to and gives refreshing sleep. "1-avorite
d fair P'rescripitiont " is the iiiost reliable put-upl
urther inedic-ine oll'ered as a cure for dlI seases
id In a pecuiliar to woiinen. // a/ways h/p/s.
1/ a/nrots/ awayst rures
"whitt 1 first coinnetd usling Dr. Pierce's
iieiciines." we ites AMts. Geor.e A. 5tronig. of I
a~ny of Gan st-vcort, iaratoga co.. N. '.. "i waes sna'ehr
ing ,ut fentaiele weaknmesng disae - trel-e di~ ain
r bids weiatiedowni pains, wveak attd ic ced feelinug cli<
ad the tIte. 1 driggedi aroundi ii that wayV i t wo
Svar, ndiibegan akI ing yontm inie-iine. a fter
actors inkitty h fit bo tl t-egan ti el I btie. I look
11fl fatir ho le s of iii. Pu-e .es'voi ite- Pre-se-tip
'ilot,, I wo of ' olea ediacail niscov-erv ' ote
I 1w - vial of the- 'leesiant Peiets.' also iiaoed oneit
only"lbottle.-of 1Dr. 5age's ciaa rih Reeiiediv. Now I
Y ee lk ut-ew lersoti. I coan' toiiaik von ii
Enug- etingi f e si ent. wiid adice t a md It-e good y-oner
mr- nw-din ce hais donte- ,ue
D lr. l'iere-'-s Coiiititot Setire lit-dical
igilAdlvise-r, >apesr boiiundl, is sent f:ire' onii
Iilt it ecen- 1) of 2i onie-cet stainups to pay'
lone expenise of ma iiig oni/. Addre-ss Dr. ' b
R. V. Pierce, Bufflo o, N. y.
loca
tho
:.4 late
Corn
rep
- removcs from the soil the
AA ( large quantities of the
taim
Potash. (fl
The fertilizer ap- e(d
plied, must furnish
enouligh Po tash, I 1t don
land will lose its prc,- gIlis
ducing power. ao0]
Rend ca-irefully our books T
n ov enIe hm ca
F;lMAN KAI WORKS, the
N i t St., New York. witl
A.,-- the
priv
IN A I1UMOIt(US VIIN. of t]
upl
uo
Teacher: " How many ounces in a of g
pounild ?" T
Tommy: "It depnis oin the grocer.'' stati
Nov
Cousin May-I thought you were lion
engaged to Miss Yellowleaf. to t
Jack-Not much il I couldn't love a the
woman with a past like hers. whil
Cousin May----Whv, what do you to n1
know about her pa? C
Jack -Nothing, except that it began c
,OO soon toMit me. CI
cont
in'r
It's no use to talk, Colonel," said I *or
le village postt'ster, "4 your argu- face
eit won't hold water."' put
" Water, sah1" exclaimed the Colo- Pot.
el, mdignantly. ' Who said anytlnng him
ibout holdingI water, Si?"
Little Bcrtic had been taught, not to
18k for anything at meals. One day
ioor Bertie had been forgotten, when
1o pathetically inquired:
"1 Do little boys go to heaven when
hey are starved to death?'-TiL-Bits.
Gladys: "'Edith says you are only ti
nakintg love to me out of revenge be- d
Haushe811C refuised you. A
Rlupert: 4 'ray tell her for me that f
'evenge is so sweet I've forgotten the
lljury.
Tarkley: "1 I see a Vestern genius
ls discovered a new process for ex
,aeting gold from the mines."
Maiklcy: "Hluh! I wish sonme one
vould discover a process for exLracting
iome gold or even silver from mining
fhares."'
A school inspector was talkitig to a
Alass about the duty of showing their
best, (ilalities at, home. Alter giving a
several instances of the kindnhess given ,
to an~d received fromi his own childiren '
it, hiomie, he 81a1(:
"Nowv, chiirenu, tell me where I
dhoul be most51 miissedl if I diedl?"'
A little boy rauisedl hiis hand and1( said:
l Iieaveni, sir.''
"I canI't tuieirst,nd about this wire- Q
ess telegraphy,"' said Mrs. Wunder'. ~
'A Why, it's jla as01 1 dayl," said Mr.
W under. "' T1hey just send t~he mes
sages t hroughi the air instead of over ~
wies.'' " I know that,'' said she,
hbut how do they fastenm the air to the sem
poles?"'
Tlr
Aunt Ilannailh Ohi, I dJon't think
Amiandali w~ouhll (d0 sueh a mean thmng
.1s that. I have ahv ays hecarri peopIe
say that Amnia wau genlerous to a
fault.
Uincle G eorg.e -When the fault1 hap
pens to be0 hers, she is; niot otherwise,
not otherwise. 5~ *1
"' Were you surpirised when I pro
pos5ed?"' he askedI.
" Well,'" she replied thoughtfully,
" I wats not so sulrprisedI that you pro
posed wheni you did as I was that, you 700~
liid not pr'opose on seome pre'vious~ oc
"' I see there has1 been ai dropi ill r'ub- 11 y
ber ?'' saidl the youth from Chicago.
"No (doubt) its resilient <qualities will
it once enaible it, to b~ounId upward
igaini,"' was the comment of the Boes
ton girl.
'' What dlid he say when you promis
3d1 to be0 a sister to him?'' 12 1(
"' Ie looked at me1 earneatly for a
mlomen~t or two, andt then said that it
vould lbe much more consistent if I
voubll make it ani aunt.''
A sentinmental editor out, In Kansas
'k:' Are there any sweeter words
ni the English language than t~here,
I love you T "' Perhaps not,; but the 2 35
words, '"1 (iee' thait (dollar1 1 her..
rowed,'" are not lacking inl eloquent 4 30
Mrs. Ilbomer,. ine', openi that, winl
low atI let. a little fresh air into the "
louse.I
dlane -.-lt isn't fresh air at, all, imem;
l's thle same air that1's been about, here
ill the miorinlg.
Wigg -TIhat miesseniger boy is the
dlowest thiing alive. I wonder what I a
Nill become of him when lie grows up?
Wagg--Maybe lie wvill dlevelop into0
I great chess player.
Sir Boyle lioehe was said to lbe (lhe
ather of "' bulls.'' ItI was he wvho as- 6 20O p
cirted that "' the be.st waiy I] to lyt I
Iailger iS to iet it li mp11.' At.
liot heri tiiine, hi col vev ig a wathn j in- U
Pitat ion to a friend, hte rema13rked: I , m r
lope, my lordl, if ever you come within ,etc.
mile of myi~ house, thait you'll stay 39 Lx
here all mi ght." 'dai ly,
lFro
Th'le travelrlr re'gistered htis name in "t
lie dingy an1(1d chhpidated hto..*k per- <fly
aniug to the only hotel att the minlina' p m.I
!ap: ldFro
" d Gilets, hafhin, N.'x
"' Seemis to mie I've seein that, name F lroi
>e'fore,"' rem'itrked Ithle hantd lord. dlay.3'
"' l'irobaly," 'repl Iied the travellher, i\'er
v'ith coinsioius pmride. "'I served three I i(kO(E
luccessiv'e terms in Conigress.'' redut'
"h h, well,'' rejoined the landlordFo
al'eranmtly3, ''1 won't lay it, up agin you1, t 111
11d you'll git along all right with thme tont. 3
(*ys, I gue~ss. You don't neced to Il Iar
lent ion it. yon kenow' I (Ilbi \
Tr IN THE. SOU
at Iave Stood the
I Fig ...... i
2'.<--- . f. ........
Fig.2.
~10
Ei g.3,
>sted in road-naking will find it p:
practical, ovory-day road workin
even where tile hills are stoop and
ago good, from its affinity for watt
its ability to hold it like a cup, in
accidental abrasion or deprossior
comes gradually cut up to a doi
from 1 to 2 ft. The wear and tq
teams and vehicles becomes wore
worso until " turnouts" are resort
.he roadway being temporarily dih
tuto the fields or woods alon
Priction and contention with adj
landowners result. Sometimes a
roadway is bought, and the old
linally abandoned. This is freqi
,he best way out of tile difliculty.
Merely shaping up a roadway I
>r yellow clay, by machinery or 1
10s little good, and the money is
ly throWn away. The afflinity of
ror water and its ability to rot
in every depression, easily made b
na's and wheels when the clay is
auses it s0011 to cut up to ind4
Jepths. One of the worst pieces o
.he writer has ever seen was a p1
which the section was as shown it
3. It was in a clay varying from r
yellow and very soft. A natural
3 or 4 ft. deep, had been formed o
side by washing, and the roadw
tween was barely wide enough f(
gle vehicles, and sloped natural
either side when dry. It was
hill, too. Yet, notwithstanding ti:
parently excellent drainage, this
cut up inl wet weather so as to bo
nearly or quite impassable, and M
were strewn along its bides.
A sandy loam. will often llake a
covering when the proportion of
is heavy. A mixture of line and <
sand with a litt.c gravel is excellei
small amount of clay with the I
lnd sand not only does no harm, 1
u'ompacting and coenletilig tile otlc
Lerials makes a surface that sheds
perfectly, and resists abrasion or d
1ion1. The USC of gravel, espe
toarse gravel, is strongly object
further north, where frosts are 1
because of its holding water in tle
of ice an1(d s1ow. and becoming cl
ill tile thaws of late winter and
spring. I have especially noted t1
jections of the Superviaors of Ito
Ontario, Canada, to gravel, on th
Colult. This objection does not ap
the South, where frost does not
trate So deep, and the ground dril
more rapidly.
Thie actual cost of the wvork,
when (1011 under some drawback;
been1 renmarkably smnail. Withl a
(of on1ly two or thlree scrapers
ranged from I 2 to 15 ce. per line
of roaid, withl al hul of aboult 'i
over a rather roughI road., from a
jit off the roadl. Onuly tile co
teams ouf tile conutry were use~
thlourth thley were0 lighlt for such
anid ineIx perieniced men01 handle
scrape'rs. Thle gravel at thle pi
llowed and1( no1 snautch team wash ui
loading, mlakings tile loads a little
onl tile average.
\ithl a large!r gang (of scraper
from fouir to six, tile latter beingi
bly tile best nlumber, andi withl c
enceed hands(1, the cost could be ret
With the larger gang (of scrap
snatchl teamil couild be profitably
and( tile loads intcreased. Thell1
scraners passing over the materi
readty nut ouit roil and pack it sui
ly. One man is kept oIn ''tile d
orI poinlt Of lulaading, tou sprear
level oil' tile material, w itih a col
houe.
Tile claycy surface of tile rol
may be prevIously prepar'ed eithe
a road machine -very preferably
hland. Withl a lhght ganug of scrap
a long haul, it has1 been1 found th
fairly wvell, scraping the clay fron
to cenlter and1( lettinlg tile scrapers
it by passin~g over it before turn'ii
they were unloadled. This was
of tile lighter mlicaccous clays, inl
thler diamp condlitiont. In the tc
clays, andu in dlry weather, mlore
woumld bue reqjuiredl.
Tile cost, as shlownl, ranges
$220.00 to $265I 00 perT mile of impl
part (If road, andl as thlese imi
parts are often dietachied, and alta
withl othlers not needing imp~rove
except (ditching, thle cost (If mal
unliforlly goodi road (If a very hu
Iften~ almo1(st imipaissable once, is ti
du~cedl to $125 00 to $I50.00 por nI
maniy inlstanlces.
This is 1no fancy sketchl, but is
(11 woIrk actually done11, tile rest
which are there to stay and to be a
'This ought to encourage tile p'
and feeblest communities, ini wi
physical conditions are at all simi
tursii, to unidertake thle wourk of ro
provenlent. It is nlot conltendet
theO plan presentedl is adlapted
parts (If theO counitry ;but It Is ti
thlat it is wvell adlapted to a groa
of tile Bouth, 11mcldin~g the sol
and1( casternl parts oIf Virginia, thet
linlas, Georgia, Tenlnessee, A rl
and tile 8tates furthler Sou1th.
The wheel scraper plays an
tant part Ill tile work. No. 2 se
are geneorally best for thle p1
These can be boughlt for a mo
amount, and woIrkedl cliher by
boughlt and~ kept for tile p~urpc
"lhiredh In" from tile surroundling
try ; or by a Icomfbintiionl of til<
80ome being regularly kept and
hliredl.
A road mlachline Is a desirabb
tion1 to tile plant, andi should hi
whiere practIcable ; but whlere men0
too small for It, good~ work call bi
(d011 without t. Tile writer ear
hopes0 that othlers may be indu.
give tile pilan presentedl a full an
trial ; and will be glad to givef
mllformation to thlose linterOstedl, ai
position to put it to practical use.
TheO Mianawatu II ail way Comnp
New Zealiand, recently asked fc
for constructing a steel viaduct
American anid English conILr
camle ml comlpetition ill tile bi<
The Americ'jan~ offer was alccepted
ever', for' tile pr'ice asked wat
about one-hlalf that asked by the
118sh concern. TVhis has given I
Canl enterprise a permlanent foot
New Zcaland, [and( that gover1
wiii hereafter have its bridge worn
by our cnfranons
3
3
f
C AS
The Kind You Have Alvays Boi
in use for over 30 years, hai
and has
r sonal sui
AllowVn(
All Counterfeits, Imitations an
iExperimients that trifle with a
Infants and Children-Experic
What is CA
Castoria Is a harmless substil
gorie, Drops and Soothing Sy
coitalus neither Opitun, Mori
substauce. Its age is its guan
B and allays Feverishness. It c
Colic. It relieves Teething Tr
ald Flatulency. It assimilate
Stomnach aid Bowels, giviig
y The Children's Panacea-The
( CENUINE CAST
' Bears the Si
3l
y
it
The Kind You Hav
In Use For Ov
THE CENTAUR COMPANV, TT MURR
Beling m
Every
- Carriage, Sres
At an Absolut
. Uniill oiur s ockis. redneed. ie' 1I)on 't taike our
self anid liee
H arness of all kinds at cost4. We
.[one% and var uius other make's of Hluggie,
Stiudebak~tlor andi Webe'r; aL.n ebenpe jr gradeI theu
Now is the bie-t se*4sonl for selling vehiclecs of
n' *Vet, liemembiier, we' paa no! bouse rent, or el
- o onr ownu w:ok. WVe will sell anyvtinug we
dI awl kiwil treatmen-t to all. Whe in Grem(i
a gladt to see I le pleI whiether they wish to .
CH A RL
L Coine r (Court , River andl Jack-on Streets.
WHITE
Wo anidle allI
8
MABE N
r nw oth rd1ndeolyn
prMA. RBLEONFKi'N ANDPN
.Ioiurs for Irae
IVY M. MAULDIN,
Attornoy at Law.
Pickens. S. 0,
Practico ini all thecCourts. I~
Oflice over Earlo's D)rug Stor
- - - 10:'
II. J. JEAYN~4wORTHI, C. 10. [RONsON~1:
Greenivillo. S. C. 11:(
Ilayneswor t,Pariuker' & Rbinson, i~
ASf ornecys-at-Law,
P~~icen C. H., - - Sothd Carolina
Practica in all Courts'. Atend toa '1:1
iuiness promaptly. '4:1
LiJ'"Monov to loan*.:
4:2
ANDERSON BABB,
Conitractor and Builer NA
N.
PIekens, 5. C' No.
-- N
WM. P. CALIIOUN. No.
Attornoy at Law, No.
113 Wecst Court St. GRE~ENVILLJE, H. U 24
Practice In All the courtsq, Stato and
daL.P
lie Confederato Memorial Associa
has selected Richmond as tl
Lion for the Confederate battli
-y or m8Isu. One hundre4
isand dollars was donated by th,
Charles Broadway Rouse towar
rounding of a battle abbey i) thi
lh, provided a like sum could bi
3d by popular subscription. In thi
>rt submitted by the treastirer o
accosiation it is shown that all o:
allitional aiount had been ob
ed and pledged.
lie Irish language is spoken in tb
1amas amtilong the mixed deseen
LB of the Hliljcrnian patriots banish
wng ago by Cromwell to the Wes
les. One cani occasionally hen
ro sailors inl the East End of Jon
, who cannot speak a word of En
1, talking Irish to the old Iis
c women who gather around th
cB.
he Japanese ncycr sBleep with th
I to the north. This is becaus
(lead in Japan are always burie
the licad in that piositioi. 11
sleeping rooms of many of th
aite houses and of hotels a diagrati
to points of the compass is poste
i the ceiling for the convenionc
tiests.
'ic largest and costliest of railwa
Ois inl the worla is not in Londoc
r York or Paris, but in far awa
labay. The building laying clait
iis distinction is the terininus
Great Indian Peninsular Ruilroa<]
.h, with connecting lines, exteud
early every part, of Inuia.
mgressman Jacey, of Iowa, r4
ly sentit a packet of seeds to a ruri
tituent, the franked envelope beai
the usual warning, " 300 penall
private use." The recipict
Liously replied that lie could n(
the seeds to public use, and coul
afford to pay $300 for using thei
self.
Weak?
"I suffered terribly and was ex
emely weak 'or 12 years. The
octors said my blood was :11
irning to water. At last I tried
.yer's Sarsaparilla, and was soon
:eling all right again.'
Mrs. J. W. Fiala, Hadlyme, Ct.
No matter how long you
ave been ill, nor how
>oorly you may be today,
kyer's Sarsaparilla is the
>est medicine you can
ake for purifying and en
'iching the blood.
Don't doubt it, put your
vholc trust in it, throw
way everything else.
$1.00 a bottle. All drugglsts.
Ask yutur dfoctor whatet he thInk, oft Ayer's
trsparilh. li<- knotwat:ili itttt this grainut
it famiily mnttiteune. Ftollow hisa advico andO
0 winl bo satiet.t.
J. U. A V ER CO., Lowcl, Mass.
uthern Railway,
satest Southern Systen
Iit'I. F~ TRA' I~ INs AT iollERgNVI.r.E, s,
(In effecte1ilJanary 15'thi, 1902.)
auins leave Greeniville, A AU Ic pot:
a m,. No 35. (daily) linited States F'a
anil. For AtIatta, lirmi nghan
N emplhis, Miontgomecry, New Orlecan
Chattanooga, Macon. etc. Thmrong
lPullman Sleepters for A flant a, lii]
miinghlamn, M'lonltgomery, Mobile, anl
New Orleane, connecting at Atlant
with through Ptl li.an sleepers fc
Chicago, Chat tanoogat, CinIciinnat
and~ Kansas (City.
a mn, No 31 (daily) U'nited States lea
Mallt, for Charlotte, Richmion<
Washington, New York, anid th
IEast. TIhroughm Putllmani sleepers
lRichmndl, Waishington, lialtimori
t.Philadelphia, andi New York. Dil
inig cars.
I mi. No 68x (except Sunday), mixed it
cal traini for Ilodges, arriving hlot
ges 2 O p Im.
1 m, N o 12 (daily), for(Colum bha, (Chai
leston, allnd initermeidiate po(inlts.
a mn, No 39 (daily). Atlanta and Nea
York Exprese, for Atlanta, Macoi
Hirminlghaml, etc . Close connlectioni
at A tlanta for all p)ointS Sou1.h an
Wecst. Pullman sleelper to Atlanta
Also,cacti Tuecsday, Thursday an
Saturday through Puillimain Toutrii
car to San Francisco without chianig
via Atlanta, Montgomery and Neo
Orlecanus.
p im, No 37 (daily), Washington<
Soulthwesternl l,imiited. Solid Pu I
man traini of finest. eqluip~ment. Cor
nectionls at Atlanta for all points
Tihroulgh sleepers for Macon, Moni
gomery, Mobile, New Orleans, liii
miinghami, Memphtii. Also ec
Sunday, Wednesday and F'rida
Pullman compartment car thlrougl
to Newv Orleans, via Atlanta all
Montgomery. Diing cars.
p im, N o 12 (d aily ), t~ocal 10xpress fo
Spartan burg, Charlotte. I an vi llt
Richmonld alld( inltermed(1iat e pointt
p mn, No 11 (daily), Loenl f~xpress fo
Atlanta. withl close contnections a
A tlant a for all pin its Southl anm
Wecst ; Chatt anooga, et c.
p in No 3S (daily), W~ashiiington d
Sotthwestern LimiiitedI. Soh PfulIll.
mn traini toi Washinigton,. lialftmoro
P h tad e c ph lia aunt New York
Thl roulgh PutI 1man1 sleepers to New
o(rk via I )anville, lfilchbrg, Wash
ingtoni,etc . I'llm11an (Comnpartment11
car to \ewv York each Tuesday, Fri
dayi aiind Sundnlly. I4liing car's.
> m. NI) ;tu (daily), A tlanita and11 New
Y ork lgxptre.s, for ('harlot te, D~an
'ille, .\orfolk, Rlichmond, Washing
ton and., the l'asi. Thlrouigh Pl'll.
man11 sleepers, (Greenville to Wash
Iingion ; (Chalrlo tt e to Norfolk and
mn, No It; (daily), Tfhe lexpositio1
.Elyver. for (ohi bia li, Chlarleston, etc.
'l'hrougph PullmaI n allIeepinlg car,
Ureetoville to) Iharleston.
in New \ ork, Washington, iih
.lDanviille, IChlarlotte. Spartanlburg,
so 35, fast mail. dtally, 1 201 a mn NoE
>ross, dhaily, II ?5 a m; NI) 37, limited,
1. ..5 t ml; No 11, ltcal, daly, 4 25 pm'
n Atlanta iund Itoinits 80uth anld
No ni. fast mail, daii ly. 5 35 a in ; No
al. daily, 2 in t in, No 3S, limited.
nS It p m; Nti 4I0, express, dlaily, 5 50
n1 (.'1arfestoin, (oimbii~)ia, etc. No
;iisi lt in F:'er. dily i, 11 20 a m; No
il. dai ly. I 25 p m.
c ttle. 8 t, mlixed, except 81un.
low~ rates to Chlarleston. Trhromugh
r fto (tharleston. WVinter touirist
now tW n sale to~ all toturist ploints at
dI rates.
furt her inlformnat ion apply to J 1)
i assenger aind Ticket Ageint, Wash.
8t, Gireenville,8 0 ; Frank S Gan
d V P' & G M, Washington, 1) C; 8
lwic'k, IL P A, Washington, ) C.
lIon t, Div P'ass Agt, Charleston'
li 'l'anhona A n P A, Atana, G.
A_
ight, and which has been
; borne the signature of
been made under 3lis per
ervision since its infancy.
> one to deceive you in this.
d " Just-as-good" are but
iid endanger the health of
nece against Experiment.
LSTORIA
ute for Castor Oil, Pare.
rups. It is Pleasant. It
hiie nor other Narcotie
tmtee. It destroys Worms
ures Diarrhma, and Wind
inbles, cures Constipation
s the Food, regulates the
icalthy and natural sleep.
Lother's Friend.
0RIA ALWAYS
gnature of
a Always Bought
)r 30 Years.
%VY OThEXT. NEW VORR OSTY.
t Cost!
bhing.
1gles,
ietons and Wagons
a Sacrifice!
wordi for it, but1 comiE~ aii' see for your
irry~ ihe l;theoek, Couirtlnd, Tiysonu &
&c., a~ stict ili gha( Grade Wagons, the
I v' In,ro, Ta~ylor ansd Chiattaniooga.
all kinids an~d wve are going to sell our
y wvell over but we have a few bargains
ierk hire, own our own repoitiory and
hal:ve for caish or goodi paper. Polite
IIy or not.
ES & McBRAYER,
GRiE1ENVILLE, S. 0.
WILL E. WHIE
kindsu of.
GRsA N IT E
meI b~ut fist-elass kmnan
work.
cardl with our address wvill bring a man
Ily ml ear Iots and1( Cani giv th de lowest
& 0O., Anderson, 8. C.
ECKENS RAILROAD
J. E. Boons, President.
TIM iE T(ABLE No. 2.
/Y"Suipersedes T('ime 'Table No. 1. Ef
Live 12:011 A. M., Feb. 1st, 1901.
d D~own. Rlead Up.
lo. 10. ST1ATIONH. No. 9.
lixid- ____ Mixed.
On a m...Lv. Plekens iAr.2:55 p m
5 a m.....*Ferguson's...2:45 p mn
5 a m......*PrIison....2:80 p in
0~ a ........*Arlialls.......2:25 p in
5~ a in....MauldIn's.....2:20 p m
S a mn..Ar Easley Lv....2:15 p im
eX(I ' TATION8. No1.
I) p mn..Lv. Plekens Ar.6:40 p mn
5 p m.....*Frgson's..6:80 p in
5 P m......Parson's...0.. :15 p mn
0 p mn.......Arial's.0.. :10 p mn
5 p m......Maudin's.....0:05 P mn
0 p m....Ar Easley Lv...:00 p mn
'lag 8tations.
Il trains dailly except Sunday.r
r>. 10 Connects with Southern Railway
88.
. 9 Connects with Southern Railway
12.
. 12 Connects with Southern Railway
11.
. 1 I Connects with Southern Railway
r4.
rii'or any information apply to
J. T. TAYLOR,
(Onnnrai Mannenor.

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