..- . 1*S.. N.I
F tored A pri . 19 t Picken , as seond lasn msatter, under as' of Congress of Blarch 8, 173
W ;1( v KEf#NS,9 SOUTH CAROLINA, WEDNESDAV, NOVEMBR1, 95
THE FINE ART OF THE MONKS Q1
THE MIDDLE AGES.
Wrt(tent ana Iiniaaated Worek
That Were morvels E skill *no
InhdutUrjV.-.1asglo-saxon MoUk Or#&
innated the Homan Letter.
There Is scarcely any error so popu
Jar, yet so unxilnded, as that whicl
invariably attLribuLes ulboulded lndo
lence to thte mionastic orders of forme
i'ays. To then we owe the preserva
tion of literature, Ioth in the pains thei
took to perpetuate history by their li
hors ia transcribing and by their dill
gence in the education of youth.
In the large monasteries a chanbei
was always set apart for writing, al
lowin..5 space in the same apartntu
for other quiet enployments also. ThI
transcribers were superintended by the
abbot, Irior, subprIor and precentor of
the convent and were distinguished by
the name of "antiquarij." These in
dustrious persons were 4:ntinually oc
cupied In making new copies of old
manuscript bookd for the use of other
mnonaste ries, and by this means many
were educated and our most valuable
S hlsior'cal re.-oids were preserved.
The Ang:o-Saxou monks were most
ecl:.a ated a writers and were the
originator. of the small roman letter
used in modern times. The greatesi
delleacy and nicety were deemed es
sential in the transcribing of books,
whether for the purpose of general in.
struction or for the use of the convents,
Careless and illegible writing to
therefore but seldom to be met w1th
anong the remains of monastle indus
try, and when. erasures were nade
they appear to have been done with
the utmost care and skill. For this
purpose the monks used pumice stone,
:d they were also provided with a
punctorium, or awl, to make the dots
and with metal. pens for writing until
after the seventh century, when quills
were' brought into use, they being far
better than the metal pens then in use.
'The iinks were composed of lamp
black s!ot mixed with water and gum
for use upon the vellum, paper not be.
Ing Introduced until the tenth century;
hence' the beautiful distinctness, as
well as durability, of very auclent
nmanuscript books. So important was
the art of writing in those days that
It is conceded as many as 100 different
styles were in vogue among the learn
With -so many . Impediments to- the
tumultiplication of books as were at
tendanat upon their slow production in
this manner, it Is not a rjatter of str
prise that the monks enjoyed almost a
monopoly of this' kind of labor, as In
truth they were the only body of men
who could properly conduct it. The
expense of preparing books was pro
verbially great, and large estates were
frequently set apart for the purpose of
purchasing them. .In addition to the
cost of transcrlblg, tihe materials of
which books were~ composed were
sources of great etpense: 'The -leaves
Ih mtany instances were composed of
purple vellum for the purpose of show
ing off to more advantage letters of
gold and silver. The binding was often
very gorgeous, although of rude con
struction. The prevailing covering for
books was a rough white sheepskin
pasted oa a wooden board, with Im
menuse bosses oif .brass, but the ex
terior of those intended for chaurch
service was inqid with gold relcs or
Physicians tell us that all
the b lo od in a healthy
human body passes through
the heart once in every two
minutes. If this action be
conmes irregular the whole
body suffers. Poor health
follows poor blood ; Scott's
F-'mulsion inakcs th'e blood
pure. One reason why
2s such a great aid is because
*it passes so quickly into
the blood. It is partly di
gested before it enters the
stomach ; a double advan
tage in this. Less work
for the stomach; quicker
and more direct benefits.
TIo get the greatest amount
of good with the least pos
sible effort is the desire of
everyone in poor health.
Scott's Emulsion does just
that. A change for the
better takes place even be
fore you expect it.
* ~we will send you a
lDe sure that tisl
plcture in the furm of
a ~ label ison thzewrap
per of every bottle of
Emulon~ you bumy.
Sco-rr & Bow~a
409 Pearl st., N. Y.
Piet en" -enuutv iso,. a ru
mad.- vr. at ff -to to ki-ep it
ie 4:.% , ho- oe - utr- in a p.
b en aba ti- di, ii i th past..
make thing. hum from now ni
Tre.s. ndnes at ek of wi.
YOU v1itt i'nri,-r t %Nlt v.-u %iH
to ch . .-P ir. i Bi ..tonk V
a* - i, a s -- ng ,,
i rio-- ho- be w 4 giv. .-tu
5000 :rd. Ensloy she.tl
0.- lst I'laid a 1,I 50,
One lot Ouling at only 54
Oe lit Outiftng'sly 7fe.
One 1. t extra heavy Out
All kinds of Bleaching
etc.. at prices that. manufactu
A tremendous stock, all I
hav, your ,ins, style and cell
silver eibossed on Ivory ilates. Some'
books had leaden covers and some had A i MI-K.
wooden leaves, but even as early as
this bindings in velvet with silver T rocems - -' nfmt Ne
clasps -and -studs were made as pres- T
ents for exalted personages. T .Lik la m
Illumiunting manuscripts was also .L . ir.4t ti1
another occupation of the monks of the h.Iep (
-mniddte-ages. although not confnued to - It V dowiu t1
them, for the-greatest painters of the A.. fa-tio
day disdained not to contribute to theso ,nue u
cumbrous and. sometimes confused dec- I e reul
orations. The art of correct drawing bractit
and a knowledge of perspective canuot, M *. ..* L:A.fl
however, be ascrllbed to the generality ho h the ~ of .. milk~ is fomi
of' the fantastic pictures by whieh Iil-:u emd..'.t'.ercpal
minated books are adorned. Coloring j:.- . ove~r .a sta .a wvhie evaps
and gilding appear to have been the ra.< she -water of thec tua~k, leavii
chief points to whleh the attentIon of o. a3 1w ii. li or * ".'. A :aiin i
te illurminatlons was directed. The 'ih anKd it t outenltM are~ weighedN. al
neutral tint was firat laid on somewhat *.y aOd sipeci1aio h ecna
in the sameo mode as in the present day, asc5)(1"ofert l hned.c
some portions being left untouched in The b "ois'nof th aalkyhsesb
order to be afterward imbedded in gold founag. bou 1nnum rent andyses
and silver. The pictures represented .tverage abou milkeromnt adfwh
different subjects, according to the na- cow ath vaisolIn l afro exttir
ure. of the book which they were in- tows fthae fondat e aftery extat
tended to embellish. 'The title on the th ataelfom u llito belower const
pages was formed of capital lettens- of quantity 1s.ldom glig helo 10e
gold and azure mixced. Illuminated pIe-- cet or po4ve b.sis orvs theculahe
tures are of a dazzling brightness, the and enables him to state with gri
white predominating, which, not being -certaInty whether or not the milk b
an oil color; reflects the rays of light been watered.
mrhd dloes not absorpi them. So 'much' The fat oi* oil in milk is dletermii
custom had the monks in their labors by dissolving It by means of ether, I
of transcribing land lluminating that residue remaining after such test
they were sometimes obliged to intro- ing termed- "solids other than fa
iluce hired limners, although contrary The average fat or oil found in mi
to the monastic rule in general, hut from cows- Is 8 per cent, and a
such aids were seldom resorted -to, the amount less than 8 per cent Indical
huonks..being usually the only laborers, almost to a certainty that the mIlk 11
The invention of prInting diminIshed been skimmed. If analysIs shows
the. importance and annihilated the .decrease of' fat it' lndica a i
profits of. wrIting, and in 1400 tilat of* milk has been watered, whieI ft
engraving superseded the Art of lilu. and ether solid, together are. low y
minatibir.-New York Herald- j nayv inte* that the skimmer has de
Bunt few people are entiresly free from
iniigesti'sn ait this season of the year. Natre5 needa only a le Early Rit
K dot Dyspepsia 4 dre is not onl~y the nOW anid thens to keep the bowels eles
i)Ontfemedy .4o use because it diget. thet liver active. and the ystem ft
what yon I'RLbut besase t also enables from bule, headaohe., constipaion, e
the digeatIee apparatus assimilaiate,I The famous little pills ''arly Biset
and tranfotin ali foods to tissuo bsuild- l tire pleas -'et in ifeat und perfect in
ing blood. Kodol releivees o u r I ion* They never gripe or sicken, I
stomtwh heart buro, belohting, and al tone and strengthen the liver and k
forms oihbdikestion. Sold by Pickons neis. Sold by Piokenst Drug (Jo.
D~rug CJo. H~r i -~VE
An Early Detrothat.
In the early days of California the "~' ..
daughters of the Lugos were sought in
marriage by the beat families, of the
state. It was a boast that they were'*"
even courted in the cradle, as when the
young officer Colonel Ignaclo Vallejo, '
being in San Luis Obispo on the occa-e
sion of the birth of a daughter to the i'LntI
Lugos, asked her father for the hand 5)'tl DO .I t
of the day old baby, provided when tiehe r..i~w'~ 'nt~un o
time came to fulfill the contract tihe p.er. .l(.3zid
senorita should be wilg. This sem te' . ln
ingly absurd betrothal took plice. ThueofI idI
chld grew up to be an intelligent a"O1 h('irvi1
Well as attreetive young woman, mar-tWfrtw . . ; ro
mother of many children, among thetaRwm. ~ i
M~~iji,)nt.5~ - e
anyo time : . i
U~eksI9 t~dW W M i~~joiuhare . .y 5a ! v.&I ' .
>ck, Lowest Pric
ah to the front in the way of progress a
rront of the procossion. All kinds of m
sition to sell you all kiuds of merobas
We have done more bestnews than ik
Mllen atad staple Dress Goods. I'
I niot ntid as comp'ete awsortm--.ts
staples bought last summer a hei4
re haven't space to quite m1V
lig at only 60, worth 6Sc.
would be cheap at 7c.
iig only 10o, worth 121c.
Ticking, Ducks, Dimmies, Jeans.
rors would not'eare to duplicate.
oricss, from $2.00 to $10 00. We
ar, and at prices you cannot du
s itatin OuI tiO-sunnay de of a li* msaa.
I gmerilly onl a sile1, nld ait there, el
r ther among the flr needlea or else ot,
the bare ground or sand. without. nuy
sort of forra patfntly. They like n I
p warm, sunny seat, out of the wind. or. I
in wet weather, sheltered from tht:
rain. Here they sit and sleep, unleis *
dIsturbed, until An hour or two past
y "At some time between 1:30 and 3
o'clock they wake up and beglu their
,o toilet, which is a long and very care.
t ul process. I have seeni themi roll in
i*s Ihe sand, then get up; Ahake them
, selves and finally liek their bodie all
Sover, for the most part directly with
Steoir tonues, but. thmose part-s of their
* hodie which they cannuot reach so.
a, face, back of .head, ears ad nape of
neck--are dressed .hy the fore limbs ex
m setly io thme same way that a cat does
le "'Tbese toilet operations often take
ii half or three-quartera of an hour.
>g When complete, there is a short time of
nt rest, then a long stretch and a yawri.
er fore legs first, thea the hind legs;
n- finally, the whole body is raised into
ns an arch, ater which the animal be
at gins to move off for another feed."
Do not be deceived by counterfein
es when you buy Witch Hazel Salve. 'The
hie name of E.O0. Dewitt and Co. ms ont
every bogfte nie Pilo in
their worst forna will soon pasaway if
.you will apply DeWitt's Witch as "z
B alve night and umorning. B1es for
U) Onts Burns. Boils Tetter, Eoxma, etc.
es5 Soad by Piokens Drug Co.
Plokens Route 3.
s' ion will dnd apace nm your paper
for a few dets 'from tie secti n.,
.The health of the community it,
*The faramors are nearly through
~"gathering up ind crops are fairly
14 The owls are l~o tingt on the
hills these beautaful mo nlighi
nights, but we believe the Oeomie.
owl is dead.
D~en Y. Jones, of the Oconee sid".
entered the ,Bausptoa school Mqn'
Mrs. J. M. Lynch and Mrs
Martha Lynch tidtjed relatives 3n
i'this section Bunday. ;
ke Born unto Mr. and, Mrs. Tom'
Ps Lyneh. en the 8th inst.', a son
ug Mr. and Mrs. J. E igwlet"", oft
In- Daouswille, visited the latters
'father. W . l Edenas/recently.
in Mis. Lena ILewis asid Effie
r Walke' Were the guieate of M' $
he EV Ed4e lhst Satt'dt.. isght
:es and Biggec
nid w have not been ash-ep aR to
erchais+le- baA bee. advamnig and v
aie at old pi ics a-evet low--r itn m
i any previous year, and to swell ti
Men's Clothing Mod4
Men-and young mmn of tas.e a
moiv further than, in our C(lothinz I
of Past, or nit Ov-tcoat with st
Eclips- Ch-thin, its well a- o h#r g,
toot h.. qun-tin #d w, t - f--abilen, fit a
our $5 00. $7 50, $10 00, $15 00 and
We srin proud of our Boys' Clo
w, represmta in thii lin- are of ti
a re-t. to this sctim. Big line re
It you mie our Sh'ro Depsrtme
of th#- large-t and mo-t comiipl-o
Soif- of th.- Birmingham stiick lefi
Ir ''s i'iornitur- you want you
ours. We but in e -lid cara, sav fre,
Notice of Union Meeting.
The 'I welve Milo Baptist Asso
ihtion will hold a Union meeting
tVHol)y Spings begiuning on 8at
irday before the fitlth Sunday in
)eoemb. r. Services will open on
5aturday at 10 a. m.
Introducorry Permon by Rev. B.
. onrq, alterate L. G. Sloan.
The following quereR 'ae to be
1st. If sound. Gospel steeds were
sown in the mn~mltry, would not
itound fruit I e r.-ared in, Church
Members.hip. From whence does
he Church, rsaap dead memb..s?
Opened by B li. Atkinson.
2nd. Hay a church member any
right to say that he has "Passed
fromi Death unto Life" unless he
has brotherly love for all the mom
bers (if his church ?-Opened by
Rev. John T. Lewis.
3rd la skeir any Scripturo for
preaching~ funiema's aid Fiulog.iaing
*he dead? ha not "Christ tad Him
Crucifit d" the only issue to bring
Sinners to repeatance.-Uponed by
William Sea- orn.
Sund ay -- \I issionta ry stermon by
Rev. W alliatnSeahorn, at 11 a. mn.
#4 hop.. tI.e chiurche.s will bit
AellI repre-eiiled so that iYn may
have pirofitall dci ~usiatns.
W. W. Aiken .
D)earesct. I . t w 'd I y'(~
truavngantt w:' :i ~ ' : i
-whya. love I if u*re
enusel yo'l Unti (lu lteL~!-~oli.
'"ThIat planR1t has a ii li t outIIIf Ac'h.'
"I've 2) noteed that. Ie barriows~ fInonl
(ey of tne eviery tune hie cornia to
town."-De(tr'oit Free P'r"o..
he E'imim sng aI lmolt constntl~y
when thmey are Ind~oors. h~etweenk the In
tervalIs ot ste.-ping anud en ting.
A ('ongh Syrnp wvhich udrvs ai cold
in? of the systeml by atctlim- ats ab catiar
tini 00 the biowotH iN fflered mn K nun dy's
Lax -tive Honey and( Tar. i learsc the
throat, strenigt- 0 . hO hu -gR nd bron
obsal tihe. The. neother's friend and
the~ childreii'a revor~ito. liest for Cr. up
w... opi'.g (,ush, o, S3old u, Pick
*,js lDrum Co.
the conditionp. We have
ro looakod ahead and bought
anv instanes than we have
iat intcrease we are going to
id eo .n'mv-need iot look
)Aitrtne-it. for a Suit. ir
Vie, quality and fit The
4od maki's wo handle, need
.d war You should see
$18 50 muits.
hiiir. The manufacturers
M h-1t, and our stock bi ! he
nging in price from $1.25
nt you will miss seping one
asmortmenits to b4 found.
going at 75o on the dollar.
eam't iffoird to mine seeing
igi and got a big discount.
Tnterref for centuries, and the pind'h*a
TH[S PUaL-:.-O INDIANS very sacred.
I'Iier rhuelo indians have a tradition
orf th" flood. and they y that tile tur
o~g"fe~tiV a1. -u.iuSd nteioy is marked III conituattioration of
('glrieathers ar e u I ( that ent. Its tall beueg black t the
:eremonals Z o ( I end where It was (Iragged through the
it1 or-der. to mlake suret of 11 supply the
'/.i ke iiue after the wnter had gsubside.
1 kee 1 119 engw(T tiW '. "ie duck Is another sacred w 'n r wyeh
iloo bw N'. ' ts ole tie)d ath lg na-ocated with water. From the
1!1i Onv I '.'c I~~sie ~ Pueblo p~oint of view, anyting thint Is
u sis relat] to the ll precious water in ny
>f their L as. wih are arnslered wa
ther proprty~i of d hOPrent cin i:i aman~ig igo smd pt ra xet
t hem. Tihe en g:e lays its teggs in the awte(iiite ia ih eeuc
8::cue iao:4 year after year. anid the aseiso atrwrhp
elenis inherit rights to certini nes- -
ror.a generation to generation.A1 iliicediantdli-oyCoh
Th'ie eagles are not killed, baut the 8apwa~ aa'UIh oeswr~
new fledgetd youtig nes acre takeniaf allot'fliesse-sKnad'
I'r:um the nest-that In to say, all but *11joval'ar(1easth
one or two, whieb must be left. To ~, aiIli )a iaimu.awa iav
rein d the eagle g:>d to encourage.: g the ~,~ r(r uWtnia
is~yinmg of mnore eggs lby the bihrds an j. a i ilv t odb
egg (earve'd oult of wio:>d is phiced1'e .*iruC a
where the di1viniity will be' sure to se
It; also, after being paliielked. thei ea- A a'1 1wtilti i)te Il
gl.ets are en refuy bur13'ianted ini a cerla In
eleft in thme rocks, w!lhi is the eagle ' o aaW I u
ceiiwterof the flood.eandi they aayV-thatcihe tur
a h uc aante sarei> r, e
l*gonlamae.p o agratexen o
lia speclesaofcwater worship.
$AEDE 2 1'tt rioain Ster edthool o
S i sp wheb moes the boe s-work
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