Search America's historic newspapers pages from - or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities external link and the Library of Congress. Learn more
title: 'The Anderson daily intelligencer. (Anderson, S.C.) 1914-1915, January 28, 1914, Image 1',
meta: 'News about Chronicling America - RSS Feed',
Image provided by: University of South Carolina; Columbia, SC
All ways to connect
Inspector General |
External Link Disclaimer |
i., No.14 Weeklgr, JBiWblisfaed 1860; Daflj, Jan. 18,1911.
PRICE FIVE CENTS. $0.00 PER ANNUM.
FORTNER BILL IS PASSED
TO THE THIRD
Goes Through Second Rending
By A Vote of 59 to
38 On Rofl Coil
Columbia, Jan. 27.-The hottest
fight of the present session was pre- .
cipitated in the house this morning
on the passage ito third reading of
the Fortner bill prohibiting white
people from teaching in negro schools
or negroes from teaching in - white
schools under penalty ol a fine not ex
ceeding $500 or imprisonment for not
more than 12 months.
The bill wes passed to third read
ing after a battle royal by the Char
The measure was amended without
a dissenting vote to* make tue some11
penalty aj>pltablo to "Ute i. imacy of
tne races in bouses of ill repute."
Another amendment "waa passed
prohibiting -white nurses from work
ing in negro hospitals. A third
amendment made the* bill- 'inapplicable
to the teaching of the Bible to ne
groes by white people.
Partisan Lines.Not Drawn.
By a vote of 59 to 38. the house re
fused to strike out the enacting
words of lae Fortner bill. It ls doubt
ful wb?ui?r t?tere wes any SUCH
words of tho Fortner bill. It is
doubtful Whether there waa any suob
overwhelming sentiment in favor of
the passage of the bill In the house
as this vote would Indicate. The
(Tixe tmeamirc had been rocouimended
measure expedient, voting for lt be
cause they teared the accusation in
the future that they were "nigger
The administration and sntl-ad
mlnistratlon lines -wore not Urawn in
the vote to strike out the enacting
The vote resuUed'as fol io wa: Ayes:
Atkinson, Barnwell, Beths, Bolt,
.Boyd, Brice. Bustbee, Charles, Clem
ent. Courtney, Daais?yr, Slaughter*
Evans. Oieer. Hunter, Johnston, Kirk,
Lee, Liles., Lumpkln, M?Ma?tcr, Mc
Queen, Heans,. -Meld, Nicholson,' Pe
gu?B, F'lddlo, Rittenberg, W. M. Scott.
Benseny, Shirley. Smiley, Thompson,
Tindal, Vanderhorst, C. T. Wyche,
Nays: Speaker Smith, Addy, J. W.
Ashley, . M. J. Ashley, Blackwell.
Bowers, Browning, (Burgess, Cross,
Daniel, Fortner, Friday, Oasque,
Goodwin, Gray, Halle, Hall, Hardin,
Herreisen, Harvey, Halley, Hutson,
Irby, James, Jones, KeiL, Kennedy,
Kirby. Librand. (McDonald, Mil
(Continued on fourth page.)
Steam Yacht Warrior
(By AsSvviatcu Press, j
(New Orleans, Jan. ?7.-?The steam
yatch Warrior with Mr. and Mrs. F.
W. Vanderbilt, the Duke and Duchess
of ?inuc?iBaier ana ix>rd Falconer of
r.u?it?iu wi?n??i Y? ?S VcpO?tcu
aground off the coast of Colombia by
a wifeless message received hero this
The message stated tb'_t the war
rior went on the socks at Cape Agu
etta, near S?vanilla; that she waa in
a dangerous position and that the
United Fruit steamer Frutera waa
hurrying to the scene to take off the
.passengers and crow. . The Warrior
aras bound for Colon.
A wrecking tug had tbeen summon
ed from Kingston, Jam ac la, according
to the message.
The Warrior is 255 feet ip. length,
1,097 gross tonnage and is equipped
with 'Wireless. Abe was built- .nt
Troon, Scotland, in 1904._
Negro Fiend !
(By Associated Press.)
Raleigh, N. c.. Jan. 27.-Jim Wil
son, a negro, allegd to have eon
teased to murdering Mrs. Wt ?Ham
Lynch last Setsrrday night, ?aalynoh
ed la'e today near Wendell, N. C., at
the point where tho murder was
. A crowd of nearly 1,000 men and'
women crowded about a storehouse
from ?fhlch he v?*? dragged and
swung from a tree Ikt?h. Making
signe thal he^wantM to s peak, he
was let down ? and ira pl ?ca* ed tn the
murder another negro nana?*! Saund
Special _x> rr espondeo co.
Asylum Commltt^.; Appointed.
Columbia, S. C., Jan. 27.-W. P.
Stevenson of Chesterfield, C. C.
Wyche. of Gpartanburg. and J. A.
Hunter of Bamberg, were appointed
the house members of the special
committee to investigate the State
hospital for the Imane thia morning
by Speaker Smith. Mr. Stevenson
introduced the resolution providing
for the investigation following the
receipt of a message from the chief
executive recommending th investiga
The governor bas granted a parole
to J. Galhdonia, who was convicted
in Spartanhurg co Any in 1911 ot
housebreaking and larceny ami sen
tenced to five years in the State peni
- The 'National Guard council bia
been called to meet In Columbia Jan
uary 28, when accounts of several c?
cera- wrll . be audited. ' The meeting
mill be held in the adjutant general's
office at the State house beginning at
James H. Hunter of Newberry, has
been appointed, as the third member
by the governor to adjust the indebt
edness es the result of,the annexa
tion of a part of Lexington to Rich
The following order baa b??i lfi
eued by thc war department:
"ITnder the provisions ot general
orders. No. 74, war department, 1913,
Sergeant Henry Thompson, Coonany
connection with the orcanized militia
of the State of South Carolina and
?will be sent to Columbia, S. C., with
orders to report to'the adjutant of
the State for duty. By order of the
secretary of war, Leonard Wood, ma
jor-general, chief of staff."
GOETHALS TO BE
GOV. OF PANAMA
Permanent Government of Zone
To B*? Ors*r?s*d April
(By Associated Presa)
(Washington, Jan. 27.-Permanent
government in the Panama canal zone
with Col. George W. Goethals as civil
governor, will be established April 1.
An executive order to this effect was
signed by President Wilson today.
The new government will elimi
nate the commission now in charge of
the zone. (Members of the committee
are to he retained, however, until the
opening of the canal, as a committeo
In charge of the arrangements for
the celebration incident to the open
ing, though without administrative
The president's order creates these
Operation and maintenance, pur
chasing d?partement, supply depart
ment, accounting department, health
department, and an executive secre
i*i y. .
Goethals Ss Pleased.
Panama, Jan. 27.-The news of the
signing today by President Wilson of
an executive order establishing a per
manent government for tho canal
zone, reached here late today. When
?word waa- conveyed to- Col. Goethals
that he had been appointed governor,
he expressed pleasure, hut - declined
to comment in the ahaence of official
j ^ i
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Todd have re
turned from their honey moon, which
waa spent in Northern cities, and are
now at home with Mrs. Todd's moth.
I cr, Mrs. Janie Todd._._
i Usual Crime
or?, nov. under arrest at Wendell. He
waa swung up again and his body
riddled with bullets^
Wilson was caugui last night be
tween Selm? and Warsaw. He ls
said to have savio a partial confes
sion this morning at Selma. A big
crowd there demanded he be taken
to the scene of his crttnaT
?Gov. Craig was telephoned, and or
dered the Raleigh ts?Utary company
to Wendell. Tbventy-fiv- soldiers in
?ut?Mw??i?tMj went, but w?ei) within
half a mlle of the scene, learned the
lynching wrns over and returned.
SWEPT PACIFIC COAST DUR
ING THE RECENT ,
Raging Sena Smashed Thick!
Glass Hundreds of Feet Afcovc
(By Associated Press.)
San Francisco, Jan. 27.-Tbo high
est seas known on the Pacific coast
since it was dharted by the United
States . government were recorded
during the recent series of gales.
H. W. Fbodes. lighthouse Inspec
tor, was in receipt today of reiports
from keepers giving the facts. The
light on Trinidad Head, near Eureka,
Gala., was put out last week by surf
that smashed thc thick protecting
panes surrounding it. Trinidad Head
rises three hundred and eighty feet
above the ses. level. The light is
perched on a sho'.f or Tock about
half way up, and tho lens ls two hun
dred feet above the margin of the]
A comber leaped the summit of the j
light on Til larnook Rock, off the coast j
of Oregon, and smashed the glasses, i
The sea on the south coast swept
over the summit of th?,light on San
Pedro breakwater, about . 75 feet up.
Still Nd Change In
At two o'clock this morning Ander
son county hospital authorities said
that they could see but lttle, if any
change n tho condition of Mr. H. c l
Townsend. Llt?e hope hs held out.
(tamper* Works on Birthday.
(By Associated Press.)
Washington. Jan. 27v-Samuel
Gompers ot the American Federation
of Labors, celebrated his 6-4th birth
day by putting a large part of the I
time in work at his office. ' He read
messages of congratulation from iii'.'
inerte of thc t?ttrrd, lncl"diR? o&? ?f ? ?a ?
Galveston, Texas, council of labir,
from a member who had walked . all
the way hwre and tn the evening at
tended a banquet In bia honor given
by the local, central abor union. Mr.
Gompers declared that he felt , ?ta j
vigorous mentally and physically.; as
* * * * a * ? * *-,*.'*.?*
* ? ? >'. - - " - :- e.
* Congressional Summary *
f. n . *
(By Associated Press.).
Washington, Jan. 27.-(Tho day fn|
congress waa spent aa follows:
Met at noon.
Continued consideration of the]
Blair Lee Maryland senatorial case.
Poatofnce^ ffommittee favorably re-1
(ported Senator Norris' resolution ask-1
lng the postmaster general, to dis
close the investigation Into1 govern
ment ownership of telephone and tel -
"Held executive session confirming j
notoinetione, includ'ng Henry M.]
Pindell, ea ambassador to Priests;
Winfred T. Denison, as member of I
Philippine commission and secretary j
of interior of the Pktlirtfdned, and]
several hundred postmasters.
Adjourned-at 4:19 p. m. to noon]
Met at noon.
"Commerce committee arranged to]
begin hearings on some of the admin
istration trust bills.
?Debated resolution for seatin? of
Representative Whaley, of South Car
olina, over the contest of Mayor Grace
Foreign Affairs* committee postpon-l
ed until. iPeb. 9, hirther hearing on|
Niagara Pad le power regulation.
Sustained Elections' comm!tte o re
port ba favor seating Representative j
Whaley, of South Carolina.
Passed emeni*ed^ Keating resolution j
for ?vnvni? O* COn/ni?o cuni uu? i
Edlcfcigan copper strikes ty house]
Immediate retpear of tho provisions
of tho Income tax law which require
cr authorise the collection of the tax
at the source proposed in bill by Rep
resentative Cdatpr, Of New York.
Adjourned at 6:12 p. m. until noon]
Mis? Mattie GaHlngton Kird'J. B.
Felton, of tho educational department
of Anderson county, axe spending a
few ?taya Inspecting the Anderson ru
ral school?. They expect to return
to" the'city todas.
STRONG LANGUAGE USED
BY WITNESS WAS
MELDRUM ON STAND
Chairman Webb Has Difficulty
In Silencing Federal Official;
(By Associated Press.)
Savannah. Ga., Jan. 27.-Members
of tho special congressional commit
tee who are ?ere investigating charg
es of ofltcial misconduct on the part
o? Federal Judge Emory Speer, of
'Che Southern District of Georgia, to
day wttnes3ed another dramatic out
.burst from the accused judge.
Chairman Webb, of the comm?ttee,
with d?fflculty silenced Judge Speer
?nd threatened io eject offending per
sons from the court room unless
more temperate language was em
Thc incident occurred during the
testimony of Gen. Peter W. Me?drim,
.member of the Savannah bar, -who
charged tust ?a one occasion he had
been "grievously insulted and out
raged by the cowardly remarks of
Judge Speer." -
Judge ?peer immediately sprang to
lils feet and vehemently exclaimed:
"lt is Inconceivably wrong that you
penult a witness'tn this court room,
' where I presided . for twenty-eight
years,'io speak of my conduct as
' Forbids QSftShe Language.
<lAfter he had raftered order. Chair
man Webb TnalflM brief statement
outlining the QtqMg and aims of the
"We desire," JjHSfeaJd,. "to . estab
lish the facts r?Hpting the accusa
a^ Ws^^n?e?7a?wail' as"the
public, are aiiowea to attend . these
hearings only by courtesy of the com
mittee. I warn every ene concerned
that' no witnesses will be permitted
to use offensive language and that no
demonstrations will bb tolerated."
A. FA Lawton, vice president of the
'"entrai of Georgia Railroad, declared
before the committee < today that
Judge Speer wrecked the Central of
Georgia Railroad Banking Company
tSr. LtsWRoa feud Judge Sit?-' raft! ia*
?ued a "midnight order" appointing
receivers I*T t?x. conrpany at a time
when the par value o? its stock was
(Continued on page 4.)
PENDELL AND 1
(By Associated Press.)
Washington, Jan. 27.-^Nominations
of Henry. ML Pindell. cf Peoria, 111.,
to be <unbeaaador to Russia, and Win
fred T. Denison, of Portland, Me., to
he member of the Philippine comanfls
sion and secretary of the interior of
the Philippines were confirmed by the
Mr. Pi udell's confirmation waa de
pe?ui??, luvcoii&aiion of car
published letters alleged to have
between bim and Senator
s, purporting to reveal aa ar
rangement by which Mr. Finde:', -?ras
to have the St Petersburg post for
one year. The senate rorclgn rela
President W?2CH Will ProcU?sa
Hb Views at Faure
(By Associated Presa.)
. Washington, Jan. 27.-T .ow to dis
ip?se of the Panama Janal tolls
question waa the subject uppermost
in discus Mon shout the capital today
when, the attitude of President WU
son outlined to tho senate foreign re
lations committee last night became
DhbHC Th* den**; pocKics yrss
asserted to he that the provision of
the canal act granting toll exemp
tion to American coast-wise vessels
ls in violation of the Hay-Pauticefote
treaty, ' which ' proclaims that the
canal shall be tree and open to all
nations "on tomw of entire equality"
?.ead-that "charges of traffic should
he just and equitable."
. Before definite act kr. ls taken in
congress, it was said tonight, admin
istration leaders will.await a public
f statement from thc president.
President Wilson ha? said be would
proclaim his views "at a future tte
PLANS CRYSTAUZE IN THE
COMMITTEES OP THE
Consideration of nil General
Legislation to be Set
(My Associated Press.)
Was'jJngton, Jan. 27.-Antitrust
legislation plans crystallzed today in
the house committees. Both the in
terstate and foreign commerce and
the Judiciary committees agreed to
expedite consideration cr tho Presi
dent's program, and to start hearings
Immediately, the Judiciary'on Thurs
day and the interstate commerce Fri
The interstate commerce committee
set aside consideration of all other
general legislation until after the
anti-trust measures are out of thc
way. Hearings before this committee
on the cold storsrie of food products
and on pure fabrics legislation, which
had been eet for the first week in
February, were indefinitely postponed
to clear the way for the administra
'Chairman Adamson of the inter
state commerce committee, issued a
statement concerning the much dis
cussed question *of comonlttee Juris
diction over the pending measures.
"Under the house rules," the state
ment said, "all bills which seek io
regulate the conditions of interstate
and foreign commerce are within the
Jurisdiction of the interstate and for
eign commerce comtrn?ttee. The anti"
trust law ia primarily a criminal pro
vision, though incidentally and col
laterally Haine, civil remedies are pro
vided- br WSals?lf3ft?i*e?se Tules
the Judiciary comtmilttee has Jurisdic
tion over judicial procedure and civil
and criminal latw generally."
(Both house committees announced
that the sentiment of the business in
terests of the country on the meas
ures pending in the respective com
mittees would be welcomed and in
vited all persons prepared to furnish
any Information to notify the com
The senate interstate commerce
ct .i? .?.iii. t.- nih ?nset tomorrow io be
gin consideration of - interstate com
mission bill and to discuss tnt pro
posal of Joining with the house judi
ciary cofiiuiUtee in hearings on the
bills to supplement the Sherman act.
SD BY SENATE
tiona ccTflnnittee recently voted to
recommend his confirmation.
Mr. Denison was nominated last
December to succeed Dean C. Wor
cester, as a member ot the Philip
pine commission and to be secretary
of the interior of the islands. His
nomination wa> held up at the in
stance cf Senator Smoot, pending in
vestigation of protests by Thaddeus
SL S barretta a member of the United
States nyara of general appraisers,
who was removed from office on the
recommendations of a union commit
tee of which Mr. Denison was the
head. Mr. Denison was one of .the
government's counsel in the sugar
Heyties Ofikss! Seeks Refuge oa
(By Associated Press.) .
Port Au Prince, Haiti. Jan. 27.-The
president of Haiti, Michel Or?ete, fled
from the capital today, and -took re
fuge ??board ?he German cruiser.
Vi?eta. Me was aceomuanied hy bis
Fighting began in the city at 1
o'clock this* afternoon. An hourdatot
the president left the ?MU??? ?U?C?
escort and waa conveyed in a launch
to the warship. .Almost immediately
detachments of- bluejackets wer?
landed from tho United States ar
mored cnjrtfter Montan*, and tho Viru
. Firing continued throughout the
afternoon and it waa evident the rev
olutionary movement, wheoh began in
the north end spread to soutnwn
towns, had gained sofSoient strength
in the cenital to threaten ?ot only
the power, but the Ufe of President
The arrival of the Montana and
Vi?eta has relieved the situation here,
iso far ss foreign residents are con*
GREAT CROWDS I
Iee Shipper? Kicking.
( By Associated Press.*?
Washington, Jan. 27.-Inefficient
service furnished naXural ice ship
pers in tho east cost both railways
and patrons vast Bums annually, ac
I cording to witnesses appearing to
day bofore the interstate oomcnerce
coman's sion in protest' against the
general 5 per cent advance in freight
rates demanded by the 'eastern trunk
lines. Thc ice shippers asserted that
1 with proper attention the carriers
i could reduce the existing rates and
' yet reap a greater profit in the busd
I ness moved.
Takes Virginia's tn Schedule.
(By Associated Press.)
Washington, Jan. 27.-Arrange
j ments practically have been oomtplet
' ed whereby the North Carolina A?rni
I cultural and Mechanical College will
< take Virginia's place on the George
town football schedule. The Raleigh
cioven probably will play here on
To Improve Channel.
(By Associated Press.)
Washington, Jan. 27.-Improvement
of Jeremy Creek, S. C., by an exten
! ?on cf thc branch channel from Mor
1 rdson's landing to a suitable lading
near tbe canning factory, four feet
deep and sixty ?e?t- boiiam width
costing $10,000, and $1,000 annual
maintenance, was recommended by
the war department today. This
would be a modification of tho pro
ject fm1 improving .sba vnterway from,
Charleston hatter to McClelianviil.
Fltsslmeioas Vast SotFlgnt.
(By Associated Press.)
Kew York, Jan. 27.--The supreme
court today denied the application of
Robert FitzBlinmons, one-time heavy
weight champion of the world, fdr an
injunction restraining the New. York
Athletic Commission from refusing;,
to sanction ?as participation in boxing
exhibitions in htls State.
cerned. The legations dre undera
Sarita^ ar? Las&d.
Washington, Jen. 27.-Warning |
from American Minister Smith of tho
purpose of President Orcsto to aban
don his office had in a measure pre
pared the United States government
for the flight of the Ha?tien executive.
It is understood tho commander ' of
the Montana acted under the general
principles of -international law in
landing bluejackets at Port au Prince
and otherwise acting for the protec
tion of foreign life and property. It
ls also assumed that he will prevent
.fighting within the limits of the city
if necessary to prevent th* destruc
tion of the town and the killing of
I Battle ?"?if! Carolina ea Way?
! Washington, Jan. ' 27.--Wireless
i news that President Oreste of Haiti
: bad fled from his revolution-torn can.
ital, "leaving no government.'! caused
Rear Admiral Badger at Guantana
mo, Cuba, tonight to start the battle
?."hVp Routh Carolina on a 500 mlle
forced draft run for* Port au Prince.
Cant Robert I... Ruwell.^omroand
Ing the Kouth Carolina, has orders to
join the armored cruiser M?ntala
which already has landed bluejack
ets st the Ha?tien capital, and to tako
such steps ss may be necessary to
guard ?he lives and* property of
American and other foreigners. Th<
battleship should reach the scene
late tonio rr nov.
(By Associated Press.)
Washington, Jan. 17.-A sweeping
Investigation of strike conditions in
tho coal SeiuS-. Of Ou io ra iio and the ?
copper district ot Michigan waa au
thorised hy the bouse late today. By
a vote of 1S1 to 15, the boase adopted
tho resolution nf Representative
Keating, of Colorado, empowering the
minea' and mining; committee to make
inquiry as to conditions In Colorado
and Mfcvdgan In which the federal
government might be concerned.
. Hearings will be conducted in . the
strike iegiens^ny a sab-committee, ort
sub-conexrletees, ?which will start west]
as. soon as arrangements can be
made for tho^Grtp. The resolution1
carries authority to subpoena wit-'
noaa ce tor testimony voder oath and}
GREAT INTEREST MANIFEST
ED IN QUESTIONS DIS
CUSSED LAST NIGHT
Prof. John G. Clinkscalet o?
ISpartanbnrg and Dr. E. M.
Poteat of Greenville Here
PreaeatlQg to the people of Ander
son the cause of missions as # waa
never before shown, the Interdenom
inational - Missionary Conference
oponed at St John's Methodist church,
last night and a crowded auditorium
heard the speeakors tell of what han
been done, for the cause and what - ',
may be accomplished by co-operation
heard the speakers tell of what has
those who are in treated In this, great
The exercises last night were in
charge of Dr. E. H. Galnoa of tho fa
culty of Richmond College, Richmond,
Va., and tho ????u?r in which iie
conducted the affairs of the evening
impressed upon the people present
the fact that he ls a man who can
be counted on to do great thugs In
this work. He cami hore from
Greenville where he had conducted
a similar two days conference and
before that time he had been in Gaff
ney on H similar mission.
Tho conference opened In the mag
nificent Methodist church last night .
at seven o'clock with devotional ser
vice, which waa led by Rev. Dr. W,
H. Fraser, pastor of the First Presby
terian church of Anderson. Ur. fra- \
ser has been among the most whole
souled workers in this great cause;
ho baa been foremost among . those
who have BO vigorously waged the
campaign for the CBUBO of missions
in litis city and thc- mire fact ?J.<at
Di. !'."?:cr ~ss prcssnt and ?eni his
u'o to the movement did much to
stimulate and inspire that part of the
audience familiar with the work that
tills mau haa don'.*.
"The New Situation tn China," was
the topic announced for Rev. C. J.
Thompson. There could have bean
no subject selected which would ap
peal more rapidly to the vast audience
and the fact that all hstirerj. wera.
li.iuriK;I-? vas ma?i?Ooi?d by ?!.. ci?se
attention paid every word of tho
speaker. He dealt with the conditions
that existed in china for hundreds cf
years showing that In every respect .
China should uave received Christi
anity earlier than any other nation.
Ile then pointed, to the remarkable
change which haa occurred in ovary
portion of that country, directly due
to the advent of Christianity in that
kingdom. He told of the h?vdahips
endui te by the missionaries who have -
been teni troin the I nlted States and
from every othrr Country, but said
that each and every one of them
should feel well repaid by the tre
(Continued on fourth page;)
House Refuses to
(By Associated Press.)
Washington, Jan. 27.-By a vote of
227 to 28 the house late today refused
to investigate further the election
contest between RepresantAHv? Waa
ly -cf Charleston and Mayor Grace,
sud. iheu passed a resolution to seat
Federals at Southern Pises.
(By Associated Press.)
Baltimore, Jae. 27.-Southern
Pines, N. N., b^s been selected as
the spring training grounds for the
local Federals.- Manager Knabe ex
pects to make aahort visit there soon
'or th0 purpose of completing ar
rangements. ** .
to require the production cC records
Seven subjects of injury are spec!*
flori in th? resolution:
Whether the postal services are in
terested with; whether the I inmigra
tion laws ara violated; whether citi
zens have been arrested and tried
contrary to tho constitution OT laws
ot the United States; whether condi
tions have been caused by agreements
and combinations contrary to law for
controlling the production, sala and
transportation, of coal or copper;
?whether anns and Ammunition have"
been shipped into the fields for the
purpose of excluding the products ol
the mines from competitive marketa
fa Interstate trade; whether peonage
?lats or has boan maintained; If s ny
or all of these ovuditlona ex^ta ;
what causes led np to them, .